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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#1
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138225/androgen-signaling-expands-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-male-rats-and-%C3%AE-cell-androgen-receptor-is-degraded-under-high-glucose-conditions
#2
Naoki Harada, Yasuhiro Yoda, Yusuke Yotsumoto, Tatsuya Masuda, Yuji Takahashi, Takahiro Katsuki, Kenji Kai, Nobuaki Shiraki, Hiroshi Inui, Ryoichi Yamaji
A deficient pancreatic β-cell mass increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the effects of testosterone on the development of pancreatic β-cell mass in male rats. The β-cell mass of male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age was reduced to ~30% of that of control rats at 16 weeks of age, and castration caused glucose intolerance. Loss of β-cell mass occurred due to decreases in islet density/pancreas and β-cell cluster size. Castration was negatively associated with the number of Ki67-positive β-cells and positively associated with the number of TUNEL-positive β-cells...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129208/augmented-gene-expression-triggered-by-na-k-atpase-inhibition-role-of-ca-2-i-mediated-and-independent-excitation-transcription-coupling
#3
Larisa V Smolyaninova, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetlana V Sidorenko, Sergei N Orlov
In rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMC), 3-h Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition by ouabain or in K(+)-free medium resulted in the inversion of the [Na(+)]i/[K(+)]i ratio and elevation up to 7-fold the content of Egr1, Atf3, Nr4a1 and Ptgs2 mRNAs. Ouabain increased the rate of 45Ca(2+) influx by 2-fold that was abolished by L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine, but it was resistant to Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor KB-R7943. To study the role of Ca(2+)-mediated signaling in the expression of Na(+)i/K(+)i-sensitive genes we used intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and incubated RVSMC in Ca(2+)-free medium...
December 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104511/atp2b1-gene-silencing-increases-insulin-sensitivity-through-facilitating-akt-activation-via-the-ca-2-calmodulin-signaling-pathway-and-ca-2-associated-enos-activation-in-endothelial-cells
#4
Yang Long, Ji-Yi Xia, Shao-Wei Chen, Chen-Lin Gao, Guan-Nan Liang, Xue-Mei He, Jian Wu, Chun-Xia Jiang, Xin Liu, Wei Huang, Qin Wan, Yong Xu
Endothelial cell insulin resistance may be partially responsible for the higher risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in populations with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A genome-wide association study revealed a significant association between the ATPase plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporting 1 (ATP2B1) gene and T2DM in two community-based cohorts from the Korea Association Resource Project. However, little is known about the implication of the ATP2B1 gene on T2DM. In the present study, we investigated the role of the ATP2B1 gene in endothelial cell insulin sensitivity...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073626/diosgenin-an-activator-of-1-25d3-marrs-receptor-erp57-attenuates-the-effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-by-causing-adam10-dependent-ectodomain-shedding-of-tnf-receptor-1
#5
Won Seok Yang, Soo Young Moon, Mee Jeong Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Su-Kil Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated how diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, has anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) effects in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) was assessed by Western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Fluo-4 AM. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). RESULTS: Diosgenin (1 ∼ 100 nM) induced ectodomain shedding of TNFR1 within 30 min and attenuated TNF-α-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037868/the-fungal-neurotoxin-penitrem-a-induces-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-human-neutrophils-at-submicromolar-concentrations
#6
H F Berntsen, I L Bogen, M B Wigestrand, F Fonnum, S I Walaas, A Moldes-Anaya
Penitrem A is a fungal neurotoxin that recurrently causes intoxication in animals, and occasionally also in humans. We have previously reported that penitrem A induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat cerebellar granule cells, opening for a new mechanism of action for the neurotoxin. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of penitrem A to induce ROS production in isolated human neutrophil granulocytes, and to study possible mechanisms involved. Penitrem A significantly increased the production of ROS in human neutrophils at concentrations as low as 0...
October 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032102/regulation-of-ca-2-signaling-by-acute-hypoxia-and-acidosis-in-rat-neonatal-cardiomyocytes
#7
José-Carlos Fernández-Morales, Martin Morad
Ischemic heart disease is an arrhythmogenic condition, accompanied by hypoxia, acidosis, and impaired Ca(2+) signaling. Here we report on effects of acute hypoxia and acidification in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes cultures. RESULTS: Two populations of neonatal cardiomyocyte were identified based on inactivation kinetics of L-type ICa: rapidly-inactivating ICa (τ~20ms) myocytes (prevalent in 3-4-day cultures), and slow-inactivating ICa (τ≥40ms) myocytes (dominant in 7-day cultures). Acute hypoxia (pO2<5mmHg for 50-100s) suppressed ICa reversibly in both cell-types to different extent and with different kinetics...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019932/asic1a-promotes-acid-induced-autophagy-in-rat-articular-chondrocytes-through-the-ampk-foxo3a-pathway
#8
Beibei Dai, Fei Zhu, Yong Chen, Renpeng Zhou, Zhisen Wang, Yaya Xie, Xiaoshan Wu, Shengqin Zu, Ge Li, Jinfang Ge, Feihu Chen
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is a member of the extracellular H⁺-activated cation channels family. Our previous studies suggested that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced rat articular chondrocytes autophagy. However, its potential mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrated the effect of ASIC1a on rat articular chondrocytes autophagy and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced autophagy in rat articular chondrocytes, and which was associated with an increase in (Ca(2+))i, as indicated that acid-induced increases in mRNA and protein expression of LC3B-II and other autophagy-related markers were inhibited by ASIC1a-specific blocker, PcTx1 and calcium chelating agent, BAPTA-AM...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987803/long-acting-%C3%AE-2-adrenoreceptor-agonists-suppress-type-1-interferon-expression-in-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-via-epigenetic-regulation
#9
Chang-Hung Kuo, San-Nan Yang, Yi-Giien Tsai, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Wei-Ting Liao, Li-Chen Chen, Min-Sheng Lee, Hsuan-Fu Kuo, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Hsing Hung
The combination of inhaled long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor (LABA) and inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS) is a major therapy for asthma. However, the increased risk of infection is still a concern. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the predominant cells producing type 1 interferon (IFN) against infection. The effect of LABA/ICS on type 1 IFN expression in human pDCs is unknown. Circulating pDCs were isolated from healthy human subjects and were pretreated with glucocorticoid (GCS), LABA or a cAMP analog, and were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist CpG (TLR9) or imiquimod (TLR7) in the presence of IL-3...
October 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986307/interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-augment-acidosis-induced-rat-articular-chondrocyte-apoptosis-via-nuclear-factor-kappab-dependent-upregulation-of-asic1a-channel
#10
Ren-Peng Zhou, Bei-Bei Dai, Ya-Ya Xie, Xiao-Shan Wu, Zhi-Sen Wang, Yue Li, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Sheng-Qin Zu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
The acute-phase proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) demonstrate high-level expression and pleiotropic biological effects, and contribute to the progression and persistence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Acid hydrarthrosis is also an important pathological characteristic of RA, and the acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) plays a critical role in acidosis-induced chondrocyte cytotoxicity. However, the roles of IL-1β and TNF-α in acid-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes remain unclear...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981616/spreading-depression-promotes-astrocytic-calcium-oscillations-and-enhances-gliotransmission-to-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Dong Chuan Wu, Rita Yu-Tzu Chen, Ting-Chun Cheng, Yao-Chang Chiang, Mei-Lin Shen, Li-Ling Hsu, Ning Zhou
Spreading depression (SD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon characterized by propagating waves of profound neuronal and glial depolarization in central nervous system gray matter. Although SD is primarily mediated by neurons with a subsequent astrocytic response, it remains unclear how astrocytic activity is modulated after SD and how altered astrocyte signaling contribute to neuronal excitability. Here, we report that after the concurrent Ca2+ wave, SD enhanced astrocytic activity by promoting a secondary period of Ca2+ oscillations...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965934/the-activation-of-autophagy-protects-neurons-and-astrocytes-against-bilirubin-induced-cytotoxicity
#12
Mohammed Qaisiya, Paula Mardešić, Beatrice Pastore, Claudio Tiribelli, Cristina Bellarosa
Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) neurotoxicity involves oxidative stress, calcium signaling and ER-stress. The same insults can also induce autophagy, a process of "self-eating", with both a pro-survival or a pro-apoptotic role. Our aim was to study the outcome of autophagy activation by UCB in the highly sensitive neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and in the resistant astrocytoma U87 cells. Upon treatment with a toxic dose of UCB, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was detected in both cell lines. Inhibition of autophagy by E64d before UCB treatment increased SH-SY5Y cell mortality and made U87 cells sensitive to UCB...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950692/effect-of-carvacrol-on-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-movement-and-viability-in-pc3-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Chi-Ting Horng, Chiang-Ting Chou, Te-Kung Sun, Wei-Zhe Liang, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan
Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol compound, has been shown to possess various biological effects in different models. However, the effect of carvacrol on intracellular Ca²⁺ and its related physiology in human prostate cancer is unknown. This study explored the effect of carvacrol on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ levels ([Ca²⁺]i) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺- sensitive fluorescent dye, was used to assess [Ca²⁺]i. Cell viability was measured by the detecting reagent WST-1...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935606/calcimycin-mediates-mycobacterial-killing-by-inducing-intracellular-calcium-regulated-autophagy-in-a-p2rx7-dependent-manner
#14
Shradha Mawatwal, Assirbad Behura, Abhirupa Ghosh, Saqib Kidwai, Abtar Mishra, Amar Deep, Sakshi Agarwal, Sudipto Saha, Ramandeep Singh, Rohan Dhiman
Phenotypic screening led to the identification of calcimycin as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (M. bovis BCG) growth in vitro and in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we aim to decipher the mechanism of antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. We noticed that treatment with calcimycin led to up-regulation of different autophagy markers like Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7, Atg 3 and enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II conversion in macrophages...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919534/glutamate-induced-rapid-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-requires-nmda-receptor-mediated-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-creb
#15
Tao Chen, Jie Zhu, Li-Kun Yang, Yi Feng, Wei Lin, Yu-Hai Wang
Arc/Arg3.1 is a unique immediate early gene whose expression is highly dynamic and correlated with various forms of synaptic plasticity. Many previous reports highlight the complexity of mechanisms that regulate Arc/Arg3.1 expression in neurons. In the present study, the expression and regulation of Arc/Arg3.1 after glutamate treatment in primary cultured cortical neurons were investigated. We found that both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and Arc/Arg3.1 protein dynamically increased within 24h after glutamate treatment. The results of immunostaining showed that abundant amounts of Arc/Arg3...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912677/reversible-axonal-dystrophy-by-calcium-modulation-in-frataxin-deficient-sensory-neurons-of-yg8r-mice
#16
Belén Mollá, Diana C Muñoz-Lasso, Fátima Riveiro, Arantxa Bolinches-Amorós, Federico V Pallardó, Angel Fernandez-Vilata, María de la Iglesia-Vaya, Francesc Palau, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a peripheral neuropathy involving a loss of proprioceptive sensory neurons. Studies of biopsies from patients suggest that axonal dysfunction precedes the death of proprioceptive neurons in a dying-back process. We observed that the deficiency of frataxin in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the YG8R mouse model causes the formation of axonal spheroids which retain dysfunctional mitochondria, shows alterations in the cytoskeleton and it produces impairment of axonal transport and autophagic flux...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887310/histone-deacetylase-6-inhibition-reduces-cysts-by-decreasing-camp-and-ca-2-in-knock-out-mouse-models-of-polycystic-kidney-disease
#17
Murali K Yanda, Qiangni Liu, Valeriu Cebotaru, William B Guggino, Liudmila Cebotaru
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of multiple renal cysts, often leading to renal failure that cannot be prevented by a current treatment. Two proteins encoded by two genes are associated with ADPKD: PC1 (pkd1), primarily a signaling molecule, and PC2 (pkd2), a Ca(2+) channel. Dysregulation of cAMP signaling is central to ADPKD, but the molecular mechanism is unresolved. Here, we studied the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in regulating cyst growth to test the possibility that inhibiting HDAC6 might help manage ADPKD...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878377/calcium-ion-regulation-by-bapta-am-and-ruthenium-red-improved-the-fertilisation-capacity-and-developmental-ability-of-vitrified-bovine-oocytes
#18
Na Wang, Hai-Sheng Hao, Chong-Yang Li, Ya-Han Zhao, Hao-Yu Wang, Chang-Liang Yan, Wei-Hua Du, Dong Wang, Yan Liu, Yun-Wei Pang, Hua-Bin Zhu, Xue-Ming Zhao
Vitrification reduces the fertilisation capacity and developmental ability of mammalian oocytes; this effect is closely associated with an abnormal increase of cytoplasmic free calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]i). However, little information about the mechanism by which vitrification increases [Ca(2+)]i levels or a procedure to regulate [Ca(2+)]i levels in these oocytes is available. Vitrified bovine oocytes were used to analyse the effect of vitrification on [Ca(2+)]i, endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) (ER Ca(2+)), and mitochondrial Ca(2+) (mCa(2+)) levels...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863406/a-role-for-calcium-activated-adenylate-cyclase-and-protein-kinase-a-in-the-lens-src-family-kinase-and-na-k-atpase-response-to-hyposmotic-stress
#19
Mohammad Shahidullah, Amritlal Mandal, Nicholas A Delamere
Purpose: Na,K-ATPase activity in lens epithelium is subject to control by Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Previously we showed hyposmotic solution causes an SFK-dependent increase in Na,K-ATPase activity in the epithelium. Here we explored the role of cAMP in the signaling mechanism responsible for the SFK and Na,K-ATPase response. Methods: Intact porcine lenses were exposed to hyposmotic Krebs solution (200 mOsm) then the epithelium was assayed for cAMP, SFK phosphorylation (activation) or Na,K-ATPase activity...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833306/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-promote-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-osteoblasts-by-reinforcing-intracellular-calcium-transients
#20
Jie Tong, Lijun Sun, Bin Zhu, Yun Fan, Xingfeng Ma, Liyin Yu, Jianbao Zhang
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation...
October 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
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