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distributed practice, motor

Alexandra S Atkins, Vicki Davis, Tina Tseng, Adam Vaughan, Philip Harvey, Tom Patterson, Meera Narasimhan, Richard S E Keefe
Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures and standardized administration instructions. These methods can reduce the potential for rater error. However, especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores...
October 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the most effective electrode montage to elicit lower-extremity transcranial motor evoked potentials (LE-tMEPs) using a minimum stimulation current. METHODS A realistic 3D head model was created from T1-weighted images. Finite element methods were used to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electrical stimulation via 4 electrode montage models. The stimulation threshold level of LE-tMEPs in 52 patients was also studied in a practical clinical setting to determine the effects of each electrode montage...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yuan Liu, Li Jiang, Dapeng Yang, Hong Liu
Human can successfully grasp various objects in different acceptable relative positions between human hand and objects. This grasp functionality can be described as the grasp tolerance of human hand, which is a significant functionality of human grasp. To understand the motor control of human hand completely, an analysis of hand and wrist postural synergies in tolerance grasping of various objects is needed. Ten healthy right-handed subjects were asked to perform the tolerance grasping with right hand using 6 objects of different shapes, sizes and relative positions between human hand and objects...
2016: PloS One
Jo Marie V Acebes, Malcolm Tull
The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products...
2016: PloS One
Michela Barichella, Emanuele Cereda, Erica Cassani, Giovanna Pinelli, Laura Iorio, Valentina Ferri, Giulia Privitera, Marianna Pasqua, Angela Valentino, Fatemeh Monajemi, Serena Caronni, Caterina Lignola, Chiara Pusani, Carlotta Bolliri, Samanta A Faierman, Alessandro Lubisco, Giuseppe Frazzitta, Maria L Petroni, Gianni Pezzoli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can benefit considerably from appropriate nutritional care, particularly from diet. However, there is limited evidence on the eating habits of PD patients and their relationship with the features of the disease. METHODS: We conducted a large case-control study. Consecutive PD patients (N = 600) receiving systematic nutritional care and healthy controls (N = 600) matched (1:1) for age, gender, education, physical activity level and residence were studied using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire...
July 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Stephen J Page, Erinn M Hade, Juan Pang
Mental practice (MP) is a promising adjuvant to physical practice that involves many of the same mechanisms and takes on many of the same properties as physical practice. This study compared efficacy of a "massed" MP regimen versus a "distributed" MP regimen on upper extremity (UE) motor impairment and functional limitation. Twenty-seven chronic stroke survivors were administered the UE section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM) and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), followed by standardized physical practice and MP regimens...
October 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yun Peng, Jinbao He, Rose Khavari, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Knowledge of the innervation of pelvic floor and sphincter muscles is of great importance to understanding the pathophysiology of female pelvic floor dysfunctions. This report presents our high-density intravaginal and intrarectal electromyography (EMG) probes and a comprehensive innervation zone (IZ) imaging technique based on high-density EMG readings to characterize the IZ distribution. METHODS: Both intravaginal and intrarectal probes are covered with a high-density surface electromyography electrode grid (8 × 8)...
May 18, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Paulette van Vliet, Susan M Hunter, Catherine Donaldson, Valerie Pomeroy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Published reports of intervention in randomized controlled trials are often poorly described. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist has been recently developed to improve the reporting of interventions. The aim of this article is to describe a therapy intervention used in the stroke rehabilitation trial, "Clinical Efficacy of Functional Strength Training for Upper Limb Motor Recovery Early After Stroke: Neural Correlates and Prognostic Indicators" (FAST-INdICATE), using TIDieR...
July 2016: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen, Lars Konge, Per Cayé-Thomasen, Mads Sølvsten Sørensen
IMPORTANCE: The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is increasingly being used in surgical skills training, including temporal bone surgery, but there is a gap in knowledge on the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Felix C Huang, James L Patton
BACKGROUND: While clinical assessments provide tools for characterizing abilities in motor-impaired individuals, concerns remain over their repeatability and reliability. Typical robot-assisted training studies focus on repetition of prescribed actions, yet such movement data provides an incomplete account of abnormal patterns of coordination. Recent studies have shown positive effects from self-directed movement, yet such a training paradigm leads to challenges in how to quantify and interpret performance...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Jaehoon Choe, Brian A Coffman, Dylan T Bergstedt, Matthias D Ziegler, Matthew E Phillips
Skill acquisition requires distributed learning both within (online) and across (offline) days to consolidate experiences into newly learned abilities. In particular, piloting an aircraft requires skills developed from extensive training and practice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate neuronal function to improve skill learning and performance during flight simulator training of aircraft landing procedures. Thirty-two right-handed participants consented to participate in four consecutive daily sessions of flight simulation training and received sham or anodal high-definition-tDCS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or left motor cortex (M1) in a randomized, double-blind experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mihir J Desai, Suhail K Mithani, Sameer J Lodha, Marc J Richard, Fraser J Leversedge, David S Ruch
PURPOSE: To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention...
February 4, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Christy Tomkins-Lane, Markus Melloh, Jon Lurie, Matt Smuck, Michele C Battié, Brian Freeman, Dino Samartzis, Richard Hu, Thomas Barz, Kent Stuber, Michael Schneider, Andrew Haig, Constantin Schizas, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Anne F Mannion, Lukas Staub, Christine Comer, Luciana Macedo, Sang-Ho Ahn, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Danielle Sandella
STUDY DESIGN: Delphi. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain an expert consensus on which history factors are most important in the clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: LSS is a poorly defined clinical syndrome. Criteria for defining LSS are needed and should be informed by the experience of expert clinicians. METHODS: Phase 1 (Delphi Items): 20 members of the International Taskforce on the Diagnosis and Management of LSS confirmed a list of 14 history items...
August 1, 2016: Spine
Wimoolchart Saranjit, Pattanaprichakul Penvadee, Chayangsu Onjuta, Lertrujiwanit Kamonpan, Iamtharachai Pacharee, Chaowattanapanit Suteeraporn
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease predominantly affects skin and peripheral nerves; therefore, can cause visible deformities from sensory and motor impairment. Early detection of sensory deficit has been of great benefit in a vigorous preventive role. OBJECTIVE: To compare the result of sensory evaluation in multibacillary leprosy (AB) patients using Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) and conventional monofilament technique used in Thailand and to observe the course of neuritis detected during the study period MATERIAL AND METHOD: MB patients from Hansen's clinic at the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital, and Leprosy clinic at Raj Pracha Samasai Institute were evaluated for sensory impairment using monofilament test by both SWM and conventional technique for two consecutive follow-up visits...
November 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Sarah Richardson, Andrew Teodorczuk, Giuseppe Bellelli, Daniel H J Davis, Karin J Neufeld, Barbara A Kamholz, Marco Trabucchi, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Alessandro Morandi
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. METHODS: Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies...
May 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Andrew Abdou, Ira G Rashbaum, Ajax E George, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy
Healthy individuals appear to use both vector-coded reach plans that encode movements in terms of their desired direction and extent, and target-coded reach plans that encode the desired endpoint position of the effector. We examined whether these vector and target reach-planning codes are differentially affected after stroke. Participants with stroke and healthy controls made blocks of reaches that were grouped by target location (providing target-specific practice) and by movement vector (providing vector-specific practice)...
December 2015: Physiological Reports
Eloi Magnin, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Ludivine Chamard, Eric Berger, Thierry Moulin, Pierre Decavel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fampridine is sometimes reported to improve cognition and especially the information-processing speed. Motor improvement might be a confounding factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fampridine on verbal fluencies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Fifty MS patients were included in a prospective monocentric open label trial with a mean Expanded Disability Status Scale of 5.3 ± 1.1. Assessments of verbal phonological and semantic fluencies were repeated twice (within 1 week) before fampridine treatment and twice after fampridine treatment in order to have the maximal practice effect...
2015: European Neurology
Erika M Gergerich
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: States have various policies regarding physician reporting of drivers with dementia to the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) for testing. Some states have mandatory reporting policies, others have optional reporting policies, and some have no policy regarding this issue. Arkansas has no reporting policy. Physicians in Arkansas face the risk of liability if they report a patient against their will to the DMV. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three research questions were developed to identify how the problem of drivers with dementia is defined among neurologists and geriatricians in Arkansas: (i) What knowledge do these specialists have of state policy regarding reporting of drivers with dementia to the DMV; (ii) What are their opinions regarding various policy options for reporting such drivers; and (iii) What are their reporting practices for drivers with dementia? A survey was distributed to Arkansas neurologists and geriatricians...
April 2016: Gerontologist
Michiaki Koga
Guillain-Barré syndrome can be classified into several phenotypes according to the type of predominantly disturbed nerve fibers, distribution of muscular weakness, and electrophysiological and pathological findings. Although several regional variants including Fisher syndrome and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness were initially reported in Western researchers, many labor-intensive studies by Japanese researchers have significantly contributed to defining and highlighting these variants. This review summarizes the several regional variants of Guillain-Barré syndrome while highlighting the substantial contributions made by Japanese investigators...
November 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Xinliang An, Mack S Brittelle, Pascal T Lauzier, James R Gord, Sukesh Roy, Guang-Hong Chen, Scott T Sanders
This paper introduces temperature imaging by total-variation-based compressed sensing (CS) tomography of H2O vapor absorption spectroscopy. A controlled laboratory setup is used to generate a constant two-dimensional temperature distribution in air (a roughly Gaussian temperature profile with a central temperature of 677 K). A wavelength-tunable laser beam is directed through the known distribution; the beam is translated and rotated using motorized stages to acquire complete absorption spectra in the 1330-1365 nm range at each of 64 beam locations and 60 view angles...
November 1, 2015: Applied Optics
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