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Liraglutide and obesity

Parjeet Kaur, Shama Mahendru, Ambrish Mithal
BACKGROUND: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. AIM: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. METHODS: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Therapy
P Mensberg, S Nyby, P G Jørgensen, H Storgaard, M T Jensen, J Sivertsen, J J Holst, B Kiens, E A Richter, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll
AIMS: Exercise as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of exercise in combination with a GLP-1RA (liraglutide) or placebo for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-three overweight, dysregulated and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 16 weeks of exercise and liraglutide or exercise and placebo. Both groups had three supervised 60-minute training sessions per week including spinning and resistance training...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
The association of obesity with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been established. Obesity has been linked not only to initial stages of the disease, i.e., simple steatosis (SS), but also to its severity. Form an epidemiologic point of view, both diseases has an increasing prevalence worldwide. From a pathogenetic point of view, obesity and its associate IR contribute to the initial fat accumulation in the hepatocyte (SS), but also to the progression of SS to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
September 26, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
R Burcelin, P Gourdy
Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic rise in global obesity prevalence, resulting in significant economic and social consequences. Attempts to develop pharmacological agents to treat obesity have met with many obstacles including the lack of long-term effectiveness and the potential for adverse effects. Historically, there have been limited treatment options for overweight and obesity; however, since 2012, a number of new drugs have become available. A number of peptides produced in the gut act as key mediators of the gut-brain axis, which is involved in appetite regulation...
September 16, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Xiong-Ke Hu, Xin-Hua Yin, Hong-Qi Zhang, Chao-Feng Guo, Ming-Xing Tang
Liraglutide, a synthetic analogue of glucagon-like peptide‑1, is utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Liraglutide has been previously demonstrated to prevent osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in the slowing of arterial calcification, however, its effect on bone formation remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation using Alizarin Red S staining, and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect by western blot analysis...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lydia Lynch, Andrew E Hogan, Danielle Duquette, Chantel Lester, Alexander Banks, Katherine LeClair, David E Cohen, Abhisek Ghosh, Bing Lu, Michelle Corrigan, Darko Stevanovic, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Daniel J Drucker, Donal O'Shea, Michael Brenner
Adipose-resident invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are key players in metabolic regulation. iNKT cells are innate lipid sensors, and their activation, using their prototypic ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), induces weight loss and restores glycemic control in obesity. Here, iNKT activation induced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and thermogenic browning of white fat. Complete metabolic analysis revealed that iNKT cell activation induced increased body temperature, V02, VC02, and fatty acid oxidation, without affecting food intake or activity...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Surya Panicker Rajeev, John Wilding
Glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have multiple effects, including control of glycaemia via stimulation of insulin and suppression of glucagon secretion and reduction of adiposity by enhancing satiety, so are an attractive therapeutic option in type 2 diabetes management. Five GLP-1 RA are used currently and more are in development. The HbA1c reduction obtained varies from 1 to 2%; they reduce body weight by about 2-3kg when used to treat T2DM, while liraglutide results in greater weight loss at a higher dose and has recently been approved for the management of obesity...
September 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Ken Fujioka, Jill Braverman-Panza
The recent approval of liraglutide, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion extended-release, and phentermine/topiramate extended-release, brings the number of medications for long-term weight loss to 5 (including orlistat). Indicated for the treatment of patients with overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2 with ≥1 weight-related comorbidity) or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), these medications provide new opportunities to address this burgeoning health problem.
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Yuzhen Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong-Min Liu
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide problem predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer and other comorbidities. Lifestyle modification is the first line intervention but adjunctive pharmacotherapy is often required. The GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were developed primarily for T2DM and they also reduce body weight. Liraglutide was approved for the treatment of obesity and other GLP-1RAs are likely to be suitable for this indication...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Morgana Prá, Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira, Aline Haas de Mello, Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Larissa Colonetti Cardoso, Luana da Rosa Souza, Naiana da Rosa, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
Liraglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that was recently approved to treat obesity in some countries. Considering that liraglutide effects on brain energy metabolism are little known, we evaluated the effects of liraglutide on the energy metabolism. Animals received a single or daily injection of saline or liraglutide during 7 days (25, 50, 100, or 300 μg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours after the single or last injection, the rats were euthanized and the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, and posterior cortex were isolated...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Matthew H Vorsanger, Pritha Subramanyam, Howard S Weintraub, Steven H Lamm, James A Underberg, Eugenia Gianos, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Z Schwartzbard
The global obesity epidemic and its impact on cardiovascular outcomes is a topic of ongoing debate and investigation in the cardiology community. It is well known that obesity is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although life-style changes are the first line of therapy, they are often insufficient in achieving weight loss goals. Liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion, and phentermine/topiramate are new agents that have been recently approved to treat obesity, but their effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes are not well described...
August 23, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Diana Isaacs, Lalita Prasad-Reddy, Sneha Baxi Srivastava
PURPOSE: Published data on the weight loss effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are reviewed, with a focus on data from clinical trials. SUMMARY: Obesity is a significant health problem in the United States (an estimated 69% of U.S. adults are overweight and nearly 35% are obese), and few drugs have proven safety and efficacy as adjuncts to lifestyle modification for weight management. GLP-1 receptor agonists are used for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and have been studied for their weight loss effects in patients with and without diabetes; these agents produce weight loss benefits through their effects on satiety and gastric emptying...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Carlos Calvo Gómez, Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas, Joan Lima Ruiz, Lluis Masmiquel Comas, Alfredo Michán Doña, Antonio Zapatero Gaviria
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease of epidemic proportions. In the adult Spanish population, prevalence of DM2 is nearly 14%, which makes its monitoring and treatment imperative. Liraglutide has achieved relevance due to its efficacy and safety in DM treatment. The aim of this study is to gather expert opinion on diabetes to assess the current role of liraglutide in DM2. MATERIALS/METHODS: The survey was performed by 57 internal medicine specialists using the Delphi method...
November 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Z Z Htike, T Yates, E M Brady, D Webb, L J Gray, D Swarbrick, G P McCann, K Khunti, M J Davies
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in younger adults is growing. Compared to the late onset T2DM, it is well recognized that the disease tends to behave more aggressively in the younger age group with evidence of premature micro and macrovasular diseases and shorter life span. This increased mortality is largely attributed to cardiovascular complications. In a recent pilot study, young adults with T2DM were found to have significantly lower peak diastolic strain rate (PEDSR) on cardiac MRI (CMR), a forerunner of diabetic cardiomyopathy...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
S J Henderson, A Konkar, D C Hornigold, J L Trevaskis, R Jackson, M Fritsch Fredin, R Jansson-Löfmark, J Naylor, A Rossi, M A Bednarek, N Bhagroo, H Salari, S Will, S Oldham, G Hansen, M Feigh, T Klein, J Grimsby, S Maguire, L Jermutus, C M Rondinone, M P Coghlan
AIMS: To characterize the pharmacology of MEDI0382, a peptide dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDI0382 was evaluated in vitro for its ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in cell lines expressing transfected recombinant or endogenous GLP-1 or glucagon receptors, to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cell lines and stimulate hepatic glucose output (HGO) by primary hepatocytes...
July 5, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
A J Scheen
Liraglutide is an analogue of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) already indicated under the trade name of Victoza for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, at usual doses of 1.2 or 1.8 mg as once daily subcutaneous injection. It is henceforth indicated at a dose of 3.0 mg, also as once daily subcutaneous injection, for the treatment of obesity or overweight with comorbidities under the trade name of Saxenda, in combination with diet and exercise. Besides a specific action on the endocrine pancreas, mainly responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect, liraglutide helps controlling appetite at the hypothamalic level...
May 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
Ziad Omran
Obesity is growing at an alarming rate with huge consequences on health and economy. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled in 30 years. Obesity causes many physiological dysfunctions that affect nearly every organ producing multiple morbidities. Despite these facts, there is still no clear, well-defined solution. Notwithstanding the devastating prevalence and consequences of obesity, today only five medicines, orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine-toprimate, bupropion-naltrexone and liraglutide, are approved by the FDA for long-term treatment of obesity...
June 16, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
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