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Graham M Hughes, Emma M Boston, John A Finarelli, William J Murphy, Desmond G Higgins, Emma C Teeling
The olfactory receptor (OR) gene families, which govern mammalian olfaction, have undergone extensive expansion and contraction through duplication and pseudogenization. Previous studies have shown that broadly-defined environmental adaptations (e.g terrestrial vs aquatic) are correlated with the number of functional and non-functional OR genes retained. However, to date, no study has examined species-specific gene duplications in multiple phylogenetically divergent mammals to elucidate OR evolution and adaptation...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
A K Winter, M E Martinez, F T Cutts, W J Moss, M Ferrari, A McKee, J Lessler, K Hayford, J Wallinga, C J E Metcalf
Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Here, using simulations, we outline key subtleties in interpretation associated with the dynamic context of age-specific immunity, highlighting how the patterns of immunity predicted from disease surveillance and vaccination coverage data may be misleading...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Liming Dong, Vicki A Freedman, Brisa N Sánchez, Carlos F Mendes de Leon
Background: Racial and ethnic differences in disability persist and are possibly widening in recent years, but evidence is limited for racial and ethnic differences in disability progression through the entire disablement process and potential influential factors. The objective of this study is to examine racial and ethnic differences in patterns of late-life disability transitions, using a new disability spectrum that incorporates successful accommodation with assistive devices in response to capacity limitations to prolong independence...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Paul D Blischak, Julia Chifman, Andrea D Wolfe, Laura S Kubatko
The analysis of hybridization and gene flow among closely related taxa is a common goal for researchers studying speciation and phylogeography. Many methods for hybridization detection use simple site pattern frequencies from observed genomic data and compare them to null models that predict an absence of gene flow. The theory underlying the detection of hybridization using these site pattern probabilities exploits the relationship between the coalescent process for gene trees within population trees and the process of mutation along the branches of the gene trees...
March 19, 2018: Systematic Biology
A E Webb, I A Youngworth, M Kaya, C L Gitter, E A O'Hare, B May, H H Cheng, M E Delany
Wingless-2 (wg-2) is an autosomal recessive mutation in chicken that results in an embryonic lethal condition. Affected individuals exhibit a multisystem syndrome characterized by absent wings, truncated legs, and craniofacial, kidney, and feather malformations. Previously, work focused on phenotype description, establishing the autosomal recessive pattern of Mendelian inheritance and placing the mutation on an inbred genetic background to create the congenic line UCD Wingless-2.331. The research described in this paper employed the complementary tools of breeding, genetics, and genomics to map the chromosomal location of the mutation and successively narrow the size of the region for analysis of the causative element...
March 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Adina S Fischer, M Catalina Camacho, Tiffany C Ho, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Ian H Gotlib
Importance: Adolescence is a neurodevelopmental period during which experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuitry may confer vulnerability to depression as well as resilience to disorder. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms that underlie resilience during this critical period of brain development. Objective: To examine neural functional connectivity correlates of resilience in adolescent females at high and low familial risk for depression who did and did not develop the disorder...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Wanda Cristina Sawicki, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Dayana Souza Fram, Angélica Gonçalves Silva Belasco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing university students' alcohol consumption patterns, Brief Intervention and Quality of Life (QoL). METHOD: This is a prospective and longitudinal study containing sociodemographic, economic information concerning alcoholic beverages, BI and QoL evaluation among 281 nursing university students. Since surveys have been applied, seminars have been given and consumption patterns have been discussed, an educational material was delivered after university students' revaluation and BI reinforcement...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Nicole Selleski, Lucas Malta Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de Almeida, Claudia Beatriz Pratesi, Yanna Karla de Medeiros Nóbrega, Lenora Gandolfi
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Viviane Gomes Parreira Dutra, Virgilio Augusto Gomes Parreira, Raphael Mendonça Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is among the three most frequent neoplasms in Brazil, being a public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To describe distribution pattern of colorectal cancer mortality in Brazil and regions, according to sex, between 1996 and 2015. METHODS: Values of standardized and stratified mortality rates by sex between 1996 and 2015 were used, through polynomial regression models and joinpoint analysis. RESULTS: It was observed that, for linear trends in mortality rates, for both sexes, there is a statistically significant trend increasing in both models, with rates and trends, and higher for men than for women, respectively, 7...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Feixiang Teng, Jinxia Sun, Lili Yu, Qisong Li, Yubao Cui
Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f), one of the main species of house dust mites, produces more than 30 allergens. A recently identified allergen belonging to the alpha-tubulin protein family, Der f 33, has not been characterized in detail. In this study, we used bioinformatics tools to construct the secondary and tertiary structures and predict the B and T cell epitopes of Der f 33. First, protein attribution, protein patterns, and physicochemical properties were predicted. Then, a reasonable tertiary structure was constructed by homology modeling...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Alena Lövy, Cecile C Reed, Martina Lisnerová, Tereza Tomková, Astrid S Holzer, Ivan Fiala
INTRODUCTION: Intertidal rock pools where fish and invertebrates are in constant close contact due to limited space and water level fluctuations represent ideal conditions to promote life cycles in parasites using these two alternate hosts and to study speciation processes that could contribute to understanding the roles of parasitic species in such ecosystems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gall bladder and liver samples from five clinid fish species (Blenniiformes: Clinidae) were morphologically and molecularly examined to determine the diversity, prevalence, distribution and host specificity of Ceratomyxa parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) in intertidal habitats along the coast of South Africa...
2018: PloS One
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Zengrong Zhang, Huarui Du, Lijun Bai, Chaowu Yang, Qingyun Li, Xiaocheng Li, Mohan Qiu, Chunlin Yu, Zongrong Jiang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Lan Liu, Chenming Hu, Bo Xia, Xia Xiong, Xiaoyan Song, Xiaosong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes show specific adaptations to high-altitude conditions, but the epigenetic modifications associated with these adaptations have not been characterized. RESULTS: We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in Tibetan chicken blood by using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. Generally, Tibetan chickens exhibited analogous methylation patterns to that of lowland chickens. A total of 3.92% of genomic cytosines were methylcytosines and 51...
2018: PloS One
Gustavo Tejera, Beneharo Rodríguez, Carlos Armas, Airam Rodríguez
Insular wildlife is more prone to extinction than their mainland relatives. Thus, a basic understanding of non-natural mortality sources is the first step in the development of conservation management plans. The Canary Islands are an important tourist destination due to their unique climate and rich scenery and biodiversity. During the last few decades, there has been significant development of urban areas and busy road networks. However, there have been no studies describing the effects of road mortality on wildlife in this archipelago...
2018: PloS One
Zhidan Wang, Rebecca A Williamson, Andrew N Meltzoff
Causal reasoning is an important aspect of scientific thinking. Even young human children can use causal reasoning to explain observations, make predictions, and design actions to bring about specific outcomes in the physical world. Weight is an interesting type of cause because it is an invisible property. Here, we tested preschool children with causal problem-solving tasks that assessed their understanding of weight. In an experimental setting, 2- to 5-year-old children completed three different tasks in which they had to use weight to produce physical effects-an object displacement task, a balance-scale task, and a tower-building task...
2018: PloS One
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Kangkang Liu, Yanshan Zhu, Yao Xia, Yingtao Zhang, Xiaodong Huang, Jiawei Huang, Enqiong Nie, Qinlong Jing, Guoling Wang, Zhicong Yang, Wenbiao Hu, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering and socio-environmental factors associated with dengue fever (DF) incidence rates at street level in Guangzhou City, China. METHODS: Spatiotemporal scan technique was applied to identify the high risk region of DF. Multiple regression model was used to identify the socio-environmental factors associated with DF infection. A Poisson regression model was employed to examine the spatiotemporal patterns in the spread of DF...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zihan Kan, Luliang Tang, Mei-Po Kwan, Xia Zhang
The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles' mobile activities ( MA ) and stationary activities ( SA )...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eliel Ruiz-May, Iben Sørensen, Zhangjun Fei, Sheng Zhang, David S Domozych, Jocelyn K C Rose
The secretome can be defined as the population of proteins that are secreted into the extracellular environment. Many proteins that are secreted by eukaryotes are N -glycosylated. However, there are striking differences in the diversity and conservation of N -glycosylation patterns between taxa. For example, the secretome and N -glycosylation structures differ between land plants and chlorophyte green algae, but it is not clear when this divergence took place during plant evolution. A potentially valuable system to study this issue is provided by the charophycean green algae (CGA), which is the immediate ancestors of land plants...
March 21, 2018: Proteomes
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