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Casparian strip

Dan Yu, Fangfang Bu, Jiaojiao Hou, Yongxiang Kang, Zhongdong Yu
A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Deyang Xu, Franziska S Hanschen, Katja Witzel, Sebastian J Nintemann, Hussam Hassan Nour-Eldin, Monika Schreiner, Barbara Ann Halkier
Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study the transport routes of plant-derived metabolites from the site of synthesis to the rhizosphere. Analysing the expression of GLS synthetic genes in the root indicate that the stele is the major site for the synthesis of aliphatic GLS, whereas indole GLS can be synthesized in both the stele and the cortex...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marc Somssich, Ghazanfar Abbas Khan, Staffan Persson
Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marie Barberon
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Plant roots forage the soil for nutrients and transport them upwards to the aerial parts. Nutrients entering the plant are transported through the concentric layers of epidermis, cortex and endodermis before reaching the central vasculature. The endodermis is the innermost cortical cell layer that surrounds the vasculature. The endodermis forms barriers, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae, which have been assumed to play a major role in controlling nutrient acquisition...
August 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Julien Alassimone, Satoshi Fujita, Verónica G Doblas, Maritza van Dop, Marie Barberon, Lothar Kalmbach, Joop E M Vermeer, Nelson Rojas-Murcia, Luca Santuari, Christian S Hardtke, Niko Geldner
Casparian strips are precisely localized and aligned ring-like cell wall modifications in the root of all higher plants. They set up an extracellular diffusion barrier analogous to animal tight junctions, and are crucial for maintaining the homeostatic capacity of plant roots. Casparian strips become localized because of the formation of a highly stable plasma membrane domain, consisting of a family of small transmembrane proteins called Casparian strip membrane domain proteins (CASPs). Here we report a large-scale forward genetic screen directly visualizing endodermal barrier function, which allowed us to identify factors required for the formation and integrity of Casparian strips...
2016: Nature Plants
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mitsuru Fukuda, Hiroko Noda, Isao Toyosawa
A part of cell walls in soybean aleurone layers remained undigested after pectinase and cellulase treatments, and the features of the undigested cell walls were similar to those of Casparian strips. Glycine-rich polypeptides (GRPP) were extracted with 0.4 n NaOH from the undigested cell walls, Casparian strip-like tissues. Approximately 6.5-kDa GRPP obtained by gel-permeation chromatography from the extract was purified by anion-exchange HPLC and reverse-phase HPLC. The major amino acids of GRPP were glycine (69%) and serine (13%)...
January 1997: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Philip N Benfey
The molecular events that control the progression from stem cells to differentiated tissue are largely unknown. The root of Arabidopsis is an excellent model to study this process, as cells at every stage of development are present at all times. A network that involves the mobile transcription factor, SHORT-ROOT, controls the asymmetric division of the stem cell that gives rise to endodermis and cortex. After initially interacting with another transcription factor, SCARECROW (SCR), together they activate a D-type cyclin, which specifically regulates this asymmetric cell division...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
María Julieta Salazar, Judith Hebelen Rodriguez, Carolina Vergara Cid, María Luisa Pignata
The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Akimasa Sasaki, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
One of the most important roles of plant roots is to take up essential mineral nutrients from the soil for use in plant growth and development. The uptake of mineral elements is mediated by various transporters belonging to different transporter families. Here we reviewed transporters for the uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients identified in rice, an important staple food for half of the world's population. Rice roots are characterized by having two Casparian strips on the exodermis and endodermis and by the formation of aerenchyma in the mature root zone...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marie Barberon, Joop Engelbertus Martinus Vermeer, Damien De Bellis, Peng Wang, Sadaf Naseer, Tonni Grube Andersen, Bruno Martin Humbel, Christiane Nawrath, Junpei Takano, David Edward Salt, Niko Geldner
Plant roots forage the soil for minerals whose concentrations can be orders of magnitude away from those required for plant cell function. Selective uptake in multicellular organisms critically requires epithelia with extracellular diffusion barriers. In plants, such a barrier is provided by the endodermis and its Casparian strips--cell wall impregnations analogous to animal tight and adherens junctions. Interestingly, the endodermis undergoes secondary differentiation, becoming coated with hydrophobic suberin, presumably switching from an actively absorbing to a protective epithelium...
January 28, 2016: Cell
Yu Qian, Huan Feng, Frank J Gallagher, Qingzhi Zhu, Meiyin Wu, Chang Jun Liu, Keith W Jones, Ryan V Tappero
Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different...
November 2015: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jinghua Yang, Changqing Ding, Baochen Xu, Cuiting Chen, Reena Narsai, Jim Whelan, Zhongyuan Hu, Mingfang Zhang
A cold-induced transcript encoding a Casparian strip membrane domain (CASP)-like protein (ClCASPL) was identified in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that ClCASPL-GFP is localized in the plasma membrane. The orthologous gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCASPL4C1) was also found to play an important role in cold tolerance. Expression analysis using a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that AtCASPL4C1 is widely expressed in a variety of organs and is cold inducible. Analysis of AtCASPL4C1 T-DNA knock-out plants showed altered growth dynamics, faster growth, increased biomass (dry weight) and earlier flowering compared to wild type (Col-0) and ClCASPL overexpressing plants...
2015: Scientific Reports
Louisa M Liberman, Erin E Sparks, Miguel A Moreno-Risueno, Jalean J Petricka, Philip N Benfey
Stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and produce daughter cells that proliferate and mature. These maturing cells transition from a proliferative state to a terminal state through the process of differentiation. In the Arabidopsis thaliana root the transcription factors SCARECROW and SHORTROOT regulate specification of the bipotent stem cell that gives rise to cortical and endodermal progenitors. Subsequent progenitor proliferation and differentiation generate mature endodermis, marked by the Casparian strip, a cell-wall modification that prevents ion diffusion into and out of the vasculature...
September 29, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tonni Grube Andersen, Marie Barberon, Niko Geldner
The endodermis is the innermost cortical cell layer that surrounds the central vasculature and deposits an apoplastic diffusion barrier known as the Casparian strip. Although discovered 150 years ago, the underlying mechanisms responsible for formation of the Casparian strips have only recently been investigated. However, the fate of the endodermal cell goes further than formation of Casparian strips as they undergo a second level of differentiation, defined by deposition of suberin as a secondary cell wall...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Takehiro Kamiya, Monica Borghi, Peng Wang, John M C Danku, Lothar Kalmbach, Prashant S Hosmani, Sadaf Naseer, Toru Fujiwara, Niko Geldner, David E Salt
The endodermis in roots acts as a selectivity filter for nutrient and water transport essential for growth and development. This selectivity is enabled by the formation of lignin-based Casparian strips. Casparian strip formation is initiated by the localization of the Casparian strip domain proteins (CASPs) in the plasma membrane, at the site where the Casparian strip will form. Localized CASPs recruit Peroxidase 64 (PER64), a Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, and Enhanced Suberin 1 (ESB1), a dirigent-like protein, to assemble the lignin polymerization machinery...
August 18, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gen Sakurai, Akiko Satake, Naoki Yamaji, Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Masayuki Yokozawa, François Gabriel Feugier, Jian Feng Ma
Silicon (Si) uptake by the roots is mediated by two different transporters, Lsi1 (passive) and Lsi2 (active), in rice (Oryza sativa). Both transporters are polarly localized in the plasma membranes of exodermal (outer) and endodermal (inner) cells with Casparian strips. However, it is unknown how rice is able to take up large amounts of Si compared with other plants, and why rice Si transporters have a characteristic cellular localization pattern. To answer these questions, we simulated Si uptake by rice roots by developing a mathematical model based on a simple diffusion equation that also accounts for active transport by Lsi2...
April 2015: Plant & Cell Physiology
Cheng Peng, Dechao Duan, Chen Xu, Yongsheng Chen, Lijuan Sun, Hai Zhang, Xiaofeng Yuan, Lirong Zheng, Yuanqiang Yang, Jianjun Yang, Xiangjun Zhen, Yingxu Chen, Jiyan Shi
Metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) may be translocated and biochemically modified in vivo, which may influence the fate of MNPs in the environment. Here, synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate the behavior of CuO NPs in rice plants exposed to 100 mg/L CuO NPs for 14 days. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) analysis revealed that CuO NPs moved into the root epidermis, exodermis, and cortex, and they ultimately reached the endodermis but could not easily pass the Casparian strip; however, the formation of lateral roots provided a potential pathway for MNPs to enter the stele...
February 2015: Environmental Pollution
Alexandre Pfister, Marie Barberon, Julien Alassimone, Lothar Kalmbach, Yuree Lee, Joop E M Vermeer, Misako Yamazaki, Guowei Li, Christophe Maurel, Junpei Takano, Takehiro Kamiya, David E Salt, Daniele Roppolo, Niko Geldner
The endodermis represents the main barrier to extracellular diffusion in plant roots, and it is central to current models of plant nutrient uptake. Despite this, little is known about the genes setting up this endodermal barrier. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a strong barrier mutant, schengen3 (sgn3). We observe a surprising ability of the mutant to maintain nutrient homeostasis, but demonstrate a major defect in maintaining sufficient levels of the macronutrient potassium...
2014: ELife
Vandana Yadav, Isabel Molina, Kosala Ranathunge, Indira Queralta Castillo, Steven J Rothstein, Jason W Reed
Effective regulation of water balance in plants requires localized extracellular barriers that control water and solute movement. We describe a clade of five Arabidopsis thaliana ABCG half-transporters that are required for synthesis of an effective suberin barrier in roots and seed coats (ABCG2, ABCG6, and ABCG20) and for synthesis of an intact pollen wall (ABCG1 and ABCG16). Seed coats of abcg2 abcg6 abcg20 triple mutant plants had increased permeability to tetrazolium red and decreased suberin content. The root system of triple mutant plants was more permeable to water and salts in a zone complementary to that affected by the Casparian strip...
September 2014: Plant Cell
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