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antimicrobial in icu

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339914/infant-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-or-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-preceding-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-discharge
#1
Sarah A Clock, Haomiao Jia, Sameer Patel, Yu-Hui Ferng, Luis Alba, Susan Whittier, Patricia DeLaMora, Setareh Tabibi, Jeffrey Perlman, David Paul, Theoklis Zaoutis, Elaine Larson, Lisa Saiman
Rates of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were determined for 1320 infants within 7 days of neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Overall, 4% and 1% of the infants were colonized with MRSA or VRE, respectively. Predictors identified in fixed-effects models were surgery during hospitalization (for MRSA colonization) and prolonged antimicrobial treatment (for VRE colonization).
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#2
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334482/minimising-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsis-rate-in-inserting-central-venous-catheters-cvcs-in-the-adult-intensive-care-units-aicus
#3
REVIEW
Hedaya Hina, Joan McDowell
AIM: To investigate the procedural aspects in inserting central venous catheters that minimise central line associated bloodstream infections rates in adult intensive care units through a structured literature review. BACKGROUND: In adult intensive care units (AICU), central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a major cause of high mortality rates and increased in costs due to the consequences of complications. METHODS: Eligible articles were identified by combining indexed keywords using Boolean operator of "AND" under databases of Ovid and CINAHL...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329088/short-course-adjunctive-gentamicin-as-empirical-therapy-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#4
David S Y Ong, Jos F Frencken, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Nicole Juffermans, Tom van der Poll, Marc Bonten, Olaf Cremer
Background.: Meta-analyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy, compared to beta lactam monotherapy, in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock. Methods.: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in two intensive care units in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2015...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325540/corrigendum-to-rates-of-susceptibility-of-carbapenems-ceftobiprole-and-colistin-against-clinically-important-bacteria-collected-from-intensive-care-units-in-2007-results-from-the-surveillance-of-multicenter-antimicrobial-resistance-in-taiwan-smart-j-microbiol
#5
Shio-Shin Jean, Wen-Sen Lee, Kwok-Woon Yu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chin-Wan Hsu, Feng-Yi Chang, Wen-Chien Ko, Ray-Jade Chen, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Jien-Wei Liu, Min-Chi Lu, Carlos Lam, Cheng-Yi Liu, Po-Ren Hsueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#6
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303847/trends-in-drug-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-over-a-10-year-period-nationwide-data-from-the-china-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-program
#7
Lei Gao, Yuan Lyu, Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303824/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-rapid-detection-of-carbapenamase-activity-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates
#8
Noha Abouseada, May Raouf, Eman El-Attar, Pacinte Moez
INTRODUCTION: Carbapenamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are an increasing threat in hospitals and Intensive Care Units. Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenamase producers has a great impact on patient improvement and aids in implementation of infection control measures. AIM: In this study, we describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify carbapenamase-producing A. baumannii isolates in up to 3 h...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302430/antimicrobial-copper-alloys-decreased-bacteria-on-stethoscope-surfaces
#9
Michael G Schmidt, Rachel E Tuuri, Arif Dharsee, Hubert H Attaway, Sarah E Fairey, Keith T Borg, Cassandra D Salgado, Bruce E Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Stethoscopes may serve as vehicles for transmission of bacteria among patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial copper surfaces to reduce the bacterial concentration associated with stethoscope surfaces. METHODS: A structured prospective trial involving 21 health care providers was conducted at a pediatric emergency division (ED) (n = 14) and an adult medical intensive care unit located in tertiary care facilities (n = 7)...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298480/antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-bedside-rationing-by-another-name
#10
Simon Oczkowski
Antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of therapy in critically ill patients; however, the wide use of antibiotics has resulted in increased antimicrobial resistance and outbreaks of resistant disease. To counter this, many hospitals have instituted antimicrobial stewardship programmes as a way to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics. However, uptake of antimicrobial stewardship programmes has been variable, as many clinicians fear that they may put individual patients at risk of treatment failure. In this paper, I argue that antimicrobial stewardship programmes are indeed a form of bedside rationing, and explore the risks and benefits of such programmes for individual patients in the intensive care unit, and the critically ill population in general...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291497/variation-in-postinjury-antibiotic-prophylaxis-patterns-over-five-years-in-a-combat-zone
#11
Bradley A Lloyd, Clinton K Murray, William Bradley, Faraz Shaikh, Deepak Aggarwal, M Leigh Carson, David R Tribble
In 2008, a clinical practice guideline (CPG) was developed for the prevention of infections among combat casualties and was later revised in 2011. We evaluated utilization of antimicrobials within 48 hours following injury in the combat zone over a 5-year period (June 2009 through May 2014) with regard to number of regimens, type of antimicrobial, and adherence to the 2011 CPG. The study population consisted of 5,196 wounded military personnel. Open fractures and skin and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent injuries...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288860/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-isolated-from-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-icu-patients
#12
Richa Gupta, Abida Malik, Meher Rizvi, Moied Ahmed, Anuradha Singh
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) poses a grave threat in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pathogens in ICU patients and their drug resistance profile. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) was also assessed. METHODS: Tracheal aspirates were collected aseptically from 87 ICU patients between May 2012 and January 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288838/routine-ertapenem-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-does-not-select-for-carbapenem-resistant-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Maxim G Bloomfield, Matthew J Page, Alice G McLachlan, Rodney C Studd, Timothy K Blackmore
PURPOSE: Post-transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy sepsis is an increasing problem in this era of rising antibiotic resistance. Ertapenem prophylaxis has proven very effective at our institution for reducing this, however has raised local and regional antimicrobial stewardship concerns. This study investigated the possible selective effect of single dose ertapenem prophylaxis on fecal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients had a rectal swab taken prior to receiving pre-biopsy ertapenem prophylaxis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274771/factors-associated-with-time-to-clinical-stability-in-complicated-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#14
Iiro H Jääskeläinen, Lars Hagberg, Erik Forsblom, Asko Järvinen
OBJECTIVES: Factors associated with the time to clinical stability in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) were analysed in a retrospective population-based study. METHODS: All hospitalized patients (n=402) with cSSSI in two Nordic cities during a 4 year period were included. Patient, disease and treatment related factors were analysed in relation to early (0-3 days) or late (≥ 4 days) clinical stability. Clinical stability was assessed as improvement of infection related local and systemic signs...
March 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270114/violation-of-prophylactic-vancomycin-administration-timing-is-a-potential-risk-factor-for-rate-of-surgical-site-infections-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Paolo Cotogni, Cristina Barbero, Roberto Passera, Lucina Fossati, Giorgio Olivero, Mauro Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Intensivists and cardiothoracic surgeons are commonly worried about surgical site infections (SSIs) due to increasing length of stay (LOS), costs and mortality. The antimicrobial prophylaxis is one of the most important tools in the prevention of SSIs. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis administration and the rate of SSIs. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out over 1-year period in all consecutive adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
March 8, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268024/presence-distribution-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-from-medical-personnel-of-intensive-care-units-in-tianjin-china-2007-2015
#16
H Liu, C N Fei, Y Zhang, G W Liu, J Liu, J Dong
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). AIMS: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of MDRGNB isolated from medical personnel (MP) and non-medical personnel (NMP) at 69 ICUs in Tianjin, China. METHODS: From April 2007 to October 2015, 2636 nasal and hand swab samples from 1185 MP and 133 NMP were cultured for GNB (including MDRGNB), meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266901/collaborative-approach-of-individual-participant-data-of-prospective-studies-of-de-escalation-in-non-immunosuppressed-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#17
Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Marc Leone, Jose Garnacho-Montero, Claude Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
BACKGROUND: There is a concern to conduct de-escalation in very sick patients. AIMS: To determine if de-escalation is feasible in ICU settings. METHODS: We performed a metaanalysis of published studies conducted comparing de-escalation (defined by withdrawal of at least one antimicrobial empirically prescribed, switch to a new antimicrobial with narrower spectrum and withdrawal of at least one antimicrobial plus change of another drug to a new one with narrower spectrum) in non-immunocompromised patients with sepsis admitted to ICU...
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258303/clinical-significance-and-outcome-of-aeromonas-spp-infections-among-204-adult-patients
#18
J Nolla-Salas, J Codina-Calero, S Vallés-Angulo, A Sitges-Serra, A Zapatero-Ferrándiz, M C Climent, J Gómez, J R Masclans
The objectives of this investigation were to analyze the clinical patterns, risk groups, prognostic factors, and mortality of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. This was a retrospective study of adult patients with Aeromonas spp. isolates attended at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain, between January 2006 and December 2012. Epidemiological data, antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical patterns, underlying illnesses, type of infection, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), number of episodes, coinfection, antimicrobial therapy, and evolution were analyzed...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256474/long-term-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-third-generation-cephalosporin-use-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-north-india
#19
Tuhina Banerjee, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Supriya Upadhyay, Shweta Mishra, Karuna Tiwari, Shampa Anupurba, Malay Ranjan Sen, Sriparna Basu, Ashok Kumar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of ESBL - producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251105/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-risk-factors-for-infection-and-impact-of-resistance-on-outcomes
#20
Shanthi Mariappan, Uma Sekar, Arunagiri Kamalanathan
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have increased in recent years leading to limitations of treatment options. The present study was undertaken to detect CPE, risk factors for acquiring them and their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 111 clinically significant Enterobacteriaceae resistant to cephalosporins subclass III and exhibiting a positive modified Hodge test. Screening for carbapenemase production was done by phenotypic methods, and polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect genes encoding them...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
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