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Casparian strip

Lothar Kalmbach, Kian Hématy, Damien De Bellis, Marie Barberon, Satoshi Fujita, Robertas Ursache, Jean Daraspe, Niko Geldner
In a striking case of evolutionary convergence, polarized cell layers with ring-like diffusion barriers have evolved in both plant and animal lineages independently. In plants, ring-like Casparian strips become localized by the CASPARIAN STRIP MEMBRANE DOMAIN PROTEINS (CASPs). The mechanism of this striking localization, however, has remained enigmatic. Here we present a genetic screen aimed at isolating determinants of CASP localization. One of the mutants, lord of the rings 2 (lotr2)/exo70a1, displays dramatic de-localization of CASPs into randomly localized microdomains...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
Mahmoud W Yaish, Himanshu V Patankar, Dekoum V M Assaha, Yun Zheng, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Date palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in North African and West Asian countries including Oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. Although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In order to get an insight into molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance, RNA was profiled in leaves and roots of date palm seedlings subjected to NaCl for 10 days...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Daniel von Wangenheim, Tatsuaki Goh, Daniela Dietrich, Malcolm J Bennett
The Casparian strip is an important barrier regulating water and nutrient uptake into root tissues. New research reveals two peptide signals and their co-receptors play critical roles patterning and maintaining barrier integrity.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Baohai Li, Takehiro Kamiya, Lothar Kalmbach, Mutsumi Yamagami, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Shinichiro Sawa, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Niko Geldner, Toru Fujiwara
The formation of Casparian strips and suberin lamellae at the endodermis limits the free diffusion of nutrients and harmful substances via the apoplastic space between the soil solution and the stele in roots [1-3]. Casparian strips are ring-like lignin polymers deposited in the middle of anticlinal cell walls between endodermal cells and fill the gap between them [4-6]. Suberin lamellae are glycerolipid polymers covering the endodermal cells and likely function as a barrier to limit transmembrane movement of apoplastic solutes into the endodermal cells [7, 8]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Silvia Melina Velasquez, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
Takuya Nakayama, Hidefumi Shinohara, Mina Tanaka, Koki Baba, Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi, Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
Plants achieve mineral ion homeostasis by means of a hydrophobic barrier on endodermal cells called the Casparian strip, which restricts lateral diffusion of ions between the root vascular bundles and the soil. We identified a family of sulfated peptides required for contiguous Casparian strip formation in Arabidopsis roots. These peptide hormones, which we named Casparian strip integrity factor 1 (CIF1) and CIF2, are expressed in the root stele and specifically bind the endodermis-expressed leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase GASSHO1 (GSO1)/SCHENGEN3 and its homolog, GSO2...
January 20, 2017: Science
Verónica G Doblas, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Satoshi Fujita, Julien Alassimone, Marie Barberon, Mathias Madalinski, Youssef Belkhadir, Niko Geldner
The root endodermis forms its extracellular diffusion barrier by developing ringlike impregnations called Casparian strips. A factor responsible for their establishment is the SCHENGEN3/GASSHO1 (SGN3/GSO1) receptor-like kinase. Its loss of function causes discontinuous Casparian strips. SGN3 also mediates endodermal overlignification of other Casparian strip mutants. Yet, without ligand, SGN3 function remained elusive. Here we report that schengen2 (sgn2) is defective in an enzyme sulfating peptide ligands...
January 20, 2017: Science
Huan Feng, Yu Qian, J Kirk Cochran, Qingzhi Zhu, Wen Hu, Hanfei Yan, Li Li, Xiaojing Huang, Yong S Chu, Houjun Liu, Shinjae Yoo, Chang-Jun Liu
This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
María Fernández-Marcos, Bénédicte Desvoyes, Concepción Manzano, Louisa M Liberman, Philip N Benfey, Juan C Del Pozo, Crisanto Gutierrez
Root branching in plants relies on the de novo formation of lateral roots. These are initiated from founder cells, triggering new formative divisions that generate lateral root primordia (LRP). The LRP size and shape depends on the balance between positive and negative signals that control cell proliferation. The mechanisms controlling proliferation potential of LRP cells remains poorly understood. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana MYB36, which have been previously shown to regulate genes required for Casparian strip formation and the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the primary root, plays a new role in controlling LRP development at later stages...
January 2017: New Phytologist
Dan Yu, Fangfang Bu, Jiaojiao Hou, Yongxiang Kang, Zhongdong Yu
A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Deyang Xu, Franziska S Hanschen, Katja Witzel, Sebastian J Nintemann, Hussam Hassan Nour-Eldin, Monika Schreiner, Barbara Ann Halkier
Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study the transport routes of plant-derived metabolites from the site of synthesis to the rhizosphere. Analysing the expression of GLS synthetic genes in the root indicate that the stele is the major site for the synthesis of aliphatic GLS, whereas indole GLS can be synthesized in both the stele and the cortex...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marc Somssich, Ghazanfar Abbas Khan, Staffan Persson
Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marie Barberon
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Plant roots forage the soil for nutrients and transport them upwards to the aerial parts. Nutrients entering the plant are transported through the concentric layers of epidermis, cortex and endodermis before reaching the central vasculature. The endodermis is the innermost cortical cell layer that surrounds the vasculature. The endodermis forms barriers, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae, which have been assumed to play a major role in controlling nutrient acquisition...
August 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Julien Alassimone, Satoshi Fujita, Verónica G Doblas, Maritza van Dop, Marie Barberon, Lothar Kalmbach, Joop E M Vermeer, Nelson Rojas-Murcia, Luca Santuari, Christian S Hardtke, Niko Geldner
Casparian strips are precisely localized and aligned ring-like cell wall modifications in the root of all higher plants. They set up an extracellular diffusion barrier analogous to animal tight junctions, and are crucial for maintaining the homeostatic capacity of plant roots. Casparian strips become localized because of the formation of a highly stable plasma membrane domain, consisting of a family of small transmembrane proteins called Casparian strip membrane domain proteins (CASPs). Here we report a large-scale forward genetic screen directly visualizing endodermal barrier function, which allowed us to identify factors required for the formation and integrity of Casparian strips...
2016: Nature Plants
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mitsuru Fukuda, Hiroko Noda, Isao Toyosawa
A part of cell walls in soybean aleurone layers remained undigested after pectinase and cellulase treatments, and the features of the undigested cell walls were similar to those of Casparian strips. Glycine-rich polypeptides (GRPP) were extracted with 0.4 n NaOH from the undigested cell walls, Casparian strip-like tissues. Approximately 6.5-kDa GRPP obtained by gel-permeation chromatography from the extract was purified by anion-exchange HPLC and reverse-phase HPLC. The major amino acids of GRPP were glycine (69%) and serine (13%)...
January 1997: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Philip N Benfey
The molecular events that control the progression from stem cells to differentiated tissue are largely unknown. The root of Arabidopsis is an excellent model to study this process, as cells at every stage of development are present at all times. A network that involves the mobile transcription factor, SHORT-ROOT, controls the asymmetric division of the stem cell that gives rise to endodermis and cortex. After initially interacting with another transcription factor, SCARECROW (SCR), together they activate a D-type cyclin, which specifically regulates this asymmetric cell division...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
María Julieta Salazar, Judith Hebelen Rodriguez, Carolina Vergara Cid, María Luisa Pignata
The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Akimasa Sasaki, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
One of the most important roles of plant roots is to take up essential mineral nutrients from the soil for use in plant growth and development. The uptake of mineral elements is mediated by various transporters belonging to different transporter families. Here we reviewed transporters for the uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients identified in rice, an important staple food for half of the world's population. Rice roots are characterized by having two Casparian strips on the exodermis and endodermis and by the formation of aerenchyma in the mature root zone...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marie Barberon, Joop Engelbertus Martinus Vermeer, Damien De Bellis, Peng Wang, Sadaf Naseer, Tonni Grube Andersen, Bruno Martin Humbel, Christiane Nawrath, Junpei Takano, David Edward Salt, Niko Geldner
Plant roots forage the soil for minerals whose concentrations can be orders of magnitude away from those required for plant cell function. Selective uptake in multicellular organisms critically requires epithelia with extracellular diffusion barriers. In plants, such a barrier is provided by the endodermis and its Casparian strips--cell wall impregnations analogous to animal tight and adherens junctions. Interestingly, the endodermis undergoes secondary differentiation, becoming coated with hydrophobic suberin, presumably switching from an actively absorbing to a protective epithelium...
January 28, 2016: Cell
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