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functional stability training

Eric N Beck, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs control of well-learned movements. Movement control improvements are found when individuals complete tasks while focusing attention externally on manipulating an object, which is argued to occur due to automatic processing associated with well-learned movements. Focusing attention internally (on movements of ones' limbs) is believed to involve conscious control networks, and hinders movement performance. Previous work has found that an external focus of attention improved postural stability in individuals with PD (compared to internal), but this was when patients were taking dopamine medication, which modulates basal ganglia functioning responsible for well-learned movements...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Sebastian Frese, Jens A Petersen, Maria Ligon-Auer, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Violeta Mihaylova, Saskia M Gehrig, Veronika Kana, Elisabeth J Rushing, Evelyn Unterburger, Georg Kägi, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung
Huntington disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms across a wide range of neurological domains, including cognitive and motor dysfunction. There is still no causative treatment for HD but environmental factors such as passive lifestyle may modulate disease onset and progression. In humans, multidisciplinary rehabilitation has a positive impact on cognitive functions. However, a specific role for exercise as a component of an environmental enrichment effect has been difficult to demonstrate...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Birgit Rössner, Maximilian Klingler, Tanja Bulat, Ajinkya Sase, Andrea Zeilinger, Melanie Spitzwieser, Jana Aradska, Margit Cichna-Markl, Gert Lubec
AMPA receptors mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Highly dynamic AMPA receptors are subjected to trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. Changes in AMPA receptor abundance is an important mechanism involved in learning and memory formation. Results obtained with the Morris water maze (MWM), a paradigm for testing spatial memory in rodent, correlate with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA function. Different phases of spatial learning like acquisition and retrieval involve AMPA receptors...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Pablo Villegas, José Ruiz-Franco, Jorge Hidalgo, Miguel A Muñoz
Gene regulatory networks can be successfully modeled as Boolean networks. A much discussed hypothesis says that such model networks reproduce empirical findings the best if they are tuned to operate at criticality, i.e. at the borderline between their ordered and disordered phases. Critical networks have been argued to lead to a number of functional advantages such as maximal dynamical range, maximal sensitivity to environmental changes, as well as to an excellent tradeoff between stability and flexibility...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew Torres, Henry Dewhurst, Niveda Sundararaman
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function &- a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) &- a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al...
October 3, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
J Fan, B Jiang, F Yuan, S Z Li, J Q Zhou, J Mei, L M Cheng, G R Yu
Objective: To investigate the clinical character and treating strategy of extreme distal radial fractures. Methods: From June 2012 to May 2014, 12 patients who suffered from extreme distal radial fractures were treated in Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 4 cases of type 23B1, 3 cases of 23B2, 3 cases of 23C1 and 2 cases of 23C3.When classified by morphological features, there were 4 of simple styloid process fracture, 3 of simple extreme distal radial fracture without articular surface involved, 3 of styloid process fracture combined with distal radial articular fracture, and 2 of articular surface splintered or collapse fracture...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Nicolas Perret, Rolf Frischknecht, Stefano Carda, Françoise Sandoz, Aurelien Fauquex, Yannick Charrotton
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a robot assisted motor training program of the lower limbs on locomotor functioning of chronic stroke patients. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: After ethical committee approval, 5 women and 2 men with chronic hemiplegia 2, 20 years after stroke (1 right, 6 left), age 35 and 79, underwent a robot assisted training of their lower limbs twice a week for 6 weeks. During the 30's exercise sessions (leg press and cycling), the participants used an end effector type rehabilitation robot (Lambda Health System plc) and were asked to follow actively the robot-guided movements...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Slim Fourati, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects approximately 240 million individuals worldwide. Recent advances in the virology, immunopathogenesis, and diagnosis of HBV infection are summarized in this review article. The identification of a hepatocyte-specific cellular receptor for HBV, the sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), made it possible to develop reliable cell culture systems and better understand the early steps of the viral lifecycle. Viral and host factors involved in covalently closed circular DNA synthesis, stability, and transcriptional regulation have also been identified and provide potential targets for new drugs...
2016: F1000Research
Thomas R Carretta, Raymond E King, Malcolm James Ree, Mark S Teachout, Erica Barto
INTRODUCTION: The assessment of individuals on abilities or other characteristics is based on comparison to a representative sample. General population norms provide an appropriate reference group when the distribution of scores in the sample can be expected to be similar to those for the general population (e.g., comparing high school students at a particular school to national high school norms on a college entrance test). Specialized norms are needed, however, when subsets of the population differ from the population at large...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Dae Jung Yang, Seung Kyu Park, Yo Han Uhm, Sam Heon Park, Dong Whan Chun, Je Ho Kim
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Can Nakkas, Hubert Annen, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits' coping styles and distress levels were associated...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Nicole West, Sonam Gyeltshen, Singye Dukpa, Kaveh Khoshnood, Sonam Tashi, Amanda Durante, Sunil Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Bhutan is progressing toward malaria elimination. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the ability of the surveillance system from 2006 to 2012 to meet the objectives of the Bhutan Vector-borne Disease Control Program (VDCP) and to highlight priorities requiring attention as the nation transitions to elimination. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted using the Center for Disease Control guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha Mendes, Andréa Silvestre Sousa, Fernando Cesar de Castro Cesar Souza, Vivian Liane Mattos Pinto, Paula Simplicio Silva, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Sergio Salles Xavier, Henrique Horta Veloso, Marcelo Teixeira Holanda, Andréa Rodrigues Costa, Fernanda Martins Carneiro, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio Silva, Juliana Pereira Borges, Eduardo Tibirica, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Flávio Alves Lara, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano Brasil, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano
BACKGROUND: The effects of exercise training on Chagas heart disease are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise training over functional capacity, cardiac function, quality of life, and biomarkers in Chagas heart disease. METHODS: The PEACH study is a superiority randomized clinical trial which will include subjects who meet the following criteria: Chagas heart disease with a left ventricular ejection fraction below 45 % with or without heart failure symptoms; clinical stability in the last 3 months; adherence to clinical treatment; and age above 18 years...
2016: Trials
Cristine E Agresta, Chris Church, John Henley, Tim Duer, Kathleen OʼBrien
Over 30 million US adolescents participate in sport and exercise. Lower extremity injury from sport participation accounts for up to 89% of injuries each year. The single leg squat (SLS) is a simple clinical tool that assesses lower extremity mechanics often associated with injury risk. To date, there is limited information regarding SLS performance in healthy children. Such information could be useful when assessing youth athletes to determine if mechanics demonstrated are different than is to be expected and puts them at risk for injury...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Laura Broutier, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Christopher J Hindley, Sylvia F Boj, Hans Clevers, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Meritxell Huch
Adult somatic tissues have proven difficult to expand in vitro, largely because of the complexity of recreating appropriate environmental signals in culture. We have overcome this problem recently and developed culture conditions for adult stem cells that allow the long-term expansion of adult primary tissues from small intestine, stomach, liver and pancreas into self-assembling 3D structures that we have termed 'organoids'. We provide a detailed protocol that describes how to grow adult mouse and human liver and pancreas organoids, from cell isolation and long-term expansion to genetic manipulation in vitro...
September 2016: Nature Protocols
Bianca Huurneman, F Nienke Boonstra, Jeroen Goossens
PURPOSE: To determine changes in oculomotor behavior after 10 sessions of perceptual learning on a letter discrimination task in children with infantile nystagmus (IN). METHODS: Children with IN (18 children with idiopathic IN and 18 with oculocutaneous albinism accompanied by IN) aged 6 to 11 years were divided into two training groups matched on diagnosis: an uncrowded training group (n = 18) and a crowded training group (n = 18). Target letters always appeared briefly (500 ms) at an eccentric location, forcing subjects to quickly redirect their gaze...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Deborah A Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The purpose was to explore the impact of balance and mobility training (BMT), balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) and no training on the timed up and go (TUG), TUG cognitive (TUGcog), and TUG manual (TUGman) in older adults. A preliminary experiment examined the stability of these TUG measures over a 5-week period in older adults. METHODS: Fifteen participants in the BMT group (70.2 ± 3.2 years) and 14 participants in the BMT + C group (68...
August 18, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
S Peter Magnusson, Katja M Heinemeier, Michael Kjaer
The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hagit Berdishevsky, Victoria Ashley Lebel, Josette Bettany-Saltikov, Manuel Rigo, Andrea Lebel, Axel Hennes, Michele Romano, Marianna Białek, Andrzej M'hango, Tony Betts, Jean Claude de Mauroy, Jacek Durmala
In recent decades, there has been a call for change among all stakeholders involved in scoliosis management. Parents of children with scoliosis have complained about the so-called "wait and see" approach that far too many doctors use when evaluating children's scoliosis curves between 10° and 25°. Observation, Physiotherapy Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) and bracing for idiopathic scoliosis during growth are all therapeutic interventions accepted by the 2011 International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT)...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Sheila Jowsey-Gregoire, Martin Kumnig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) encompasses hand, face, uterus, penile and lower extremity transplantation. Psychosocial factors are recognized as important, but no standard approach to the evaluation, selection or posttransplant care has been described and thus, the development of a standardized approach is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Various psychosocial assessment tools have been reported. Body image and the functional impact of hand versus face transplantation are notable issues...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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