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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877668/de-novo-assembly-of-phlomis-purpurea-after-challenging-with-phytophthora-cinnamomi
#1
Aladje Baldé, Dina Neves, Francisco J García-Breijo, Maria Salomé Pais, Alfredo Cravador
BACKGROUND: Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869926/outer-inner-and-planar-polarity-in-the-arabidopsis-root
#2
REVIEW
Moritaka Nakamura, Markus Grebe
Plant roots control uptake of water and nutrients and cope with environmental challenges. The root epidermis provides the first selective interface for nutrient absorption, while the endodermis produces the main apoplastic diffusion barrier in the form of a structure called the Casparian strip. The positioning of root hairs on epidermal cells, and of the Casparian strip around endodermal cells, requires asymmetries along cellular axes (cell polarity). Cell polarity is termed planar polarity, when coordinated within the plane of a given tissue layer...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804493/a-comprehensive-biophysical-model-of-ion-and-water-transport-in-plant-roots-i-clarifying-the-roles-of-endodermal-barriers-in-the-salt-stress-response
#3
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
In this paper, we present a detailed and comprehensive mathematical model of active and passive ion and water transport in plant roots. Two key features are the explicit consideration of the separate, but interconnected, apoplastic, and symplastic transport pathways for ions and water, and the inclusion of both active and passive ion transport mechanisms. The model is used to investigate the respective roles of the endodermal Casparian strip and suberin lamellae in the salt stress response of plant roots. While it is thought that these barriers influence different transport pathways, it has proven difficult to distinguish their separate functions experimentally...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750257/the-endodermis-a-tightly-controlled-barrier-for-nutrients
#4
REVIEW
Verónica G Doblas, Niko Geldner, Marie Barberon
Plant roots acquire nutrients from the soil and transport them upwards to the aerial parts. To reach the central vasculature of the root, water and nutrients radially cross all external cell layers. The endodermis surrounds the vascular tissues and forms diffusion barriers. It thereby compartmentalizes the root and allows control of nutrient transport from the soil to the vasculature, as well as preventing backflow of nutrients from the stele. To achieve this role, endodermal cells undergo two specialized differentiations states consisting of deposition of two impermeable polymers in the cell wall: lignin, forming the Casparian strips, and suberin lamellae...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536883/identification-of-genes-related-to-skin-development-in-potato
#5
Vijaya K R Vulavala, Edna Fogelman, Lior Rozental, Adi Faigenboim, Zachariah Tanami, Oded Shoseyov, Idit Ginzberg
Newly identified genes that are preferentially expressed in potato skin include genes that are associated with the secondary cell wall and stress-related activities and contribute to the skin's protective function. Microarrays were used to compare the skin and tuber-flesh transcriptomes of potato, to identify genes that contribute to the unique characteristics of the skin as a protective tissue. Functional gene analysis indicated that genes involved in developmental processes such as cell division, cell differentiation, morphogenesis and secondary cell wall formation (lignification and suberization), and stress-related activities, are more highly expressed in the skin than in the tuber flesh...
July 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436943/transient-cell-specific-exo70a1-activity-in-the-casp-domain-and-casparian-strip-localization
#6
Lothar Kalmbach, Kian Hématy, Damien De Bellis, Marie Barberon, Satoshi Fujita, Robertas Ursache, Jean Daraspe, Niko Geldner
In a striking case of evolutionary convergence, polarized cell layers with ring-like diffusion barriers have evolved in both plant and animal lineages independently. In plants, ring-like Casparian strips become localized by the CASPARIAN STRIP MEMBRANE DOMAIN PROTEINS (CASPs). The mechanism of this striking localization, however, has remained enigmatic. Here we present a genetic screen aimed at isolating determinants of CASP localization. One of the mutants, lord of the rings 2 (lotr2)/exo70a1, displays dramatic de-localization of CASPs into randomly localized microdomains...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330456/genome-wide-expression-profiling-in-leaves-and-roots-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-exposed-to-salinity
#7
Mahmoud W Yaish, Himanshu V Patankar, Dekoum V M Assaha, Yun Zheng, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Date palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in North African and West Asian countries including Oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. Although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In order to get an insight into molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance, RNA was profiled in leaves and roots of date palm seedlings subjected to NaCl for 10 days...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267968/plant-biology-building-barriers%C3%A2-in-roots
#8
Daniel von Wangenheim, Tatsuaki Goh, Daniela Dietrich, Malcolm J Bennett
The Casparian strip is an important barrier regulating water and nutrient uptake into root tissues. New research reveals two peptide signals and their co-receptors play critical roles patterning and maintaining barrier integrity.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238658/role-of-lotr1-in-nutrient-transport-through-organization-of-spatial-distribution-of-root-endodermal-barriers
#9
Baohai Li, Takehiro Kamiya, Lothar Kalmbach, Mutsumi Yamagami, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Shinichiro Sawa, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Niko Geldner, Toru Fujiwara
The formation of Casparian strips and suberin lamellae at the endodermis limits the free diffusion of nutrients and harmful substances via the apoplastic space between the soil solution and the stele in roots [1-3]. Casparian strips are ring-like lignin polymers deposited in the middle of anticlinal cell walls between endodermal cells and fill the gap between them [4-6]. Suberin lamellae are glycerolipid polymers covering the endodermal cells and likely function as a barrier to limit transmembrane movement of apoplastic solutes into the endodermal cells [7, 8]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221376/cell-biology-zipping-the-casparian-strip
#10
Silvia Melina Velasquez, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104889/a-peptide-hormone-required-for-casparian-strip-diffusion-barrier-formation-in-arabidopsis-roots
#11
Takuya Nakayama, Hidefumi Shinohara, Mina Tanaka, Koki Baba, Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi, Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
Plants achieve mineral ion homeostasis by means of a hydrophobic barrier on endodermal cells called the Casparian strip, which restricts lateral diffusion of ions between the root vascular bundles and the soil. We identified a family of sulfated peptides required for contiguous Casparian strip formation in Arabidopsis roots. These peptide hormones, which we named Casparian strip integrity factor 1 (CIF1) and CIF2, are expressed in the root stele and specifically bind the endodermis-expressed leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase GASSHO1 (GSO1)/SCHENGEN3 and its homolog, GSO2...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104888/root-diffusion-barrier-control-by-a-vasculature-derived-peptide-binding-to-the-sgn3-receptor
#12
Verónica G Doblas, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Satoshi Fujita, Julien Alassimone, Marie Barberon, Mathias Madalinski, Youssef Belkhadir, Niko Geldner
The root endodermis forms its extracellular diffusion barrier by developing ringlike impregnations called Casparian strips. A factor responsible for their establishment is the SCHENGEN3/GASSHO1 (SGN3/GSO1) receptor-like kinase. Its loss of function causes discontinuous Casparian strips. SGN3 also mediates endodermal overlignification of other Casparian strip mutants. Yet, without ligand, SGN3 function remained elusive. Here we report that schengen2 (sgn2) is defective in an enzyme sulfating peptide ligands...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098254/nanoscale-measurement-of-trace-element-distributions-in-spartina-alterniflora-root-tissue-during-dormancy
#13
Huan Feng, Yu Qian, J Kirk Cochran, Qingzhi Zhu, Wen Hu, Hanfei Yan, Li Li, Xiaojing Huang, Yong S Chu, Houjun Liu, Shinjae Yoo, Chang-Jun Liu
This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891649/control-of-arabidopsis-lateral-root-primordium-boundaries-by-myb36
#14
María Fernández-Marcos, Bénédicte Desvoyes, Concepción Manzano, Louisa M Liberman, Philip N Benfey, Juan C Del Pozo, Crisanto Gutierrez
Root branching in plants relies on the de novo formation of lateral roots. These are initiated from founder cells, triggering new formative divisions that generate lateral root primordia (LRP). The LRP size and shape depends on the balance between positive and negative signals that control cell proliferation. The mechanisms controlling proliferation potential of LRP cells remains poorly understood. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana MYB36, which have been previously shown to regulate genes required for Casparian strip formation and the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the primary root, plays a new role in controlling LRP development at later stages...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718147/a-morel-improved-growth-and-suppressed-fusarium-infection-in-sweet-corn
#15
Dan Yu, Fangfang Bu, Jiaojiao Hou, Yongxiang Kang, Zhongdong Yu
A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702989/rhizosecretion-of-stele-synthesized-glucosinolates-and-their-catabolites-requires-gtr-mediated-import-in-arabidopsis
#16
Deyang Xu, Franziska S Hanschen, Katja Witzel, Sebastian J Nintemann, Hussam Hassan Nour-Eldin, Monika Schreiner, Barbara Ann Halkier
Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study the transport routes of plant-derived metabolites from the site of synthesis to the rhizosphere. Analysing the expression of GLS synthetic genes in the root indicate that the stele is the major site for the synthesis of aliphatic GLS, whereas indole GLS can be synthesized in both the stele and the cortex...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582757/cell-wall-heterogeneity-in-root-development-of-arabidopsis
#17
REVIEW
Marc Somssich, Ghazanfar Abbas Khan, Staffan Persson
Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551946/the-endodermis-as-a-checkpoint-for-nutrients
#18
REVIEW
Marie Barberon
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Plant roots forage the soil for nutrients and transport them upwards to the aerial parts. Nutrients entering the plant are transported through the concentric layers of epidermis, cortex and endodermis before reaching the central vasculature. The endodermis is the innermost cortical cell layer that surrounds the vasculature. The endodermis forms barriers, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae, which have been assumed to play a major role in controlling nutrient acquisition...
August 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455051/polarly-localized-kinase-sgn1-is-required-for-casparian-strip-integrity-and-positioning
#19
Julien Alassimone, Satoshi Fujita, Verónica G Doblas, Maritza van Dop, Marie Barberon, Lothar Kalmbach, Joop E M Vermeer, Nelson Rojas-Murcia, Luca Santuari, Christian S Hardtke, Niko Geldner
Casparian strips are precisely localized and aligned ring-like cell wall modifications in the root of all higher plants. They set up an extracellular diffusion barrier analogous to animal tight junctions, and are crucial for maintaining the homeostatic capacity of plant roots. Casparian strips become localized because of the formation of a highly stable plasma membrane domain, consisting of a family of small transmembrane proteins called Casparian strip membrane domain proteins (CASPs). Here we report a large-scale forward genetic screen directly visualizing endodermal barrier function, which allowed us to identify factors required for the formation and integrity of Casparian strips...
July 25, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446144/modeling-root-zone-effects-on-preferred-pathways-for-the-passive-transport-of-ions-and-water-in-plant-roots
#20
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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