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Translational science

Christopher W Mangieri, Jason C McCartt, Matthew A Strode, John E Lowry, Prasad M Balakrishna
BACKGROUND: As hepatic surgery has become safer and more commonly performed, the extent of hepatic resections has increased. When there is not enough expected hepatic reserve to facilitate primary resection of hepatic tumors, a clinical adjunct to facilitating primary resection is portal vein embolization (PVE). PVE allows the hepatic remnant to increase to an appropriate size prior to resection via hepatocyte regeneration; however, PVE is not always successful in facilitating adequate regeneration...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Nicholas W Gilpin, Jeff L Weiner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly co-morbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of co-morbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on co-morbid PTSD and AUD: we summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this co-morbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD, and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Gary P Anderson
In recent years, thousands of publications on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its related biology have entered the world literature, reflecting the increasing scientific and medical interest in this devastating condition. This article is a selective review of several important emerging themes that offer the hope of creating new classes of COPD medicines. Whereas basic science is parsing molecular pathways in COPD, its comorbidities, and asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) with unprecedented sophistication, clinical translation is disappointingly slow...
2016: F1000Research
Kevin Patrick, Eric B Hekler, Deborah Estrin, David C Mohr, Heleen Riper, David Crane, Job Godino, William T Riley
This paper addresses the rapid pace of change in the technologies that support digital interventions; the complexity of the health problems they aim to address; and the adaptation of scientific methods to accommodate the volume, velocity, and variety of data and interventions possible from these technologies. Information, communication, and computing technologies are now part of every societal domain and support essentially every facet of human activity. Ubiquitous computing, a vision articulated fewer than 30 years ago, has now arrived...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sufian S Ahmad, Johannes C Meyer, Anna M Krismer, Suhaib S Ahmad, Dimitrios S Evangelopoulos, Sven Hoppe, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: Clinical research in the area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has shown substantial growth during the last decade. This was accompanied by the establishment of a wide range of outcome measures used to address the demands of clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome measures reported by highly cited level I trials in ACL research and identify factors influencing citation metrics. METHODS: The database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was utilized to screen journals under the subject categories "Orthopaedics", "Sports Sciences", "Radiology" and "General medicine" for the 50 most cited level I ACL trials based on predefined inclusion criteria...
October 14, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Verena M Schreiber, Susan S Jordan, Gregory A Bonci, James J Irrgang, Freddie H Fu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse early post-operative range of motion (ROM) as our anatomic double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate (ACL) reconstruction technique with respect to tunnel placement evolved. It is the hypothesis of this study that more anatomic placement of the femoral insertion site of the anteromedial (AM) bundle of the ACL results in better restoration of early post-operative knee range of motion. METHODS: Two methods of DB ACL reconstruction regarding more accurate placement of the femoral AM tunnel in relation to its anatomic origin were compared...
October 14, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Chad Giusti, Lia Papadopoulos, Eli T Owens, Karen E Daniels, Danielle S Bassett
Developing quantitative methods for characterizing structural properties of force chains in densely packed granular media is an important step toward understanding or predicting large-scale physical properties of a packing. A promising framework in which to develop such methods is network science, which can be used to translate particle locations and force contacts into a graph in which particles are represented by nodes and forces between particles are represented by weighted edges. Recent work applying network-based community-detection techniques to extract force chains opens the door to developing statistics of force-chain structure, with the goal of identifying geometric and topological differences across packings, and providing a foundation on which to build predictions of bulk material properties from mesoscale network features...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
P S Sidhu
In these days of political vagueness, to use a kinder term, although many would describe the situation as turmoil, in Europe, there are success stories to be lauded. Notwithstanding the direction individual countries choose in relation to closer or not so close co-operation in Europe and the direction the political agenda will travel over the next few years, I believe science and in particular medicine has benefited enormously form close co-operation across the European Union and with colleagues outside this political and trading block of nations...
October 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Tim Aitman, Paraminder Dhillon, Aron M Geurts
Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Louise Hull, Thanos Athanasiou, Stephanie Russ
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to emphasize the importance of implementation science in understanding why efforts to integrate evidence-based interventions into surgical practice frequently fail to replicate the improvements reported in early research studies. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Over the past 2 decades, numerous patient safety initiatives have been developed to improve the quality and safety of surgical care. The surgical community is now faced with translating "promising" initiatives from the research environment into clinical practice-the World Health Organization (WHO) has described this task as one of the greatest challenges facing the global health community and has identified the importance of implementation science in scaling up evidence-based interventions...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Camille Yip, Nian-Lin Reena Han, Ban Leong Sng
Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Daniel J Fairbanks, Scott Abbott
Gregor Mendel's classic paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybrids), was published in 1866, hence 2016 is its sesquicentennial. Mendel completed his experiments in 1863 and shortly thereafter began compiling the results and writing his paper, which he presented in meetings of the Natural Science Society in Brünn in February and March of 1865. Mendel owned a personal copy of Darwin's Origin of Species, a German translation published in 1863, and it contains his marginalia. Its publication date indicates that Mendel's study of Darwin's book could have had no influence while he was conducting his experiments but its publication date coincided with the period of time when he was preparing his paper, making it possible that Darwin's writings influenced Mendel's interpretations and theory...
October 2016: Genetics
José Eduardo Vargas, Leonardo Chicaybam, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Amilcar Tanuri, Andrés Delgado-Cañedo, Martin H Bonamino
Gene therapy protocols require robust and long-term gene expression. For two decades, retrovirus family vectors have offered several attractive properties as stable gene-delivery vehicles. These vectors represent a technology with widespread use in basic biology and translational studies that require persistent gene expression for treatment of several monogenic diseases. Immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis represent the main obstacles to a wider clinical use of these vectors. Efficient and safe non-viral vectors are emerging as a promising alternative and facilitate clinical gene therapy studies...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Joseph M DeSimone, Sue J Mecham, Crista L Farrell
This article was written to shed light on a series of what some have stated are not so obvious connections that link polymer synthesis in supercritical CO2 to cancer treatment and vaccines, nonflammable polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, and 3D printing. In telling this story, we also attempt to show the value of versatility in applying one's primary area of expertise to address pertinent questions in science and in society. In this Outlook, we attempted to identify key factors to enable a versatile and nimble research effort to take shape in an effort to influence diverse fields and have a tangible impact in the private sector through the translation of discoveries into the marketplace...
September 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
J Mc Sharry, P J Murphy, M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Decreased sexual activity and sexual problems are common among people with cardiovascular disease, negatively impacting relationship satisfaction and quality of life. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of sexual counselling to cardiac patients. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) baseline study in Ireland found, similar to international findings, limited implementation of sexual counselling guidelines in practice. The aim of the current study was to develop the CHARMS multi-level intervention to increase delivery of sexual counselling by healthcare professionals...
October 10, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Keymanthri Moodley, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are precariously situated at the intersection of science, genetics, genomics, society, ethics, the law and politics. This multi-disciplinarity has given rise to a new discourse in health research involving diverse stakeholders. Each stakeholder is embedded in a unique context and articulates his/her biobanking activities differently. To researchers, biobanks carry enormous transformative potential in terms of advancing scientific discovery and knowledge. However, in the context of power asymmetries in Africa and a distrust in science born out of historical exploitation, researchers must balance the scientific imperative of collecting, storing and sharing high quality biological samples with obligations to donors/participants, communities, international collaborators, regulatory and ethics authorities...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Stuart P McElroy, Philip S Jones, Denise V Barrault
With industry increasingly sourcing preclinical drug discovery projects from academia it is important that new academic discoveries are enabled through translation with HTS-ready assays. However, many scientifically interesting, novel molecular targets lack associated high-quality, robust assays suitable for hit finding and development. To bridge this gap, the Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) established a fund to develop assays to meet quality criteria such as those of the European Lead Factory...
October 5, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
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