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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213514/peripheral-membrane-interactions-boost-the-engagement-by-an-anti-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibody
#1
Edurne Rujas, José M M Caaveiro, Sara Insausti, Miguel García-Porras, Kouhei Tsumoto, José L Nieva
The 4E10 antibody displays an extreme breadth of HIV-1 neutralization and therefore constitutes a suitable model system for structure- guided vaccine design and immunotherapeutics against AIDS. In this regard, the relevance of auto- reactivity with membrane lipids for the biological function of this antibody is still a subject of controversy. To address this dispute, herein we have compared the membrane-partitioning ability of the 4E10 antibody and several of its variants, which were mutated at the region of the paratope surface in contact with the membrane-interface...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212508/examining-cross-cultural-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-multinational-comparison-from-greece-italy-japan-poland-and-the-united-states
#2
J L Matson, M Matheis, C O Burns, G Esposito, P Venuti, E Pisula, A Misiak, E Kalyva, V Tsakiris, Y Kamio, M Ishitobi, R L Goldin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. Despite the fact that ASD is reported worldwide, very little research exists examining ASD characteristics on a multinational scale. Cross-cultural comparisons are especially important for ASD, since cultural differences may impact the perception of symptoms. Identifying behaviors that are similarly reported as problematic across cultures as well as identifying behaviors in which there is cultural variation could aid in the development and refinement of more universally effective measures...
February 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210549/evaluation-of-discrepancies-in-weights-of-fresh-and-fixed-specimens-in-breast-surgery-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Dinesh Thekkinkattil
BACKGROUND: Handling of breast specimen is not well monitored and there is limited data on the impact of fixative solutions on specimen weights. Weight of resected breast tissue acts as a guide for future reconstructive and symmetrisation procedures. The aim is to quantitatively evaluate the discrepancies in weight of fresh breast specimen and the weight of specimen after being kept in a fixative solution for a variable length of time. METHODS: Single centre retrospective cohort study including patients undergone breast surgery for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes between January of 2013 and June 2015...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209451/assessment-of-operating-room-airflow-using-air-particle-counts-and-direct-observation-of-door-openings
#4
Jonathan Teter, Isabella Guajardo, Tamrah Al-Rammah, Gedge Rosson, Trish M Perl, Michele Manahan
BACKGROUND: The role of the operating room (OR) environment has been thought to contribute to surgical site infection rates. The quality of OR air, disruption of airflow, and other factors may increase contamination risks. We measured air particulate counts (APCs) to determine if they increased in relation to traffic, door opening, and other common activities. METHODS: During 1 week, we recorded APCs in 5-minute intervals and movement of health care workers. Trained observers recorded information about traffic, door openings, job title of the opener, and the reason for opening...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207809/kazakhstan-can-achieve-ambitious-hiv-targets-despite-expected-donor-withdrawal-by-combining-improved-art-procurement-mechanisms-with-allocative-and-implementation-efficiencies
#5
Andrew J Shattock, Clemens Benedikt, Aliya Bokazhanova, Predrag Đurić, Irina Petrenko, Lolita Ganina, Sherrie L Kelly, Robyn M Stuart, Cliff C Kerr, Tatiana Vinichenko, Shufang Zhang, Christoph Hamelmann, Manoela Manova, Emiko Masaki, David P Wilson, Richard T Gray
BACKGROUND: Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. METHODOLOGY: We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure-two areas identified for potential cost-reductions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206712/medial-femur-t2-z-scores-predict-the-probability-of-knee-structural-worsening-over-4-8-years-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#6
Gabby B Joseph, Charles E McCulloch, Michael C Nevitt, Alexandra S Gersing, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Martin Kretzschmar, Ursula Heilmeier, Thomas M Link
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of structural worsening of knee cartilage and whole joint degeneration over 4-8 years based on cartilage T2 Z-scores at baseline. DESIGN: Right knees with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades of 0-2 in 587 participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were studied. 3T MR images were used to perform baseline cartilage T2 quantification and assess 4-year changes in cartilage morphology (WORMS scoring) in 5 regions...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205027/risk-factors-affecting-unplanned-reoperation-after-laparoscopic-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-experience-from-a-high-volume-center
#7
Ping Li, Chang-Ming Huang, Ru-Hong Tu, Jian-Xian Lin, Jun Lu, Chao-Hui Zheng, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk factors affecting unplanned reoperation (URO) after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer (GC) and establish a model to predict URO preoperatively. STUDY DESIGN: Between May 2007 and December 2014, we prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed the data of 2608 GC patients who underwent LAG. Among them, 2580 patients not requiring an URO were defined as the Non-URO group, and 28 patients requiring an URO were defined as the URO group...
February 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202465/metabolic-rate-and-hypoxia-tolerance-are-affected-by-group-interactions-and-sex-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster-new-data-and-a-literature-survey
#8
Warren Burggren, BriAnna M Souder, Dao H Ho
Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#9
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199863/analysis-of-chemopredictive-assay-for-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-in-glioblastoma-patients
#10
Candace M Howard, Jagan Valluri, Anthony Alberico, Terrence Julien, Rida Mazagri, Robert Marsh, Hoyt Alastair, Antonio Cortese, Michael Griswold, Wanmei Wang, Krista Denning, Linda Brown, Pier Paolo Claudio
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) treated with standard-of-care maximal surgical resection and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ)/radiotherapy remains very poor (less than 15 months). GBMs have been found to contain a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor propagation, maintenance, and treatment resistance. The highly invasive nature of high-grade gliomas and their inherent resistance to therapy lead to very high rates of recurrence. For these reasons, not all patients with similar diagnoses respond to the same chemotherapy, schedule, or dose...
February 12, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199035/utility-approach-to-decision-making-in-extended-t1-and-limited-t2-glottic-carcinoma
#11
Yda van Loon, Anne M Stiggelbout, Marieke M Hakkesteegt, Ton P M Langeveld, Rob J Baatenburg de Jong, Elisabeth V Sjögren
BACKGROUND: It is still undecided if endoscopic laser surgery or radiotherapy is the preferable treatment in extended T1 and limited T2 glottic tumors. Health utilities assessed from patients can aid in decision-making. METHODS: Patients treated for extended T1 or limited T2 glottic carcinoma by laser surgery (n = 12) or radiotherapy (n = 14) assigned health utilities using a visual analog scale (VAS), time tradeoff (TTO) technique and scored their voice handicap using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)...
February 15, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197861/adapting-an-autism-screening-tool-for-use-in-the-dekalb-county-refugee-pediatric-clinic
#12
C McClure, S Reines, P S Suchdev, A Oladele, A B Goodman
BACKGROUND: Minimal literature exists regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among refugee children in the United States. Reliable ASD screening tools, such as the M-CHAT-R/F, have yet to be culturally adapted and translated into some languages spoken in the homes of these children. METHODS: Pediatric refugee patients (n = 13) of caregivers of Bhutanese (Nepali-speaking) descent were screened using a newly translated Nepali M-CHAT-R/F. The M-CHAT-R/F was adapted based on feedback from Bhutanese caregivers and interpreter expertise...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197722/reallocating-time-to-sleep-sedentary-and-active-behaviours-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-survivors-associations-with-patient-reported-outcomes
#13
Jeff K Vallance, Matthew P Buman, Brigid M Lynch, Terry Boyle
The purpose of this study was to examine potential effects of reallocating time between sleep, sedentary and active behaviours on fatigue symptoms and quality of life in a sample of non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors identified from the Western Australian Cancer Registry (N = 149) (response rate = 36%; median age = 64 years) wore an Actigraph® GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Fatigue Scale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196291/factors-influencing-attendance-at-structured-education-for-type-1-diabetes-in-south-london
#14
S M Harris, P Shah, H Mulnier, A Healey, S M Thomas, S A Amiel, D Hopkins
AIM: To investigate the factors influencing uptake of structured education for people with Type 1 diabetes in our local population in order to understand why such uptake is low. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional database study of adults with Type 1 diabetes in two south London boroughs, analysed according to Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) attendance or non-attendance. Demographics, glycaemic control and service use, with subset analysis by ethnicity, were compared using univariate analysis...
February 14, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195728/room-temperature-neutron-crystallography-of-drug-resistant-hiv-1-protease-uncovers-limitations-of-x-ray-structural-analysis-at-100k
#15
Oksana O Gerlits, David A Keen, Matthew P Blakeley, John M Louis, Irene T Weber, Andrey Y Kovalevsky
HIV-1 protease inhibitors are crucial for treatment of HIV-1/AIDS, but their effectiveness is thwarted by rapid emergence of drug resistance. To better understand binding of clinical inhibitors to resistant HIV-1 protease, we used room-temperature joint X-ray/Neutron (XN) crystallography to obtain an atomic-resolution structure of the protease triple mutant (V32I/I47V/V82I) in complex with amprenavir. The XN structure reveals a D+ ion located midway between the inner Oδ1 oxygen atoms of the catalytic aspartic acid residues...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195204/outcome-of-sentinel-hospital-based-and-cdc-based-art-service-delivery-a-prospective-open-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-china
#16
Chuanyi Ning, Kumi M Smith, Chase D McCann, Fengyu Hu, Yun Lan, Fuchun Zhang, Hao Liang, Jinmin Zhao, Joseph D Tucker, Weiping Cai
The primary objective of this study was to obtain insights into the outcomes of people living with HIV who accessed services through HIV/AIDS sentinel hospital-based and ART service delivery in China. Post-hoc analyses of an open cohort from an observational database of 22 qualified HIV/AIDS sentinel hospital-based and two CDC-based drug delivery facilities (DDFs) in Guangdong Province was completed. Linkage to care, mortality and survival rates were calculated according to WHO criteria. 12,966 individuals received ART from HIV/AIDS sentinel hospitals and 1,919 from DDFs, with linkage to care rates of 80...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194642/are-optimism-and-cynical-hostility-associated-with-smoking-cessation-in-older-women
#17
Ana M Progovac, Yue-Fang Chang, Chung-Chou H Chang, Karen A Matthews, Julie M Donohue, Michael F Scheier, Elizabeth B Habermann, Lewis H Kuller, Joseph S Goveas, Benjamin P Chapman, Paul R Duberstein, Catherine R Messina, Kathryn E Weaver, Nazmus Saquib, Robert B Wallace, Robert C Kaplan, Darren Calhoun, J Carson Smith, Hilary A Tindle
BACKGROUND: Optimism and cynical hostility independently predict morbidity and mortality in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants and are associated with current smoking. However, their association with smoking cessation in older women is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test whether optimism (positive future expectations) or cynical hostility (mistrust of others) predicts smoking cessation in older women. METHODS: Self-reported smoking status was assessed at years 1, 3, and 6 after study entry for WHI baseline smokers who were not missing optimism or cynical hostility scores (n = 10,242)...
February 13, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192633/ehlers-danlos-syndrome-classical-type
#18
Jessica M Bowen, Glenda J Sobey, Nigel P Burrows, Marina Colombi, Mark E Lavallee, Fransiska Malfait, Clair A Francomano
Classical EDS is a heritable disorder of connective tissue. Patients are affected with joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibilty, and skin fragility leading to atrophic scarring and significant bruising. These clinical features suggest consideration of the diagnosis which then needs to be confirmed, preferably by genetic testing. The most recent criteria for the diagnosis of EDS were devised in Villefranche in 1997. [Beighton et al. (1998); Am J Med Genet 77:31-37]. The aims set out in the Villefranche Criteria were: to enable diagnostic uniformity for clinical and research purposes, to understand the natural history of each subtype of EDS, to inform management and genetic counselling, and to identify potential areas of research...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188030/unveiling-of-hiv-dynamics-among-transgender-women-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#19
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Emilia M Jalil, Laylla Monteiro, Luciane Velasque, Ronaldo I Moreira, Ana Cristina F Garcia, Cristiane V Castro, Alícia Krüger, Paula M Luz, Albert Y Liu, Willi McFarland, Susan Buchbinder, Valdilea G Veloso, Erin C Wilson
BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. METHODS: We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon...
February 7, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185624/clinical-pathology-of-the-critically-endangered-gough-bunting-rowettia-goughensis
#20
M P Dagleish, P G Ryan, S Girling, A L Bond
The Gough bunting (Rowettia goughensis) is indigenous to Gough Island and critically endangered due to predation by invasive house mice (Mus musculus). A planned ecosystem restoration by eradication of house mice via aerially delivered rodenticide requires a reproductively balanced population of Gough buntings being held in captivity to avoid primary and secondary poisoning. To aid disease detection during the period of captivity, Gough buntings (n = 25; five adult females, 15 adult males and five juveniles) were captured, measured and sampled to determine reference ranges for routine haematological and biochemical parameters and to identify any faecal bacterial species and intestinal and haemoparasites...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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