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Liraglutide and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878211/liraglutide-enhances-the-efficacy-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-preserving-islet-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-severe-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#1
Li-Rong Li, Xiao-Lei Jia, Hui Hui, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Wei-Juan Cui, Qian-Yue Xu, Da-Long Zhu
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) can promote islet β-cell replication and function, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can inhibit T cell autoimmunity. This study aimed at testing the dynamic distribution of infused human MSCs and therapeutic effect of combined MSCs and Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, on preserving β-cell function in severe non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that infused MSCs accumulated in the pancreas at 4 weeks post infusion, which was not affected by Liraglutide treatment...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835589/liraglutide-suppresses-obesity-and-induces-brown-fat-like-phenotype-via-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-mediated-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Endong Zhu, Yang Yang, Juanjuan Zhang, Yongmei Li, Chunjun Li, Liming Chen, Bei Sun
Strategies for driving white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics are a promising approach to reduce obesity. Liraglutide has been reported to active brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and WAT browning by rapid intracerebroventricular injection in mice. In this study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of liraglutide on WAT browning by chronic treatment. Here, we show that liraglutide significantly decreases body weight of mice and reduces the size of white adipocytes...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832452/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antihyperglycemic-medications-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Kelly L Matson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Meghan Kelly, Asieh Karimani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808050/-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#4
Jens Meldgaard Bruun
Obesity is a chronic condition, which is why pharmacotherapy can be considered, if lifestyle modification (hypocaloric diet/exercise) does not result in a weight loss of at least 5%. Pharmacotherapy is indicated, if an individual has a BMI > 30 kg/m(2) or a BMI > 27 kg/m(2) and concomitant disease (e.g. Type 2 diabetes), and can be liraglutide (3 mg) or orlistat (120 mg/60 mg). Choice of treatment must be based on patient preferences and clinical situation, side effects, contraindications and financial considerations...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804269/early-weight-loss-with-liraglutide-3-0-mg-predicts-1-year-weight-loss-and-is-associated-with-improvements-in-clinical-markers
#5
Ken Fujioka, Patrick M O'Neil, Melanie Davies, Frank Greenway, David C W Lau, Birgitte Claudius, Trine Vang Skjøth, Christine Bjørn Jensen, John P H Wilding
OBJECTIVE: To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). METHODS: Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (<4% weight loss at week 16) completing 56 weeks' treatment...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773782/obesity-current-and-potential-pharmacotherapeutics-and-targets
#6
REVIEW
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730066/long-term-efficacy-of-liraglutide-in-indian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-real-world-setting
#7
Parjeet Kaur, Shama Mahendru, Ambrish Mithal
BACKGROUND: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. AIM: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. METHODS: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718159/reward-induced-eating-therapeutic-approaches-to-addressing-food-cravings
#8
REVIEW
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need...
November 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717126/near-normalization-of-glycaemic-control-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-combined-with-exercise-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
P Mensberg, S Nyby, P G Jørgensen, H Storgaard, M T Jensen, J Sivertsen, J J Holst, B Kiens, E A Richter, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll
AIMS: To investigate the effects of exercise in combination with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, or placebo for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-three overweight, dysregulated and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 16 weeks of either exercise and liraglutide or exercise and placebo. Both groups had three supervised 60-minute training sessions per week including spinning and resistance training...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711029/adipose-tissue-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
The association of obesity with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been established. Obesity has been linked not only to initial stages of the disease, i.e., simple steatosis (SS), but also to its severity. Form an epidemiologic point of view, both diseases has an increasing prevalence worldwide. From a pathogenetic point of view, obesity and its associate IR contribute to the initial fat accumulation in the hepatocyte (SS), but also to the progression of SS to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665425/effects-of-obesity-treatments-on-bone-mineral-density-bone-turnover-and-fracture-risk-in-adults-with-overweight-or-obesity
#11
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
December 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636208/harnessing-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-overweight-and-obesity
#12
R Burcelin, P Gourdy
Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic rise in global obesity prevalence, resulting in significant economic and social consequences. Attempts to develop pharmacological agents to treat obesity have met with many obstacles including the lack of long-term effectiveness and the potential for adverse effects. Historically, there have been limited treatment options for overweight and obesity; however, since 2012, a number of new drugs have become available. A number of peptides produced in the gut act as key mediators of the gut-brain axis, which is involved in appetite regulation...
September 16, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600753/liraglutide-attenuates-the-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-mc3t3%C3%A2-e1-cells-by-modulating-ampk-mtor-signaling
#13
Xiong-Ke Hu, Xin-Hua Yin, Hong-Qi Zhang, Chao-Feng Guo, Ming-Xing Tang
Liraglutide, a synthetic analogue of glucagon-like peptide‑1, is utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Liraglutide has been previously demonstrated to prevent osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in the slowing of arterial calcification, however, its effect on bone formation remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation using Alizarin Red S staining, and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect by western blot analysis...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593966/inkt-cells-induce-fgf21-for-thermogenesis-and-are-required-for-maximal-weight-loss-in-glp1-therapy
#14
Lydia Lynch, Andrew E Hogan, Danielle Duquette, Chantel Lester, Alexander Banks, Katherine LeClair, David E Cohen, Abhisek Ghosh, Bing Lu, Michelle Corrigan, Darko Stevanovic, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Daniel J Drucker, Donal O'Shea, Michael Brenner
Adipose-resident invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are key players in metabolic regulation. iNKT cells are innate lipid sensors, and their activation, using their prototypic ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), induces weight loss and restores glycemic control in obesity. Here, iNKT activation induced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and thermogenic browning of white fat. Complete metabolic analysis revealed that iNKT cell activation induced increased body temperature, V02, VC02, and fatty acid oxidation, without affecting food intake or activity...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591964/glp-1-as-a-target-for-therapeutic-intervention
#15
Surya Panicker Rajeev, John Wilding
Glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have multiple effects, including control of glycaemia via stimulation of insulin and suppression of glucagon secretion and reduction of adiposity by enhancing satiety, so are an attractive therapeutic option in type 2 diabetes management. Five GLP-1 RA are used currently and more are in development. The HbA1c reduction obtained varies from 1 to 2%; they reduce body weight by about 2-3kg when used to treat T2DM, while liraglutide results in greater weight loss at a higher dose and has recently been approved for the management of obesity...
September 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583422/update-on-office-based-strategies-for-the-management-of-obesity
#16
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565106/answers-to-clinical-questions-in-the-primary-care-management-of-people-with-obesity-pharmacologic-management
#17
Ken Fujioka, Jill Braverman-Panza
The recent approval of liraglutide, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion extended-release, and phentermine/topiramate extended-release, brings the number of medications for long-term weight loss to 5 (including orlistat). Indicated for the treatment of patients with overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2 with ≥1 weight-related comorbidity) or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), these medications provide new opportunities to address this burgeoning health problem.
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563838/investigational-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#18
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Yuzhen Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong-Min Liu
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide problem predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer and other comorbidities. Lifestyle modification is the first line intervention but adjunctive pharmacotherapy is often required. The GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were developed primarily for T2DM and they also reduce body weight. Liraglutide was approved for the treatment of obesity and other GLP-1RAs are likely to be suitable for this indication...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563837/single-dose-and-repeated-administrations-of-liraglutide-alter-energy-metabolism-in-the-brains-of-young-and-adult-rats
#19
Morgana Prá, Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira, Aline Haas de Mello, Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Larissa Colonetti Cardoso, Luana da Rosa Souza, Naiana da Rosa, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
Liraglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that was recently approved to treat obesity in some countries. Considering that liraglutide effects on brain energy metabolism are little known, we evaluated the effects of liraglutide on the energy metabolism. Animals received a single or daily injection of saline or liraglutide during 7 days (25, 50, 100, or 300 μg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours after the single or last injection, the rats were euthanized and the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, and posterior cortex were isolated...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539178/cardiovascular-effects-of-the-new-weight-loss-agents
#20
REVIEW
Matthew H Vorsanger, Pritha Subramanyam, Howard S Weintraub, Steven H Lamm, James A Underberg, Eugenia Gianos, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Z Schwartzbard
The global obesity epidemic and its impact on cardiovascular outcomes is a topic of ongoing debate and investigation in the cardiology community. It is well known that obesity is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although life-style changes are the first line of therapy, they are often insufficient in achieving weight loss goals. Liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion, and phentermine/topiramate are new agents that have been recently approved to treat obesity, but their effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes are not well described...
August 23, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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