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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036730/calculation-and-validation-of-the-response-matrix-for-a-neutron-multisphere-spectrometer-with-an-indium-central-detector
#1
P Vlk, M Pavlovic
Expansion of accelerator technologies into different application areas brings the need for neutron-field measurements in their vicinity. The measurements of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose rates can be done with the aid of neutron multisphere spectrometers with passive neutron detectors. In addition to the usually used thermoluminescent detectors and gold activation foils, another activation material-indium-can be considered. This paper presents a design of such an indium-based neutron multisphere spectrometer...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035873/multi-task-transfer-learning-deep-convolutional-neural-network-application-to-computer-aided-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-on-mammograms
#2
Ravi K Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Lubomir M Hadjiiski, Mark A Helvie, Kenny Cha, Caleb Richter
Transfer learning in deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) is an important step in its application to medical imaging tasks. We propose a multi-task transfer learning DCNN with the aims of translating the 'knowledge' learned from non-medical images to medical diagnostic tasks through supervised training and increasing the generalization capabilities of DCNNs by simultaneously learning auxiliary tasks. We studied this approach in an important application: classification of malignant and benign breast masses...
October 16, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035831/the-effects-of-novel-chitosan-targeted-gemcitabine-nanomedicine-mediating-cisplatin-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-invasion-and-metastasis-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#3
Haibo Yu, Hongliang Song, Jun Xiao, Haichuan Chen, Xiaodan Jin, Xizhou Lin, Bujian Pan, Wu Ji
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects involved with the novel chitosan gemcitabine (Gem) nanoparticles mediating cisplatin (DDP) on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. METHODS: A total of 62 healthy purebred BALB/C of specific-pathogen free (SPF) female nude mice were recruited and a SW1990 cell line was subsequently cultured. A heterotopic xenograft tumor model was constructed. After determining the optimal drug concentration, the nude mice were assigned into the control, glycol chitosan (GC)-Gem microsphere, antibody Complex (Abc)-GC-Gem and Abc-GC-Gem microsphere+DDP groups (n=8 in each group)...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034783/cerebral-and-limb-tissue-oxygenation-during-peripheral-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support
#4
Nousjka P A Vranken, Anouk A M A Lindelauf, Antoine P Simons, Marcel J H Ariës, Jos G Maessen, Patrick W Weerwind
Femoral access in extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been associated with regional variations in arterial oxygen saturation, potentially predisposing the patient to ischemic tissue damage. Current monitoring techniques, however, are limited to intermittent bedside evaluation of capillary refill among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral and limb regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) values reflect changes in various patient-related parameters during venoarterial ECLS (VA-ECLS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032782/pelleting-and-extrusion-can-ameliorate-negative-effects-of-toasting-of-rapeseed-meal-on-protein-digestibility-in-growing-pigs
#5
S Salazar-Villanea, E M A M Bruininx, H Gruppen, W H Hendriks, P Carré, A Quinsac, A F B van der Poel
Toasting time (TT) of rapeseed meal (RSM), the diet processing (DP) method and the interaction between both on the apparent CP digestion along the gastrointestinal tract and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids of growing pigs were investigated. The experiment consisted of a 3×3 factorial design of TT of RSM (0, 60 and 120 min) and DP method (mash, pelleting and extrusion). In total, 81 boars with a starting BW of 20 kg were euthanized 4 h after their last feeding. The gastrointestinal tract was dissected and the small intestine divided in three sections of similar length...
October 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032396/assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications
#6
M M Nashilongo, B Singu, F Kalemeera, M Mubita, E Naikaku, A Baker, A Ferrario, B Godman, L Achieng, D Kibuule
INTRODUCTION: Namibia has the highest burden and incidence of hypertension in sub-Sahara Africa. Though non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is an important cardiovascular risk factor, little is known about potential ways to improve adherence in Namibia following universal access. The objective of this study is to validate the Hill-Bone compliance scale and determine the level and predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in primary health care settings in sub-urban townships of Windhoek, Namibia...
October 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030857/funding-blood-safety-in-the-21st-century
#7
Luke Ifland, Evan M Bloch, John P Pitman
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, there has been an historic increase in international development assistance, including blood safety projects. The result has been increased blood donations and infectious disease screening in many beneficiary countries. A comprehensive examination of international development assistance for blood safety has yet to be completed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This report examines publicly available information, including donor agency websites and databases and data from the 2008 and 2012 World Health Organization Global Database on Blood Safety...
October 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029344/the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-attaining-national-hiv-aids-strategy-treatment-targets-in-the-united-states
#8
Ethan D Borre, Emily P Hyle, A David Paltiel, Anne M Neilan, Paul E Sax, Kenneth A Freedberg, Milton C Weinstein, Rochelle P Walensky
Background: The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) aims for 72% (90% diagnosed times 80% of those virally suppressed) viral suppression among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by 2020. We examined the clinical and economic impact of reaching this target, in the general US population and among black men who have sex with men (MSM), the group with the highest HIV prevalence. Methods: Using a mathematical simulation, we project the 5- and 20-year clinical outcomes, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for (1) Current Pace of detection, linkage, retention, and virologic suppression and (2) NHAS investments in expanded testing ($24-$74 per test) and adherence ($400 per person-year), calibrated to achieve 72% suppression by 2020...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028930/use-of-a-hand-held-digital-cognitive-aid-in-simulated-crises-the-max-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
R Lelaidier, B Balança, S Boet, A Faure, M Lilot, F Lecomte, J-J Lehot, T Rimmelé, J-C Cejka
Background: Cognitive aids improve the technical performance of individuals and teams dealing with high-stakes crises. Hand-held electronic cognitive aids have rarely been investigated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a smartphone application, named MAX (for Medical Assistance eXpert), on the technical and non-technical performance of anaesthesia residents dealing with simulated crises. Methods: This single-centre randomized, controlled, unblinded trial was conducted in the simulation centre at Lyon, France...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028330/ambient-stable-bis-azoaromatic-centered-diradical-l-%C3%A2-m-l-%C3%A2-complexes-of-rh-iii-synthesis-structure-redox-and-spin-spin-interaction
#10
Sima Roy, Shuvam Pramanik, Sarat Chandra Patra, Basab Adhikari, Abhishake Mondal, Sanjib Ganguly, Kausikisankar Pramanik
Bis-azoaromatic electron traps, viz. 2-(2-pyridylazo)azoarene 1, have been synthesized by colligating electron-deficient pyridine and azoarene moieties, and they act as apposite proradical templates for the formation of stable open-shell diradical complexes [(1(•-))Rh(III)(1(•-))](+) ([2](+)), starting from the low-valent electron reservoir [Rh(I)]. The less stable monoradical [Rh(III)(1(•-))Cl2(PPh3)3] (3) has also been isolated as a minor product. These π-radical complexes are multiredox systems, and the electron transfer processes occur exclusively within the pincer-type NNN ligand backbone 1...
October 13, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027862/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-outcome-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-treated-with-clipping-versus-coiling
#11
Lorenzo Rinaldo, Joshua D Hughes, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Giuseppe Lanzino
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that increased body mass index (BMI) may confer a protective effect on patients who suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Whether the modality of aneurysm occlusion influences the effect of BMI on patient outcomes is not well understood. The authors aimed to compare the effect of BMI on outcomes for patients with aSAH treated with surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the outcomes for patients admitted to their institution for the management of aSAH treated with either clipping or coiling...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027386/the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-renal-insufficiency-among-korean-hiv-infected-patients-the-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#12
Eun Jin Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Youn Jeong Kim, Seong Heon Wie, Dae Won Park, Joon Young Song, Hee Jung Choi, Hyun Ha Chang, Bo Youl Choi, Yunsu Choi, Ju Yeon Choi, Myung Guk Han, Chun Kang, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there are very few published studies about renal insufficiency in HIV-infected persons in Asia, especially in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of renal insufficiency, defined as <60 mL/min/1.73 m², in subjects in the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study enrolled from 19 institutions between December 2006 and July 2013...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025982/appropriate-use-criteria-for-somatostatin-receptor-pet-imaging-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#13
Thomas A Hope, Emily Bergsland, Murat Fani Bozkurt, Michael M Graham, Anthony P Heaney, Ken Herrmann, James R Howe, Matthew H Kulke, Pamela L Kunz, Josh Mailman, Lawrence May, David C Metz, Corina Millo, Sue O'Dorisio, Diane L Reidy-Lagunes, Michael C Soulen, Jonathan R Strosberg
Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (SSTR-PET) is an imaging modality for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that has demonstrated a significant improvement over conventional imaging (CI). SSTR-PET should replace In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy (OctreoScan) in all indications in which SSTR scintigraphy is currently being used. These appropriate use criteria (AUC) are intended to aid referring medical practitioners in the appropriate use of SSTR-PET for imaging of patients with NETs, and the indications were evaluated in well-differentiated NETs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025976/olea-glu117-is-key-to-condensation-of-two-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-substrates-in-long-chain-olefin-biosynthesis
#14
Matthew R Jensen, Brandon R Goblirsch, James K Christenson, Morgan A Esler, Fatuma A Mohamed, Lawrence P Wackett, Carrie M Wilmot
In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encode the enzymes necessary to produce cis -olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A molecules to form a β-keto acid...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025631/effect-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-risk-of-death-in-west-african-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-cell-counts-long-term-follow-up-of-the-temprano-anrs-12136-trial
#15
Anani Badje, Raoul Moh, Delphine Gabillard, Calixte Guéhi, Mathieu Kabran, Jean-Baptiste Ntakpé, Jérôme Le Carrou, Gérard M Kouame, Eric Ouattara, Eugène Messou, Amani Anzian, Albert Minga, Joachim Gnokoro, Patrice Gouesse, Arlette Emieme, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni, Cyprien Rabe, Baba Sidibé, Gustave Nzunetu, Lambert Dohoun, Abo Yao, Synali Kamagate, Solange Amon, Amadou-Barenson Kouame, Aboli Koua, Emmanuel Kouamé, Marcelle Daligou, Denise Hawerlander, Simplice Ackoundzé, Serge Koule, Jonas Séri, Alex Ani, Fassery Dembélé, Fatoumata Koné, Mykayila Oyebi, Nathalie Mbakop, Oyewole Makaila, Carolle Babatunde, Nathaniel Babatunde, Gisèle Bleoué, Mireille Tchoutedjem, Alain-Claude Kouadio, Ghislaine Sena, Sahinou-Yediga Yededji, Sophie Karcher, Christine Rouzioux, Abo Kouame, Rodrigue Assi, Alima Bakayoko, Serge K Domoua, Nina Deschamps, Kakou Aka, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Roger Salamon, Valérie Journot, Hughes Ahibo, Timothée Ouassa, Hervé Menan, André Inwoley, Christine Danel, Serge P Eholié, Xavier Anglaret
BACKGROUND: Temprano ANRS 12136 was a factorial 2 × 2 trial that assessed the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, in patients who had not reached the CD4 cell count threshold used to recommend starting ART, as per the WHO guidelines that were the standard during the study period) and 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. Early ART and IPT were shown to independently reduce the risk of severe morbidity at 30 months. Here, we present the efficacy of IPT in reducing mortality from the long-term follow-up of Temprano...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025270/design-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-colorectal-cancer-screening-decision-aid-to-promote-appropriate-screening-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#16
Christine E Kistler, Carol Golin, Carolyn Morris, Alexandra F Dalton, Russell P Harris, Rowena Dolor, Renée M Ferrari, Noel T Brewer, Carmen L Lewis
BACKGROUND: Appropriate colorectal cancer screening in older adults should be aligned with the likelihood of net benefit. In general, patient decision aids improve knowledge and values clarity, but in older adults, they may also help patients identify their individual likelihood of benefit and foster individualized decision-making. We report on the design of a randomized clinical trial to understand the effects of a patient decision aid on appropriate colorectal cancer screening. This report includes a description of the baseline characteristics of participants...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024672/conventional-and-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-and-differentiation-of-variant-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-rhdvb-and-its-recombinants
#17
K P Dalton, J L Arnal, A A Benito, G Chacón, J M Martín Alonso, F Parra
Since its emergence, variant RHDV (RHDVb/RHDV2) has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula aided by the apparent lack of cross protection provided by classic (genogroup 1; G1) strain derived vaccines. In addition to RHDVb, full-length genome sequencing of RHDV strains has recently revealed the circulation of recombinant viruses on the Iberian Peninsula. These recombinant viruses contain the RHDVb structural protein encoding sequences and the non-structural coding regions of either pathogenic RHDV-G1 strains or non-pathogenic (np) rabbit caliciviruses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024005/functional-limitations-among-responders-to-the-world-trade-center-attacks-14-years-after-the-disaster-implications-of-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Sean A P Clouston, Jack M Guralnik, Roman Kotov, Evelyn J Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with self-reported difficulties navigating the social and physical world and may also be associated with risk of functional limitations. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), an objective functional assessment, was administered during monitoring exams between January and December 2015 to a consecutive sample of 1,268 rescue workers, volunteers, and other responders who had aided in response, recovery, and cleanup efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York after the September 11, 2011 attacks...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#19
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021922/texture-feature-variability-in-ultrasound-video-of-the-atherosclerotic-carotid-plaque
#20
Christos P Loizou, Constantinos S Pattichis, Marios Pantziaris, Efthyvoulos Kyriacou, Andrew Nicolaides
The objective of this paper was to investigate texture feature variability in ultrasound video of the carotid artery during the cardiac cycle in an attempt to define new discriminatory biomarkers of the vulnerable plaque. More specifically, in this paper, 120 longitudinal ultrasound videos, acquired from 40 normal (N) subjects from the common carotid artery and 40 asymptomatic (A) and 40 symptomatic (S) subjects from the proximal internal carotid artery were investigated. The videos were intensity normalized and despeckled, and the intima-media complex (IMC) (from the N subjects) and the atherosclerotic carotid plaques (from the A and S subjects) were segmented from each video, in order to extract the M-mode image, and the texture features associated with cardiac states of systole and diastole...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
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