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distributed practice, motor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896096/assisting-movement-training-and-execution-with-visual-and-haptic-feedback
#1
Marco Ewerton, David Rother, Jakob Weimar, Gerrit Kollegger, Josef Wiemeyer, Jan Peters, Guilherme Maeda
In the practice of motor skills in general, errors in the execution of movements may go unnoticed when a human instructor is not available. In this case, a computer system or robotic device able to detect movement errors and propose corrections would be of great help. This paper addresses the problem of how to detect such execution errors and how to provide feedback to the human to correct his/her motor skill using a general, principled methodology based on imitation learning. The core idea is to compare the observed skill with a probabilistic model learned from expert demonstrations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808776/dyskinetic-vs-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-cross-sectional-study-comparing-functional-profiles-comorbidities-and-brain-imaging-patterns
#2
Susan M Reid, Elaine M Meehan, Dinah S Reddihough, Adrienne R Harvey
The authors aimed to describe the distribution of predominant and secondary motor types and compare functional profiles, comorbidities, and brain imaging patterns between dyskinetic and spastic cerebral palsy. Children recruited from a cerebral palsy register were assessed at age 5, 10, or 15. Motor types, topography, functional classifications, and comorbidities were recorded. Univariable logistic regression was used to compare dyskinesia with spasticity, with and without adjustment for topography. Neuroimaging classifications were extracted from the register...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720091/mobility-concepts-and-access-to-health-care-in-a-rural-district-in-germany-a-mixed-methods-approach
#3
Lisa Schröder, Kristina Flägel, Katja Goetz, Jost Steinhäuser
BACKGROUND: Western countries are facing the challenges of an imminent shortage of physicians, especially general practitioners. As a consequence longer travel times to doctors' practices may arise. This study aimed to investigate the mobility behavior of a rural population in terms of medical consultations. METHODS: An exploratory mixed-methods design was conducted in the Waldshut district of the federal state Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Focus groups and a single telephone-interview with representatives, occupationally affiliated with mobility in the district (e...
May 2, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694645/effects-of-ultrasound-guided-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-with-a-specific-approach-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#4
Raikan Büyükavcı, Mehmet Akif Büyükavcı
The aim of this study was to detect effects of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type-A (US-guided BoNT-A) injections prepared according to lower extremity innervation zones on spasticity and motor function in 3-16 years children with diplegic and hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy. This study included 25 patients between 3 and 16 years of age who admitted to our clinic in 2017, were being followed in our clinic with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, had BoNT-A injections due to lower extremity spasticity. The US-guided BoNT-A injections were administered into the spastic muscles using a specific approach according to innervation zones of muscle...
April 24, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685647/in-defense-of-free-will-neuroscience-and-criminal-responsibility
#5
REVIEW
Paul G Nestor
Is neuroscience the death of free will and if so, does this mean the imminent demise of the psycho-legal practices related to insanity and criminal responsibility? For many scholars of neuro-jurisprudence, recent advances in brain sciences suggesting that the perception of free will is merely illusory, an epiphenomenon of unconscious brain activity, do indeed undermine our traditional understandings of moral and legal responsibility. In this paper, however, we reject this radical claim and argue that neuroscientific evidence can indeed reveal how free will actually works and how its underlying neural and perceptual machinery gives rise to our sense of responsibility for our actions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684760/unifying-practice-schedules-in-the-timescales-of-motor-learning-and-performance
#6
F Martijn Verhoeven, Karl M Newell
In this article, we elaborate from a multiple time scales model of motor learning to examine the independent and integrated effects of massed and distributed practice schedules within- and between-sessions on the persistent (learning) and transient (warm-up, fatigue) processes of performance change. The timescales framework reveals the influence of practice distribution on four learning-related processes: the persistent processes of learning and forgetting, and the transient processes of warm-up decrement and fatigue...
June 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683858/the-effect-of-booster-seat-use-on-pediatric-injuries-in-motor-vehicle-frontal-crashes
#7
Sean Caskey, Joshua Hammond, Jeffery Peck, Matthew Sardelli, Theresa Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes are a significant source of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Studies indicate that booster seats significantly improve seat belt fit for children who have not attained a height of 145 cm (4' 9"). This study examined injuries occurring in booster age children up to age 12, as the majority of children do not attain 145 cm until this age. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in injuries due to the type of restraint used, with attention to musculoskeletal injuries...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659312/anatomical-distribution-of-musculoskeletal-disorders-following-a-road-traffic-collision-in-litigants-presenting-to-physiotherapists-within-a-private-clinic-in-north-east-england
#8
Jennifer Sewell, Cheryl Dixon, Rosie Morris, Samuel Stuart
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common following a road traffic collision (RTC) in England. Establishing the anatomical distribution of MSDs following RTC that present to physiotherapists may improve understanding and clinical practice. This study examined anatomical distribution of MSDs that present to physiotherapists within a litigant population following a RTC in England. METHODS: A retrospective review of physiotherapy records was conducted at a private practice in North-East England...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588022/use-of-whole-body-vibration-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke-transmissibility-and-signal-purity
#9
Meizhen Huang, Chak-Yin Tang, Marco Y C Pang
This study examined (1) the influence of whole body vibration (WBV) frequency (20 Hz, 30 Hz, 40 Hz), amplitude (low: 0.8 mm and high: 1.5 mm) and body postures (high-squat, deep-squat, tip-toe standing) on WBV transmissibility and signal purity, and (2) the relationship between stroke motor impairment and WBV transmissibility/signal purity. Thirty-four participants with chronic stroke were tested under 18 different conditions with unique combinations of WBV frequency, amplitude, and body posture. Lower limb motor function and muscle spasticity were assessed using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Modified Ashworth Scale respectively...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482834/data-driven-adaptive-fractional-order-pi-control-for-pmsm-servo-system-with-measurement-noise-and-data-dropouts
#10
Yuanlong Xie, Xiaoqi Tang, Bao Song, Xiangdong Zhou, Yixuan Guo
In this paper, data-driven adaptive fractional order proportional integral (AFOPI) control is presented for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system perturbed by measurement noise and data dropouts. The proposed method directly exploits the closed-loop process data for the AFOPI controller design under unknown noise distribution and data missing probability. Firstly, the proposed method constructs the AFOPI controller tuning problem as a parameter identification problem using the modified lp norm virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT)...
April 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414537/an-optimal-control-strategy-for-hybrid-actuator-systems-application-to-an-artificial-muscle-with-electric-motor-assist
#11
Koji Ishihara, Jun Morimoto
Humans use multiple muscles to generate such joint movements as an elbow motion. With multiple lightweight and compliant actuators, joint movements can also be efficiently generated. Similarly, robots can use multiple actuators to efficiently generate a one degree of freedom movement. For this movement, the desired joint torque must be properly distributed to each actuator. One approach to cope with this torque distribution problem is an optimal control method. However, solving the optimal control problem at each control time step has not been deemed a practical approach due to its large computational burden...
March 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354924/-discussion-on-the-clinical-treatment-of-infantile-cerebral-palsy-with-the-differentiated-intervention-of-meridian-points-on-the-spine-and-back
#12
Cheng Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Guangliang Jia, Tian Yang
In view of the literature study and clinical practice, the rules of the distribution, the general function and the indication of the meridians points on the spine and back were explored. The TCM mechanism on the rehabilitation of infantile cerebral palsy was studied. The rules of acupoint combination on the spine and back were summarized with meridians, main points and supplementary points involved in the TCM rehabilitation of infantile cerebral palsy. In view of the theoretic study, the advantages on the early infantile motor function, such as body turning, sitting, standing and walking, were analyzed with the long-term intervention of meridian points on the spine and back...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282542/using-hidden-markov-models-to-characterise-intermittent-social-behaviour-in-fish-shoals
#13
Nikolai W F Bode, Michael J Seitz
The movement of animals in groups is widespread in nature. Understanding this phenomenon presents an important problem in ecology with many applications that range from conservation to robotics. Underlying all group movements are interactions between individual animals and it is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms of this social behaviour. To date, despite promising methodological developments, there are few applications to data of practical statistical techniques that inferentially investigate the extent and nature of social interactions in group movement...
December 27, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273309/the-satisfactory-growth-and-development-at-2-years-of-age-of-the-intergrowth-21-st-fetal-growth-standards-cohort-support-its-appropriateness-for-constructing-international-standards
#14
José Villar, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Aris T Papageorghiou, Douglas G Altman, Cutberto Garza, Fernando C Barros, Fabien Puglia, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ann Lambert, Cameron Chumlea, Alan Stein, Michelle Fernandes, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Stephen H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220616/interventions-to-improve-or-maintain-lower-limb-function-among-ambulatory-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-current-practice-in-the-uk
#15
Gerasimos Taflampas, Cherry Kilbride, Wendy Levin, Grace Lavelle, Jennifer M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To describe physiotherapy management to improve or maintain lower-limb function among adolescents with cerebral palsy, classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: A list of interventions was identified using a nominal group technique and developed into a survey, which was distributed to approximately 2,100 pediatric physiotherapists in the UK through the Association of Pediatric Chartered Physiotherapists and a private physiotherapy clinic in London between April and June 2015...
December 8, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192609/superior-arm-movement-decoding-from-cortex-with-a-new-unsupervised-learning-algorithm
#16
Joseph G Makin, Joseph E O'Doherty, Mariana M B Cardoso, Philip N Sabes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to improve the state of the art for motor-control with a brain-machine interface (BMI). BMIs use neurological recording devices and decoding algorithms to transform brain activity directly into real-time control of a machine, archetypically a robotic arm or a cursor. The standard procedure treats neural activity-vectors of spike counts in small temporal windows-as noisy observations of the kinematic state (position, velocity, acceleration) of the fingertip...
April 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184533/correlations-between-motor-symptoms-across-different-motor-tasks-quantified-via-random-forest-feature-classification-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Andreas Kuhner, Tobias Schubert, Massimo Cenciarini, Isabella Katharina Wiesmeier, Volker Arnd Coenen, Wolfram Burgard, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph Maurer
Background: Objective assessments of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' motor state using motion capture techniques are still rarely used in clinical practice, even though they may improve clinical management. One major obstacle relates to the large dimensionality of motor abnormalities in PD. We aimed to extract global motor performance measures covering different everyday motor tasks, as a function of a clinical intervention, i.e., deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991677/hurst-revisited-are-symptoms-and-signs-of-functional-motor-and-sensory-disorders-dependent-on-idea
#18
Jon Stone, Jennifer Mutch, Denis Giannokous, Ingrid Hoeritzauer, Alan Carson
INTRODUCTION: Symptoms and signs of functional (psychogenic) motor and sensory disorder are often said to be dependent on the patients' idea of what symptoms should be, rather than anatomy and physiology. This hypothesis has however rarely been tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inspired by a brief experiment carried out in 1919 by neurologist Arthur Hurst we aimed to assess the views of healthy non-medical adults towards paralysis and numbness and their response to tests for functional disorders when asked to pretend to have motor and sensory symptoms...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964079/measuring-vocal-motor-skill-with-a-virtual-voice-controlled-slingshot
#19
Jarrad H Van Stan, Se-Woong Park, Matthew Jarvis, Daryush D Mehta, Robert E Hillman, Dagmar Sternad
Successful voice training (e.g., singing lessons) and vocal rehabilitation (e.g., therapy for a voice disorder) involve learning complex, vocal behaviors. However, there are no metrics describing how humans learn new vocal skills or predicting how long the improved behavior will persist post-therapy. To develop measures capable of describing and predicting vocal motor learning, a theory-based paradigm from limb motor control inspired the development of a virtual task where subjects throw projectiles at a target via modifications in vocal pitch and loudness...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928667/thirty-five-day-fluoxetine-treatment-limits-sensory-motor-deficit-and-biochemical-disorders-in-a-rat-model-of-decompression-sickness
#20
Caroline Cosnard, Sébastien De Maistre, Jacques H Abraini, Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
According to the OECD statistical base for 2014, anti-depressants will, on average, be distributed at a rate of 62 daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants for the 25 countries surveyed (Health at a glance: Europe 2014; OECD Health Statistics; World Health Organization and OECD Health Statistics, 2014). Divers must be concerned. On another hand, divers are potentially exposed to decompression sickness including coagulation inflammation and ischemia, which can result in neurological lesions or even death. The purpose of this study is to assess whether chronic treatment with anti-depressants may represent a contraindication to the practice of an at-risk activity, such as, scuba diving, or even presents a benefit by attenuating the severity of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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