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viral uveitis

Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Alexandra Martín Ramírez, Laura Cardeñoso Domingo, J Jacobo González Guijarro
PURPOSE: Describing the utility of Polymerase Chain Reaction for Cytomegalovirus (CMV-PCR) in the diagnosis of suspected viral anterior uveitis (AU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed aqueous humor (AH) CMV-PCR positivity and treatment modifications in 47 eyes of 46 patients with viral uveitis and its correlation with high intraocular pressure (HIOP), uveitis clinical characteristics and time intervals from samples to uveitis diagnosis and to relapse. RESULTS: CMV-PCR positive results occurred in 13 eyes (27...
February 23, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Mandeep S Singh, Maria Carolina Marquezan, Revaz Omiadze, Ashvini K Reddy, Rubens Belfort, William N May
Purpose: Zika virus infection is associated with vision-threatening ocular complications including uveitis and outer retinopathy. The aim of this report is to describe a case of an adult patient with serologically confirmed Zika infection who presented with retinal vascular abnormalities that coincided with systemic post-viral neurological manifestations of the disease. Observations: A 34-year-old white female presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy following serologically confirmed Zika virus infection that was acquired in Puerto Rico four months prior to presentation...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Barbara Wensing, Manabu Mochizuki, Joke H De Boer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of molecularly proven Herpes simplex virus (HSV) anterior uveitis. METHODS: The literature on HSV anterior uveitis whereby the diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and or Goldmann-Witmer coefficient in aqueous humor was reviewed. Three studies from Europe and one from Japan could be included. RESULTS: It was observed that HSV anterior uveitis is mostly an acute unilateral disease mainly occurring in middle-aged people with a predominance in females...
January 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Kazuichi Maruyama, Tohru Inaba, Sunao Sugita, Ryo Ichinohasama, Kenji Nagata, Shigeru Kinoshita, Manabu Mochizuki, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of vitreous biomarkers in patients with uveitis. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, observational study. SETTING: Uveitis outpatient clinics of two academic medical centres in Japan. PATIENT POPULATION: This study included 234 eyes of 191 patients with various uveitis aetiologies: definitive sarcoidosis (61 eyes of 46 patients), suspected sarcoidosis (60 eyes of 45 patients), intraocular tumour (34 eyes of 27 patients), viral infection (20 eyes of 18 patients), non-sarcoidosis (16 eyes of 16 patients) and unknown aetiology (43 eyes of 39 patients)...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
Natalia F Callaway, Marco A Gonzalez, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Lisa J Faia, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Rahul N Khurana, Mohamed G A Saleh, Phoebe Lin, Lucia Sobrin, Thomas A Albini
PURPOSE: Inflammatory macular hole is a rare complication of uveitis, and data on surgical outcomes of closure are scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes of conventional pars plana vitrectomy for patients with uveitis. METHODS: Noncomparative, interventional, and consecutive case series from 6 vitreoretinal surgical centers from 2007 to 2015. Twenty eyes of 19 patients were included with 4 patients separated as viral retinitis...
November 7, 2017: Retina
Valentina Voigt, Matthew E Wikstrom, Jelena M Kezic, Iona S Schuster, Peter Fleming, Kimmo Makinen, Stephen R Daley, Christopher E Andoniou, Mariapia A Degli-Esposti, John V Forrester
Ocular antigens are sequestered behind the blood-retina barrier and the ocular environment protects ocular tissues from autoimmune attack. The signals required to activate autoreactive T cells and allow them to cause disease in the eye remain in part unclear. In particular, the consequences of peripheral presentation of ocular antigens are not fully understood. We examined peripheral expression and presentation of ocular neo-self-antigen in transgenic mice expressing hen egg lysozyme (HEL) under a retina-specific promoter...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew Winegarner, Noriyasu Hashida, Shizuka Koh, Kohji Nishida
BACKGROUND: Herpes uveitis has been previously reported to present with hyphema, but hemorrhagic hypopyon is rarely reported as a herpetic uveitis manifestation. We report a case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) presenting with hemorrhagic hypopyon, and speculate on the underlying pathophysiology with relation to an intravascular lymphoma which was subsequently diagnosed as a result. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case wherein a 62-year-old Japanese rheumatoid arthritis woman, with HSV uveitis, presented with hemorrhagic hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a fever with photophobia...
October 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Derrick Smit, David Meyer, Jean Maritz, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes
PURPOSE: To use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Goldmann-Witmer Coefficient (GWC) calculation to search for evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes uveitis. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study where participants with positive multiplex EBV PCR results were further investigated by: 1) real-time PCR for EBV viral loads (VL) and 2) EBV GWC. RESULTS: Eleven of 106 consecutive uveitis patients (10.4%) had positive multiplex PCR for EBV on aqueous humor sampling and 7/11 (63...
October 17, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Luca Cimino, Yonca Aydin Akova
Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced anterior uveitis (AU) may complicate the course of primary varicella infection typically seen in children. In adults, especially with advanced age, VZV AU is more commonly associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with or without skin rash affecting the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve due to reactivation of the latent VZV in the trigeminal ganglion. While it is typically a mild self-limiting AU in primary infection, HZO AU is often accompanied by keratitis, may have a chronic recurrent course, and lead to sectoral iris atrophy, pupillary distortion, and ocular hypertension...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Fahriye Groen-Hakan, Kalpana Babu, Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Kessara Pathanapithoon, Joke H de Boer, Justine R Smith, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes, Aniki Rothova
The viral causes of anterior uveitis (AU) emerged with the use of novel molecular diagnostic tests and serologic tests adapted for small volumes (Goldmann-Witmer Coefficient). The viral causes of AU may be underestimated, and some of the presumed idiopathic AU cases will probably be proven to be of viral origin in the coming years. So far, a viral origin of AU was suspected in patients who presented with unilateral hypertensive AU. It is not clear which clinical presentations should raise a suspicion of viral etiology...
October 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Eijaz Ghani, Misbah Noor, Saadiya Khalid
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a sight-threatening form of posterior uveitis affecting patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), especially those with CD4 count <50 cells/mm3. There are few reported cases of CMV retinitis in patients with CD4 count >100 cells/mm3. Avirostatic agent like Ganciclovir has good response rate when given as intravitreal injection. Here, we report a case of CMV retinitis in a young immunocompetent male who presented with history of progressive loss of vision in both eyes despite receiving oral and intra-vitreal steroids...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Annelie N Tan, Michiel F Cornelissen, Carroll A B Webers, Roel J Erckens, Tos T J M Berendschot, Henny J M Beckers
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcomes on efficacy and safety of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI). METHODS: A retrospective study of 47 eyes of 47 patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by a BGI between September 2002 and September 2015. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, course of the uveitis, visual acuity (VA) and complications. RESULTS: Mean IOP dropped from 30...
September 18, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
Jessica G Shantha, Ian Crozier, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a summary of our current understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of Ebola virus disease (EVD), pathogenesis, treatment options and directions for future study. The individual, public health and global health implications of eye disease in EVD survivors are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The West Africa EVD outbreak was of unprecedented magnitude, leading to the largest survivor cohort since the first documented EVD outbreak in 1976...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Ying Hong, Miao Wang, Lingling Wu
To investigate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in patients with Posner-Schlossman Syndrome (PSS), we compared the IVCM findings from the eyes of patients with: PSS (44 eyes); herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) (45 eyes); HLA-B27 anterior uveitis (B27AU) (45 eyes); and with acute attack of primary angle closure (aPAC) (43 eyes). The central Langerhans cells (LCs) grade at the level of corneal basal epithelial cells of the PSS group (2.33 ± 0.55) was similar to that of the HSK group (2.63 ± 0...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Justine R Smith, Shawn Todd, Liam M Ashander, Theodosia Charitou, Yuefang Ma, Steven Yeh, Ian Crozier, Michael Z Michael, Binoy Appukuttan, Keryn A Williams, David J Lynn, Glenn A Marsh
PURPOSE: Success of Ebola virus (EBOV) as a human pathogen relates at the molecular level primarily to blockade the host cell type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Most individuals who survive Ebola virus disease (EVD) develop a chronic disease syndrome: approximately one-quarter of survivors suffer from uveitis, which has been associated with presence of EBOV within the eye. Clinical observations of post-Ebola uveitis indicate involvement of retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: We inoculated ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells with EBOV, and followed course of infection by immunocytochemistry and measurement of titer in culture supernatant...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Viral V Juthani, Elizabeth Clearfield, Roy S Chuck
BACKGROUND: Cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is commonly performed but can result in postoperative inflammation of the eye. Inadequately controlled inflammation increases the risk of complications. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids are used to prevent and reduce inflammation following cataract surgery, but these two drug classes work by different mechanisms. Corticosteroids are effective, but NSAIDs may provide an additional benefit to reduce inflammation when given in combination with corticosteroids...
July 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ozgur Balta, Gulten Sungur, Mehmet Akif Acar, Mustafa Kosker, Mehmet Yakin, Firdevs Ornek
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to assess the long-term results of phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in patients with anterior uveitis. METHODS: Patients with complicated cataract secondary to anterior uveitis who underwent phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were included in this study. Long-term results and all complications were evaluated throughout the postoperative 4 years. RESULTS: A total of 55 eyes of 48 patients were identified in this study...
June 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Corey A Williams-Wietzikoski, Isaac D So, Marta E Bull, Tanawan Samleerat, Kessara Pathanapitoon, Paradee Kunavisarut, Natedao Kongyai, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Lisa M Frenkel, Wasna Sirirungsi
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare HIV-1 env sequences from the eye to those from the blood of individuals with uveitis attributed to HIV with the goal of gaining insight into the pathogenesis of HIV-associated eye disease. DESIGN: A prospective case series of five HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive individuals with uveitis negative for other pathogens. METHODS: RNA from blood plasma and ocular aqueous humor was reverse transcribed using random hexamers...
August 24, 2017: AIDS
Yukiko Terada, Koju Kamoi, Takashi Komizo, Kazunori Miyata, Manabu Mochizuki
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1, also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is a retrovirus that encodes a reverse transcriptase, which translates viral RNA into a DNA provirus that is integrated into the host genome. The virus was found to be a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in the early 1980s, and was also found to cause the neurological disorder tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) and the inflammatory disorder HTLV-1 uveitis in the mid 1980s and early 1990s, respectively...
May 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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