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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#1
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755375/ion-channels-as-reporters-of-membrane-receptor-function-automated-analysis-in-xenopus-oocytes
#2
Michel Vivaudou, Zlatomir Todorov, Gina Catalina Reyes-Mejia, Christophe Moreau
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the most widely used system of communication used by cells. They sense external signals and translate them into intracellular signals. The information is carried mechanically across the cell membrane, without perturbing its integrity. Agonist binding on the extracellular side causes a change in receptor conformation which propagates to the intracellular side and causes release of activated G-proteins, the first messengers of a variety of signaling cascades.Permitting access to powerful electrophysiological techniques, ion channels can be employed to monitor precisely the most proximal steps of GPCR signaling, receptor conformational changes, and G-protein release...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733581/structural-determinants-at-the-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulate-the-rgs4-girk-response-to-pilocarpine-by-impairment-of-the-receptor-voltage-sensitivity
#3
I-Shan Chen, Kazuharu Furutani, Yoshihisa Kurachi
Membrane potential controls the response of the M2 muscarinic receptor to its ligands. Membrane hyperpolarization increases response to the full agonist acetylcholine (ACh) while decreasing response to the partial agonist pilocarpine. We previously have demonstrated that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) 4 protein discriminates between the voltage-dependent responses of ACh and pilocarpine; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that RGS4 is involved in the voltage-dependent behavior of the M2 muscarinic receptor-mediated signaling in response to pilocarpine...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724990/large-meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies-identifies-five-loci-for-lean-body-mass
#4
M Carola Zillikens, Serkalem Demissie, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Wen-Chi Chou, Lisette Stolk, Gregory Livshits, Linda Broer, Toby Johnson, Daniel L Koller, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Ida Malkin, Janina S Ried, Albert V Smith, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jing Hua Zhao, Weihua Zhang, Ali Aghdassi, Kristina Åkesson, Najaf Amin, Leslie J Baier, Inês Barroso, David A Bennett, Lars Bertram, Rainer Biffar, Murielle Bochud, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Aron S Buchman, Liisa Byberg, Harry Campbell, Natalia Campos Obanda, Jane A Cauley, Peggy M Cawthon, Henna Cederberg, Zhao Chen, Nam H Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Melina Claussnitzer, Francis Collins, Steven R Cummings, Philip L De Jager, Ilja Demuth, Rosalie A M Dhonukshe-Rutten, Luda Diatchenko, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Anke W Enneman, Mike Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Joel Eriksson, Karol Estrada, Daniel S Evans, Mary F Feitosa, Mao Fu, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Thomas Girke, Nicole L Glazer, Harald Grallert, Jagvir Grewal, Bok-Ghee Han, Robert L Hanson, Caroline Hayward, Albert Hofman, Eric P Hoffman, Georg Homuth, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Monica J Hubal, Alan Hubbard, Kim M Huffman, Lise B Husted, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Till Ittermann, John-Olov Jansson, Joanne M Jordan, Antti Jula, Magnus Karlsson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Norman Klopp, Jacqueline S L Kloth, Heikki A Koistinen, William E Kraus, Stephen Kritchevsky, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Jari Lahti, Thomas Lang, Bente L Langdahl, Lenore J Launer, Jong-Young Lee, Markus M Lerch, Joshua R Lewis, Lars Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Yongmei Liu, Tian Liu, Youfang Liu, Östen Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N Luben, William Maixner, Fiona E McGuigan, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Thomas Meitinger, Håkan Melhus, Dan Mellström, Simon Melov, Karl Michaëlsson, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Leif Mosekilde, Anne Newman, Carrie M Nielson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ben A Oostra, Eric S Orwoll, Aarno Palotie, Stephan Parker, Munro Peacock, Markus Perola, Annette Peters, Ozren Polasek, Richard L Prince, Katri Räikkönen, Stuart H Ralston, Samuli Ripatti, John A Robbins, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Suzanne Satterfield, Eric E Schadt, Sabine Schipf, Laura Scott, Joban Sehmi, Jian Shen, Chan Soo Shin, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Shad Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Alena Stančáková, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Karin M A Swart, Sian-Tsung Tan, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Patricia Thompson, Cynthia A Thomson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Gregory J Tranah, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Natasja M van Schoor, Arjun Verma, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Mark Walker, Michael N Weedon, Ryan Welch, H-Erich Wichman, Elisabeth Widen, Frances M K Williams, James F Wilson, Nicole C Wright, Weijia Xie, Lei Yu, Yanhua Zhou, John C Chambers, Angela Döring, Cornelia M van Duijn, Michael J Econs, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jaspal S Kooner, Bruce M Psaty, Timothy D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vicky Ossowski, Dawn Waterworth, Ruth J F Loos, David Karasik, Tamara B Harris, Claes Ohlsson, Douglas P Kiel
Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10(-8)) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720589/dynamic-role-of-the-tether-helix-in-pip2-dependent-gating-of-a-g-protein-gated-potassium-channel
#5
Emre Lacin, Prafulla Aryal, Ian W Glaaser, Karthik Bodhinathan, Eric Tsai, Nidaa Marsh, Stephen J Tucker, Mark S P Sansom, Paul A Slesinger
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels control neuronal excitability in the brain and are implicated in several different neurological diseases. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) is an essential cofactor for GIRK channel gating, but the precise mechanism by which PIP2 opens GIRK channels remains poorly understood. Previous structural studies have revealed several highly conserved, positively charged residues in the "tether helix" (C-linker) that interact with the negatively charged PIP2 However, these crystal structures of neuronal GIRK channels in complex with PIP2 provide only snapshots of PIP2's interaction with the channel and thus lack details about the gating transitions triggered by PIP2 binding...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715108/ivermectin-activates-girk-channels-in-a-pip2-dependent-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-independent-manner-and-an-amino-acid-residue-at-the-slide-helix-governs-the-activation
#6
I-Shan Chen, Michihiro Tateyama, Yuko Fukata, Motonari Uesugi, Yoshihiro Kubo
KEY POINTS: Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely used antiparasitic drug in humans and pets which activates glutamate-gated Cl(-) channel in parasites. It is known that IVM binds to the transmembrane domains (TMs) of several ligand-gated channels, such as Cys-loop receptors and P2X receptors. We found that the G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channel, especially GIRK2, is activated by IVM directly in a Gβγ -independent manner, but the activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2 )...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713569/kctd12-modulation-of-gaba-b-receptor-function
#7
Melody Li, Carol J Milligan, Haiyan Wang, Andrew Walker, Leonid Churilov, Andrew J Lawrence, Christopher A Reid, Seth C Hopkins, Steven Petrou
The molecular composition and functional diversity of native GABAB receptors (GABABR) are still poorly understood, thus hindering development of selective GABABR ligands. Potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein (KCTD) 12 is a GABABR auxiliary subunit and mouse KCTD12 can alter GABABR function. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of human KCTD12 on GABABR kinetics and pharmacology, using an automated electrophysiological assay. Seizure susceptibility and ethanol consumption were also investigated in a KCTD12 knockout mouse model...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697302/discovery-and-characterization-of-1h-pyrazol-5-yl-2-phenylacetamides-as-novel-non-urea-containing-girk1-2-potassium-channel-activators
#8
Joshua M Wieting, Anish K Vadukoot, Swagat H Sharma, Kristopher K Abney, Thomas M Bridges, J Scott Daniels, Ryan D Morrison, Kevin Wickman, C David Weaver, Corey R Hopkins
The G protein regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK, Kir3) are a family of inward-rectifying potassium channels, and there is significant evidence supporting the roles of GIRKs in a number of physiological processes and as potential targets for numerous indications. Previously reported urea containing molecules as GIRK1/2 preferring activators have had significant pharmacokinetic liabilities. Here we report a novel series of 1H-pyrazolo-5-yl-2-phenylacetamides in an effort to improve upon the PK properties...
July 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676630/dual-activation-of-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-girk-channels-by-cholesterol-and-alcohol
#9
Ian W Glaaser, Paul A Slesinger
Activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels leads to a hyperpolarization of the neuron's membrane potential, providing an important component of inhibition in the brain. In addition to the canonical G protein-activation pathway, GIRK channels are activated by small molecules but less is known about the underlying gating mechanisms. One drawback to previous studies has been the inability to control intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we used a reconstitution strategy with highly purified mammalian GIRK2 channels incorporated into liposomes and demonstrate that cholesterol or intoxicating concentrations of ethanol, i...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613276/genetic-loci-associated-with-heart-rate-variability-and-their-effects-on-cardiac-disease-risk
#10
Ilja M Nolte, M Loretto Munoz, Vinicius Tragante, Azmeraw T Amare, Rick Jansen, Ahmad Vaez, Benedikt von der Heyde, Christy L Avery, Joshua C Bis, Bram Dierckx, Jenny van Dongen, Stephanie M Gogarten, Philippe Goyette, Jussi Hernesniemi, Ville Huikari, Shih-Jen Hwang, Deepali Jaju, Kathleen F Kerr, Alexander Kluttig, Bouwe P Krijthe, Jitender Kumar, Sander W van der Laan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Adam X Maihofer, Arpi Minassian, Peter J van der Most, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Michel Nivard, Erika Salvi, James D Stewart, Julian F Thayer, Niek Verweij, Andrew Wong, Delilah Zabaneh, Mohammad H Zafarmand, Abdel Abdellaoui, Sulayma Albarwani, Christine Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Foram Ashar, Juha Auvinen, Tomas Axelsson, Dewleen G Baker, Paul I W de Bakker, Matteo Barcella, Riad Bayoumi, Rob J Bieringa, Dorret Boomsma, Gabrielle Boucher, Annie R Britton, Ingrid Christophersen, Andrea Dietrich, George B Ehret, Patrick T Ellinor, Markku Eskola, Janine F Felix, John S Floras, Oscar H Franco, Peter Friberg, Maaike G J Gademan, Mark A Geyer, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Catharina A Hartman, Daiane Hemerich, Albert Hofman, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Heikki Huikuri, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Xavier Jouven, Juhani Junttila, Markus Juonala, Antti M Kiviniemi, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Cathy C Laurie, Joop D Lefrandt, Yong Li, Yun Li, Duanping Liao, Marian C Limacher, Henry J Lin, Cecilia M Lindgren, Steven A Lubitz, Anubha Mahajan, Barbara McKnight, Henriette Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Yuri Milaneschi, Nina Mononen, Andrew P Morris, Mike A Nalls, Gerjan Navis, Melanie Neijts, Kjell Nikus, Kari E North, Daniel T O'Connor, Johan Ormel, Siegfried Perz, Annette Peters, Bruce M Psaty, Olli T Raitakari, Victoria B Risbrough, Moritz F Sinner, David Siscovick, Johannes H Smit, Nicholas L Smith, Elsayed Z Soliman, Nona Sotoodehnia, Jan A Staessen, Phyllis K Stein, Adrienne M Stilp, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Konstantin Strauch, Johan Sundström, Cees A Swenne, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Jean-Claude Tardif, Kent D Taylor, Alexander Teumer, Timothy A Thornton, Lesley E Tinker, André G Uitterlinden, Jessica van Setten, Andreas Voss, Melanie Waldenberger, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Gonneke Willemsen, Quenna Wong, Zhu-Ming Zhang, Alan B Zonderman, Daniele Cusi, Michele K Evans, Halina K Greiser, Pim van der Harst, Mohammad Hassan, Erik Ingelsson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Stefan Kääb, Mika Kähönen, Mika Kivimaki, Charles Kooperberg, Diana Kuh, Terho Lehtimäki, Lars Lind, Caroline M Nievergelt, Chris J O'Donnell, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Brenda Penninx, Alexander P Reiner, Harriëtte Riese, Arie M van Roon, John D Rioux, Jerome I Rotter, Tamar Sofer, Bruno H Stricker, Henning Tiemeier, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Folkert W Asselbergs, Bianca J J M Brundel, Susan R Heckbert, Eric A Whitsel, Marcel den Hoed, Harold Snieder, Eco J C de Geus
Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4)...
June 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608233/alleviation-by-gabab-receptors-of-neurotoxicity-mediated-by-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-in-cultured-murine-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-n-methyl-d-aspartate
#11
Toshihiko Kinjo, Yoshino Ashida, Hiroshi Higashi, Satoshi Sugimura, Miho Washida, Hiroki Niihara, Kiyokazu Ogita, Yukio Yoneda, Nobuyuki Kuramoto
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is supposed to at least in part participate in molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity seen after overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) in neurons. In this study, we have evaluated whether activation of GABAB receptor (GABABR), which is linked to membrane G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying K(+) ion channels (GIRKs), leads to protection of the NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in a manner relevant to mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured embryonic mouse cortical neurons...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558129/somatostatin-depresses-the-excitability-of-subicular-bursting-cells-roles-of-inward-rectifier-k-channels-kcnq-channels-and-epac
#12
Binqi Hu, Nicholas I Cilz, Saobo Lei
The hippocampus is a crucial component for cognitive and emotional processing. The subiculum provides much of the output for this structure but the modulation and function of this region is surprisingly under-studied. The neuromodulator somatostatin (SST) interacts with five subtypes of SST receptors (sst1 to sst5 ) and each of these SST receptor subtypes is coupled to Gi proteins resulting in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and decreased level of intracellular cAMP. SST modulates many physiological functions including cognition, emotion, autonomic responses and locomotion...
May 30, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526610/11-12-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-11-12-eet-reduces-excitability-and-excitatory-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Nandkishor K Mule, Anette C Orjuela Leon, John R Falck, Michael Arand, Anne Marowsky
Recent studies suggest a role for the arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in attenuating epileptic seizures. However, their effect on neurotransmission has never been investigated in detail. Here, we studied how 11,12- and 14,15 EET affect excitability and excitatory neurotransmission in mouse hippocampus. 11,12 EET (2 μM), but not 14,15 EET (2 μM), induced the opening of a hyperpolarizing K(+) conductance in CA1 pyramidal cells. This action could be blocked by BaCl2, the G protein blocker GDPβ-S and the GIRK1/4 blocker tertiapin Q and the channel was thus identified as a GIRK channel...
May 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487514/girk2-splice-variants-and-neuronal-g-protein-gated-k-channels-implications-for-channel-function-and-behavior
#14
Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Lei Zhang, Baovi N Vo, Megan Tipps, Shannon Farris, Zhilian Xia, Allison Anderson, Nicholas Carlblom, C David Weaver, Serena M Dudek, Kevin Wickman
Many neurotransmitters directly inhibit neurons by activating G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, thereby moderating the influence of excitatory input on neuronal excitability. While most neuronal GIRK channels are formed by GIRK1 and GIRK2 subunits, distinct GIRK2 isoforms generated by alternative splicing have been identified. Here, we compared the trafficking and function of two isoforms (GIRK2a and GIRK2c) expressed individually in hippocampal pyramidal neurons lacking GIRK2. GIRK2a and GIRK2c supported comparable somato-dendritic GIRK currents in Girk2 (-/-) pyramidal neurons, although GIRK2c achieved a more uniform subcellular distribution in pyramidal neurons and supported inhibitory postsynaptic currents in distal dendrites better than GIRK2a...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472842/diterpene-lipo-alkaloids-with-selective-activities-on-cardiac-k-channels
#15
Tivadar Kiss, Botond Borcsa, Péter Orvos, László Tálosi, Judit Hohmann, Dezső Csupor
Aconitum diterpene alkaloids are known for their remarkable toxicity, which is due to their effect on ion channels. Activation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels is the major cause of their cardiotoxicity, however, influence on K(+) channels may also play a role in the overall effect.Here we report the synthesis of a series of lipo-alkaloids, including four new compounds, based on the 14-benzoylaconine structure, which is the core of a vast number of diterpene alkaloids naturally occurring in Aconitum species...
May 4, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469002/neuropeptide-y-alters-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-through-both-pre-and-postsynaptic-mechanisms
#16
Katherine Stuhrman West, Aaron G Roseberry
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system, regulates many different behaviors including food intake, food reward, and feeding-related behaviors, and there is increasing evidence that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides alter dopamine neuron activity to affect feeding. For example, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), a strong orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, increases motivation for food when injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). How NPY affects the activity of VTA dopamine neurons to regulate feeding behavior is unknown, however...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462392/mechanosensory-stimulation-evokes-acute-concussion-like-behavior-by-activating-girks-coupled-to-muscarinic-receptors-in-a-simple-vertebrate
#17
Wen-Chang Li, Xiao-Yue Zhu, Emma Ritson
Most vertebrates show concussion responses when their heads are hit suddenly by heavy objects. Previous studies have focused on the direct physical injuries to the neural tissue caused by the concussive blow. We study a similar behavior in a simple vertebrate, the Xenopus laevis tadpole. We find that concussion-like behavior can be reliably induced by the mechanosensory stimulation of the head skin without direct physical impacts on the brain. Head skin stimulation activates a cholinergic pathway which then opens G protein-coupled inward-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) via postsynaptic M2 muscarinic receptors to inhibit brainstem neurons critical for the initiation and maintenance of swimming for up to minutes and can explain many features commonly observed immediately after concussion...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429525/induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-radiochemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-as-an-individual-treatment-approach-feasibility-safety-and-retrospective-survival-analysis-in-twenty-three-patients
#18
LETTER
C-J Busch, J Girke, S Tribius, L Bussmann, R Knecht, P Schafhausen, B B Lörincz, A Münscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377218/synergistic-activation-of-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels-by-cholesterol-and-pi-4-5-p2
#19
Anna N Bukiya, Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial KACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol...
July 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320163/inhibition-of-17-beta-estradiol-on-neuronal-excitability-via-enhancing-girk1-mediated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-currents-and-girk1-expression
#20
Yuwen Zhang, Yian Huang, Guoxiang Wang, Xin Wang, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Catamenial epilepsy is a common central nervous system disease in female, which is influenced by the 17-β-estradiol (estrogen) level during the menstrual cycle. Low level (<0.05ng/ml) of estrogen normally accompanies with the perimenstrual classification of catamenial epilepsy, however, without clear mechanism. In previous studies, estrogen has been demonstrated to possess widely regulatory effects on potassium channels. Here, the effect of 17-β-estradiol on modulating inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) currents was investigated in cultured hippocampal neurons...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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