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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930027/autochthonous-transmission-of-east-central-south-african-genotype-chikungunya-virus-brazil
#1
Marcela S Cunha, Nádia V G Cruz, Laila C Schnellrath, Maria Luiza Gomes Medaglia, Michele E Casotto, Rodolpho M Albano, Luciana J Costa, Clarissa R Damaso
We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921550/sugars-from-woody-tissue-photosynthesis-reduce-xylem-vulnerability-to-cavitation
#2
Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Roberto Luis Salomón, Linus De Roo, Kathy Steppe
Reassimilation of internal CO2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919920/virulence-determinants-of-west-nile-virus-how-can-these-be-used-for-vaccine-design
#3
REVIEW
Jaclyn A Kaiser, Tian Wang, Alan Dt Barrett
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become endemic in the USA and parts of Europe since 1999. There is no licensed WNV vaccine for humans. Considering the robust immunity from immunization with live, attenuated vaccines, a live WNV vaccine is an ideal platform for disease control. Animal and mosquito studies have identified a number of candidate attenuating mutations, including the structural proteins premembrane/membrane and envelope, and the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2A, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5, and the 3' UTR...
May 2017: Future Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904127/therapeutic-effects-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-dengue-virus-ns1-in-a-stat1-knockout-mouse-model-of-dengue-infection
#4
Shu-Wen Wan, Pei-Wei Chen, Chin-Yu Chen, Yen-Chung Lai, Ya-Ting Chu, Chia-Yi Hung, Han Lee, Hsuan Franziska Wu, Yung-Chun Chuang, Jessica Lin, Chih-Peng Chang, Shuying Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Chiou-Feng Lin, Chien-Kuo Lee, Betty A Wu-Hsieh, Robert Anderson, Trai-Ming Yeh, Yee-Shin Lin
Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome and is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Our previous studies showed the existence of epitopes in the C-terminal region of DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) which are cross-reactive with host Ags and trigger anti-DENV NS1 Ab-mediated endothelial cell damage and platelet dysfunction. To circumvent these potentially harmful events, we replaced the C-terminal region of DENV NS1 with the corresponding region from Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 to create chimeric DJ NS1 protein...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893180/annexin-a2-anxa2-interacts-with-nonstructural-protein-1-and-promotes-the-replication-of-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus
#5
Yong Ma, Jiashan Sun, Linlin Gu, Hongmei Bao, Yuhui Zhao, Lin Shi, Wei Yao, Guobin Tian, Xiurong Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host...
September 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890396/mir-525-3p-mediates-antiviral-defense-to-rotavirus-infection-by-targeting-nonstructural-protein-1
#6
Zhiqiang Tian, Ji Zhang, Haiyang He, Jintao Li, Yuzhang Wu, Zigang Shen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA stability or translation. They play critical roles in intricate networks of host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of cellular miRNAs during RV (human Wa RV or Rhesus RV) strain infection. Twenty-nine differentially regulated miRNAs were identified during RV infection, and miR-525-3p was downregulated and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887788/the-clinical-and-serological-profile-of-pediatric-dengue
#7
Sujatha Ramabhatta, Saravanan Palaniappan, Navya Hanumantharayappa, Shaik Vajidunnisa Begum
OBJECTIVE: To classify suspected dengue into dengue, dengue with warning signs and severe dengue, based on clinical features as per the revised WHO guidelines with special emphasis on serology. METHODS: It was a prospective cross-sectional study for five years from 2011-2016 in a tertiary care medical college hospital in Bangalore. All cases of fever of three to five days duration with symptoms like dengue were enrolled for the study. They were categorized into three groups as per the Revised WHO 2012 criteria...
September 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882564/searching-for-synergy-identifying-optimal-antiviral-combination-therapy-using-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-agents-in-a-replicon-system
#8
Justin J Pomeroy, George L Drusano, Jaime L Rodriquez, Ashley N Brown
Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are potent inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that have revolutionized the treatment landscape for this important viral disease. There are currently four classes of DAAs that inhibit HCV replication via distinct mechanisms of action: nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4a protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors. Combination therapy with two or more DAAs has great potential to further enhance antiviral potency...
September 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876240/crystal-structures-of-the-methyltransferase-and-helicase-from-the-zika-1947-mr766-uganda-strain
#9
Malgorzata Bukrejewska, Urszula Derewenda, Malwina Radwanska, Daniel A Engel, Zygmunt S Derewenda
Two nonstructural proteins encoded by Zika virus strain MR766 RNA, a methyltransferase and a helicase, were crystallized and their structures were solved and refined at 2.10 and 2.01 Å resolution, respectively. The NS5 methyltransferase contains a bound S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) co-substrate. The NS3 helicase is in the apo form. Comparison with published crystal structures of the helicase in the apo, nucleotide-bound and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-bound states suggests that binding of ssRNA to the helicase may occur through conformational selection rather than induced fit...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875696/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-based-sandwich-immunoassays-for-multiplexed-detection-of-zika-and-dengue-viral-biomarkers
#10
Maria Sánchez-Purrà, Marc Carré-Camps, Helena de Puig, Irene Bosch, Lee Gehrke, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli
Zika and dengue are mosquito-borne diseases that present similar nonspecific symptoms but possess dramatically different outcomes. The first line of defense in epidemic outbreaks are rapid point-of-care diagnostics. Because many outbreaks occur in areas that are resource poor, assays that are easy to use, inexpensive, and require no power have become invaluable in patient treatment, quarantining, and surveillance. Paper-based sandwich immunoassays such as lateral flow assays (LFAs) are attractive as point-of-care solutions as they have the potential for wider deployability than lab-based assays such as PCR...
September 6, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874549/molecular-basis-of-mammalian-transmissibility-of-avian-h1n1-influenza-viruses-and-their-pandemic-potential
#11
Mark Zanin, Sook-San Wong, Subrata Barman, Challika Kaewborisuth, Peter Vogel, Adam Rubrum, Daniel Darnell, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
North American wild birds are an important reservoir of influenza A viruses, yet the potential of viruses in this reservoir to transmit and cause disease in mammals is not well understood. Our surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) at Delaware Bay, USA, revealed a group of similar H1N1 AIVs isolated in 2009, some of which were airborne-transmissible in the ferret model without prior adaptation. Comparison of the genomes of these viruses revealed genetic markers of airborne transmissibility in the Polymerase Basic 2 (PB2), PB1, PB1-F2, Polymerase Acidic-X (PA-X), Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1), and Nuclear Export Protein (NEP) genes...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860453/phenology-dependent-variation-in-the-non-structural-carbohydrates-of-broadleaf-evergreen-species-plays-an-important-role-in-determining-tolerance-to-defoliation-or-herbivory
#12
Zhicheng Chen, Lin Wang, Yongxin Dai, Xianchong Wan, Shirong Liu
Two broadleaf evergreen canopy species (Schima superba and Engelhardia roxburghiana) with different phenologies in a subtropical region of southern China were used to determine the influence of leaf phenology on the impact of an insect pest attack. S. superba regenerates its leaves in February, while E. roxburghiana regenerates its leaves in May. The moth Thalassodes quadraria attacked the two broadleaf evergreen species in March to April, and the newly produced leaves were removed for S. superba but not for E...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854955/identification-of-two-mutation-sites-in-spike-and-envelope-proteins-mediating-optimal-cellular-infection-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-from-different-pathways
#13
Min Sun, Jiale Ma, Zeyanqiu Yu, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Entry of the α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) requires specific proteases to activate spike (S) protein for the membrane fusion of the virion to the host cell following receptor binding. Herein, PEDV isolate 85-7 could proliferate and induce cell-cell fusion in a trypsin independent manner on Vero cells, and eight homologous mutation strains were screened by continuous proliferation in the absence of trypsin on Vero cells. According to the whole genome sequence comparative analysis, we identified four major variations located in nonstructural protein 2, S, open reading frame 3, and envelope (E) genes, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853260/-effect-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-nsp1-on-type-%C3%A2-interferon-response
#14
Xiaoxue Wang, Hongjie Li, Yongtao Li, Dongsheng Gao, Lu Chen, Hongtao Chang, Hongying Liu, Chuanqing Wang, Jun Zhao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inhibits the host typeⅠinterferon and cellular antiviral response, but its inhibition mechanism is unclear, and the roles of PEDV nonstructural proteins in regulating typeⅠinterferon responses have been seldom studied. To study the effect of nsp1 on typeⅠinterferon response, nsp1 gene was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pCAGGS. The expression of nsp1 in transfected cells was determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The effects of nsp1 on the induction of typeⅠinterferon were evaluated by dual luciferase reporter gene assay, ELISA and VSV bioassay...
August 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852929/n-pro-his49-and-e-rns-lys412-mutations-in-pig-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-2-synergistically-enhance-the-cellular-antiviral-response
#15
Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Jinghua Chen, Chunling Zhang, Yufei Ma, Guoqiang Zhu, Huili Liu
Type I interferons are major components of the innate immune response of hosts, and accordingly, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to modulate the host response during infection. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) nonstructural protein N(pro) and structural protein E(rns) play important roles in inhibiting type I interferon. The aim of this study was to explore the epistatic effects of amino acid mutations in N(pro) and E(rns) in porcine ST cells to characterize the immune response induced by BVDV-2. Plasmids with mutant amino acids His49 (H49), Glu22 (E22) in N(pro), and His300 (H300), Lys412 (K412) in E(rns) which had been changed to Alanine (A) had similar effects on type I interferon production in MDBK and ST cells, but resulted in much greater ISG15, OAS, and Mx production in ST cells...
August 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852124/oxidative-stress-and-immune-responses-during-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-tupaia-belangeri
#16
Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh, Sayeh Ezzikouri, Takahiro Sanada, Haiying Chi, Yukiko Hayashi, Khadija Rebbani, Bouchra Kitab, Aya Matsuu, Noriaki Miyoshi, Tsunekazu Hishima, Michinori Kohara, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To address the molecular basis of HCV pathogenesis using tupaias (Tupaia belangeri), we characterized host responses upon HCV infection. Adult tupaias were infected with HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, or 4a. Viral RNA, alanine aminotransferase, anti-HCV core and anti-nonstructural protein NS3 antibody titres, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-3β-hydroxysterol-Δ24reductase (DHCR24) antibody levels were measured at 2-week intervals from 0 to 41 weeks postinfection...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851847/rotavirus-nsp1-requires-casein-kinase-ii-mediated-phosphorylation-for-hijacking-of-cullin-ring-ligases
#17
Kaitlin A Davis, Marco Morelli, John T Patton
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 repurposes cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) to antagonize innate immune responses. By functioning as substrate adaptors of hijacked CRLs, NSP1 causes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of host proteins that are essential for expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene products. The target of most human and porcine rotaviruses is the β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), a regulator of NF-κB activation. β-TrCP recognizes a phosphorylated degron (DSGΦXS) present in the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB); phosphorylation of the IκB degron is mediated by IκB kinase (IKK)...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835495/the-uncoupling-of-protease-trans-cleavage-and-helicase-activities-in-the-pestivirus-ns3
#18
Fengwei Zheng, Guoliang Lu, Ling Li, Peng Gong, Zishu Pan
The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multi-functional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at 2.35 Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2200-Å(2) intra-molecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a "closed" global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis-cleavage event...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833932/nonstructural-protein-5a-ns5a-resistance-profile-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treated-with-ledipasvir-containing-regimens-without-sofosbuvir
#19
Kathryn M Kitrinos, Amoreena C Corsa, Angela Worth, Charlotte Hedskog, Diana Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of baseline hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) on sustained virologic response to ledipasvir (LDV)-containing regimens in the absence of sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1 infection across 6 phase 2 clinical studies. We analyzed data from 1103 patients who received either LDV+vedroprevir (NS3 PI)+tegobuvir (NS5B inhibitor)±ribavirin or LDV+ribavirin+pegylated interferon. Population sequencing of HCV NS5A was performed at baseline and at virologic failure from patient plasma samples...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820725/understanding-hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-clinical-implications-for-current-and-future-regimens
#20
David L Wyles, Anne F Luetkemeyer
Viral resistance to direct-acting antiviral drugs may impact their effectiveness during treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Most data on HCV drug resistance concern genotypes 1 and 3. The clinical impact of resistance to HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors and a practical approach to indications and methods for resistance testing are discussed.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
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