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Chen Ding, Ting-Kui Wu, Quan Gong, Tao Li, Li-Tai Ma, Bei-Yu Wang, Yu-Xiao Deng, Hao Liu
Lower cervical dislocations are often missed at the time of initial injury for several reasons. The treatment of old facet dislocations of the lower cervical spine is difficult, and the optimal method has not been established. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a surgical technique, anterior release, and nonstructural bone grafting combined with posterior fixation, for the treatment of old lower cervical dislocations with locked facets.This was a retrospective study of 17 patients (13 men and 4 women) with old facet dislocations, who underwent the same surgical treatment at our hospital between April 2010 and January 2016...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shameem Bhatti, Sobia Manzoor, Fahed Parvaiz, Javed Ashraf, Farakh Javed
Objective: Mutations in HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) play a vital role in virus resistance. The aim of this study was to develop a correlation between NS5A mutations (genotype 3a) and virological response towards interferon alpha (IFN-α) plus ribavirin therapy. Methods: In this study, which was conducted from 09-02-2013 to 25-11-2015 in the rural area of Province Sindh - Pakistan, total patients' responses to peg-IFN therapy were investigated. Patients were given peg-IFN therapy for 24 to 48 weeks and categorized as sustained virologic responders (SVR) or non-responders (NR) to HCV infection...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Dustin R Glasner, Kalani Ratnasiri, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Diego A Espinosa, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent, medically important mosquito-borne virus. Disease ranges from uncomplicated dengue to life-threatening disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induces endothelial hyperpermeability in a systemic mouse model and human pulmonary endothelial cells, where NS1 disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx-like layer. NS1 also triggers release of inflammatory cytokines from PBMCs via TLR4...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Kevin W Graepel, Xiaotao Lu, James Brett Case, Nicole R Sexton, Everett Clinton Smith, Mark R Denison
The coronavirus (CoV) RNA genome is the largest among the single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. CoVs encode a proofreading 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease within nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14-ExoN) that is responsible for CoV high-fidelity replication. Alanine substitution of ExoN catalytic residues [ExoN(-)] in severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) disrupts ExoN activity, yielding viable mutant viruses with defective replication, up to 20-fold-decreased fidelity, and increased susceptibility to nucleoside analogues...
November 7, 2017: MBio
Michael Ribaudo, Sailen Barik
BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN) inhibits viruses by inducing several hundred cellular genes, aptly named 'interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes' (ISGs). The only two RNA viruses of the Pneumovirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM), each encode two nonstructural (NS) proteins that share no sequence similarity but yet suppress IFN. Since suppression of IFN underlies the ability of these viruses to replicate in the host cells, the mechanism of such suppression has become an important area of research...
November 6, 2017: Virology Journal
Daniel Ramos-Aviña, Alejandro Plascencia, Richard Zinn
Objective: Since very little information exist about the topic; in this experiment we compare, in a long-term finishing program, the growth-performance responses and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers where non-structural carbohydrate concentration of the diet is reduced from 64 to 51% (DM basis). Method: Sixty Holstein steer calves (129 ±2.2 kg) were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% (HF) or 64% (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Betina B Hinckel, Andreas H Gomoll, Jack Farr
Although patellofemoral (PF) chondral lesions are common, the presence of a cartilage lesion does not implicate a chondral lesion as the sole source of pain. As attributing PF pain to a chondral lesion is "diagnosis by exclusion," thorough assessment of all potential structural and nonstructural sources of pain is the key to proper management. Commonly, multiple factors contribute to a patient's symptoms. Each comorbidity must be identified and addressed, and the cartilage lesion treatment determined. Comprehensive preoperative assessment is essential and should include a thorough "core-to-floor" physical examination...
September 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Shengliang Cao, Xinna Cai, Min Tan, Fachao Sun, Yuchao Wang, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu, Yihong Xiao
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Typically, an N protein-coated indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (N-coated iELISA) is used to detect PRRSV antibodies. Non-structural protein (NSP) 4 is essential to the PRRSV life cycle and contains B-cell epitopes. Yet, no specific antibody against NSP4 has been detected in clinical samples. In this study, we developed an NSP4-coated iELISA and compared its effectiveness with the N-coated iELISA...
November 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
Iqra Qaddir, Nouman Rasool, Waqar Hussain, Sajid Mahmood
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dengue fever, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has become a serious threat to human lives. Phytochemicals are known to have great potential to eradicate viral, bacterial and fungal-borne diseases in human beings. This study was aimed at in silico drug development against nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) of dengue virus 4 (DENV4). METHODS: A total of 2750 phytochemicals from different medicinal plants were selected for this study. These plants grow naturally in the climate of Pakistan and India and have been used for the treatment of various pathologies in human for long-time...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Albert G M van Geelen, Tavis K Anderson, Kelly M Lager, Phani B Das, Nicholas J Otis, Nestor A Montiel, Laura C Miller, Vikas Kulshreshtha, Alexandra C Buckley, Susan L Brockmeier, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Kay S Faaberg
Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swine-herds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) of 1-7-4. The genome diversity of seventeen of these viruses (81.4% to 99.8% identical; collected 2013-2015) and the pathogenicity of 4 representative viruses were compared to that of SDSU73, a known moderately virulent strain...
October 30, 2017: Virology
Lin-Jian Wang, Bo Wan, Zhenhua Guo, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Gaiping Zhang
Recently, NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), which are genetically similar to the NADC30 strain isolated in the United States of America in 2008, have become prevalent in China. Here, a novel variant PRRSV strain named HNhx was successfully isolated on porcine alveolar macrophages from Henan province and the full-length genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HNhx strain was classified into the NADC30-like PRRSV subgroup, in which all the strains had the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion relative to that of the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) of the VR2332 strain...
November 1, 2017: Virus Genes
Koichi Honda, Masataka Seike, Junya Oribe, Mizuki Endo, Mie Arakawa, Masanori Tokoro, Masao Iwao, Tetsu Mori, Junko Nishimura, Yukou Takahashi, Kaoru Omori, Tsutomu Yamashita, Toyokichi Muro, Kazunari Murakami
BACKGROUND & AIMS: PCR-Invader is a highly sensitive assay for detecting nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) resistance-associated variants (RAVs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we validated the accuracy of the semiquantitative PCR-Invader (SQ-PI) assay compared to direct sequencing (DS) for identifying NS5A RAVs, and we evaluated the treatment efficacy of daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV+ASV) for patients judged to be nonpositive for NS5A RAVs by SQ-PI. METHODS: Detection rates of NS5A RAVs by SQ-PI and DS were compared for 204 patients with HCV genotype 1b...
October 28, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Mirko Cortese, Inés Romero-Brey, Zach Menne, Thibault Tubiana, Christian Schenk, Peter A White, Ralf Bartenschlager, Stéphane Bressanelli, Grant S Hansman, Volker Lohmann
Human noroviruses (huNoV) are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) variants. The viral nonstructural (NS) proteins encoded by the ORF1 polyprotein induce vesical clusters harboring the viral replication sites. Little is known so far about the ultrastructure of these replication organelles or the contribution of individual NS proteins to their biogenesis. We compared the ultrastructural changes induced by expression of norovirus ORF1 polyproteins with those induced upon infection with murine norovirus (MNV)...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Han Di, Joseph C Madden, Esther K Morantz, Hsin-Yao Tang, Rachel L Graham, Ralph S Baric, Margo A Brinton
Members of the order Nidovirales express their structural protein ORFs from a nested set of 3' subgenomic mRNAs (sg mRNAs), and for most of these ORFs, a single genomic transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) was identified. Nine TRSs were previously reported for the arterivirus Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). In the present study, which was facilitated by next-generation sequencing, 96 SHFV body TRSs were identified that were functional in both infected MA104 cells and macaque macrophages. The abundance of sg mRNAs produced from individual TRSs was consistent over time in the two different cell types...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ting Zhou, Xiaoming Ren, Rebecca L Adams, Anna Marie Pyle
Hepatitis C viruses (HCV) encode a helicase enzyme that is essential for viral replication and assembly (NS3). This helicase has become the focus of extensive basic research on general helicase mechanism and it is also of interest as a novel drug target. Despite the importance of this protein, mechanistic work on NS3 has been conducted almost exclusively on variants from HCV genotype 1. Our understanding of NS3 from the highly active HCV strains that are used to study HCV genetics and mechanism in cell culture (such as JFH-1) is lacking...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
Jun Liang, Xuemei Xian, Xiaojun He, Meifang Xu, Sheng Dai, Jun'yi Xin, Jie Xu, Jian Yu, Jianbo Lei
Medical entity recognition, a basic task in the language processing of clinical data, has been extensively studied in analyzing admission notes in alphabetic languages such as English. However, much less work has been done on nonstructural texts that are written in Chinese, or in the setting of differentiation of Chinese drug names between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Here, we propose a novel cascade-type Chinese medication entity recognition approach that aims at integrating the sentence category classifier from a support vector machine and the conditional random field-based medication entity recognition...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Sarah A Warby, Jon J Ford, Andrew J Hahne, Lyn Watson, Simon Balster, Ross Lenssen, Tania Pizzari
BACKGROUND: The recommended initial treatment for multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder is a rehabilitation program, yet there is very low-quality evidence to support this approach. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the Watson MDI program and Rockwood Instability program among patients with nontraumatic, nonstructural MDI. The hypothesis was that the Watson MDI program would produce clinically and statistically superior outcomes over the Rockwood Instability program...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Nelleke M Korteland, Jonathan R G Etnel, Bardia Arabkhani, M Mostafa Mokhles, Arezo Mohamad, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg
Aims: To support decision-making regarding prosthetic valve selection in non-elderly adults, we aim to provide a detailed overview of outcome after contemporary mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods and results: A systematic review was conducted for papers reporting clinical outcome after AVR with bileaflet mechanical valves with a mean patient age ≥18 and ≤55 years, published between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. Through meta-analysis outcomes were pooled and entered into a microsimulation model to calculate (event-free) life expectancy and lifetime event risk...
May 10, 2017: European Heart Journal
Mukesh Bhatt, Jajati K Mohapatra, Laxmi K Pandey, Nihar N Mohanty, Biswajit Das, Bikash R Prusty, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Inactivated purified whole virus vaccines are used for control of foot and mouth disease (FMD). ELISAs detecting antibodies to the nonstructural proteins (NSP), a marker of infection, are primarily used to differentiate FMD virus (FMDV) infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). However, such DIVA assays have a limitation to their specificity since residual NSPs present in the relatively impure vaccines are suspected to induce an NSP-antibody response in the repeatedly vaccinated animals. Epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy seems to have an advantage over the conventional vaccines in identifying the infected animals with accuracy...
October 14, 2017: Virus Research
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
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