Read by QxMD icon Read


Yohei Manabe, Marie Yoshimura, Kazuma Sakamaki, Asuka Inoue, Aya Kakinoki, Satoshi Hokari, Mariko Sakanaka, Junken Aoki, Hiroyuki Miyachi, Kazuyuki Furuta, Satoshi Tanaka
Accumulating evidence suggests that activated mast cells are involved in contact hypersensitivity, although the precise mechanisms of their activation are still not completely understood. We investigated the potential of common experimental allergens to induce mast cell activation using murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and rat peritoneal mast cells. Among these allergens, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinirobenzene (DNFB) were found to induce degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Sascha Behr, Maria Wartenberg, Heinrich Sauer
OBJECTIVES: Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Po-Min Yang, Yu-Ting Huang, Yu-Qi Zhang, Chia-Wen Hsieh, Being-Sun Wung
The production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study elucidated the potential role of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) in NO production and explored the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. We observed that 25μM CORM-2 could increase NO production and stimulate an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. Furthermore, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid caused CORM-2-induced NO production, which was abolished by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) release plays a major role in eNOS activation...
October 5, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Andrei Rozov, Nail Burnashev
Suppression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents by intracellular Ca(2+) has been described as a negative feedback loop in NMDAR modulation. In the time scale of tenths of milliseconds the depth of the suppression does not depend on the Ca(2+) source. It may be caused by Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated calcium channels, NMDAR channels or release from intracellular stores. However, NMDARs are often co-expressed in synapses with Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Due to significant differences in activation kinetics between these two types of glutamate receptors (GluRs), Ca(2+) entry through AMPARs precedes full activation of NMDARs, and therefore, might have an impact on the amplitude of NMDAR-mediated currents...
September 28, 2016: Cell Calcium
Ludmila A Kasatkina
4-aminopyridine is commonly used to stimulate neurotransmitter release resulting from sustained plasma membrane depolarization and Ca(2+)-influx from the extracellular space. This paper elucidated unconventional mechanism of 4-aminopyridine-stimulated glutamate release from neurons and non-neuronal cells which proceeds in the absence of external Ca(2+). In brain nerve terminals, primary neurons and platelets 4-aminopyridine induced the exocytotic release of glutamate that was independent of external Ca(2+) and was triggered by the sequestration of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fei Liu, Zi-Fa Li, Zhen-Yong Wang, Lin Wang
Ca(2+) signaling plays a vital role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy. We previously proved that cytosolic Ca(2+) overload is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced apoptosis in rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells, but the source of elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) and the effect of potential subcellular Ca(2+) redistribution on apoptosis and autophagy remain to be elucidated. Firstly, data showed that Cd-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)]c was primarily generated intracellularly. Moreover, elevations of [Ca(2+)]c and mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]mit) with depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]ER) were revealed in Cd-treated rPT cells, but this subcellular Ca(2+) redistribution was significantly suppressed by 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Mi-Hee Lim, In Cheul Jeung, Jinyoung Jeong, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jongjin Park, Yu-Seon Kang, Hansu Lee, Young-Jun Park, Hee Gu Lee, Seon-Jin Lee, Baek Soo Han, Nam Woong Song, Sang Chul Lee, Jang-Seong Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Jeong-Ki Min
Despite the rapid expansion of the biomedical applications of graphene oxide (GO), safety issues related to GO, particularly with regard to its effects on vascular endothelial cells (ECs), have been poorly evaluated. To explore possible GO-mediated vasculature cytotoxicity and determine lateral GO size relevance, we constructed four types of GO: micrometer-sized GO (MGO; 1089.9 ± 135.3 nm), submicrometer-sized GO (SGO; 390.2 ± 51.4 nm), nanometer-sized GO (NGO; 65.5 ± 16.3 nm), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs)...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Hong-Tai Chang, Chiang-Ting Chou, I-Shu Chen, Chia-Cheng Yu, Ti Lu, Shu-Shong Hsu, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan, Wei-Zhe Liang
Cytochalasin B, a cell-permeable mycotoxin isolated from the fungus Phoma spp., shows a wide range of biological effects, among which its potent antitumor activity has raised great interests in different models. However, the cytotoxic activity of cytochalasin B and its underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in breast cells. This study examined the effect of cytochalasin B on MCF 10A human breast epithelial cells and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. Cytochalasin B (10-20μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and [Ca(2+)]i rises in ZR-75-1 cells but not in MCF 10A cells...
October 1, 2016: Toxicology
Iulia I Nita, Yaki Caspi, Sagi Gudes, Dimitri Fishman, Shaya Lev, Michal Hersfinkel, Israel Sekler, Alexander M Binshtok
The nociceptive noxious heat-activated receptor - TRPV1, conducts calcium and sodium, thus producing a depolarizing receptor potential, leading to activation of nociceptive neurons. TRPV1-mediated calcium and sodium influx is negatively modulated by calcium, via calcium-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 channels. A mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter - MCU, controls mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry while a sodium/calcium transporter - NCLX shapes calcium and sodium transients by mediating sodium entry into and removing calcium from the mitochondria...
September 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
King-Chuen Wu, Ka-Shun Cheng, Yu-Wen Wang, Yuh-Fung Chen, Kar-Lok Wong, Tzu-Hui Su, Paul Chan, Yuk-Man Leung
Cells switch to anaerobic glycolysis when there is a lack of oxygen during brain ischemia. Extracellular pH thus drops and such acidosis causes neuronal cell death. The fate of astrocytes, mechanical and functional partners of neurons, in acidosis is less studied. In this report we investigated the signaling in acidosis-challenged rat cortical astrocytes and whether these signals were related to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Exposure to acidic pH (6.8, 6.0) caused Ca(2+) release and influx, p38 MAPK activation and Akt inhibition...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Joon Young Kim, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seoung-Yob Ahn, Soon-Wuk Jeong, Minhee Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah
Ginseng gintonin is an exogenous ligand of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Accumulating evidence shows LPA helps a rapid recovery of corneal damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of gintonin in a rabbit model of corneal damage. We investigated the signal transduction pathway of gintonin in human corneal epithelium (HCE) cells to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. We next evaluated the therapeutic effects of gintonin, using a rabbit model of corneal damage, by histochemical analysis...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
Ruizhen Li, Julie Leblanc, Kevin He, X Johné Liu
Intracellular calcium transients are a universal phenomenon at fertilization and are required for egg activation, but the exact role of Ca(2+) in second polar body emission remains unknown. On the other hand, similar calcium transients have not been demonstrated during oocyte maturation and, yet, manipulating intracellular calcium levels interferes with first polar body emission, in mice and frogs. To determine the precise role of calcium signaling in polar body formation, we used live cell imaging coupled with temporally precise intracellular calcium buffering...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Jessica A Fawley, Mackenzie E Hofmann, Michael C Andresen
UNLABELLED: Most craniosensory afferents have unmyelinated axons expressing TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in synaptic terminals at the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). Neurotransmission from these synapses is characterized by substantial asynchronous EPSCs following action potential-synched EPSCs and high spontaneous rates that are thermally sensitive. The present studies blocked voltage-activated calcium channels (CaV) using the nonselective CaV blocker Cd(2+) or the specific N-type blocker ω-conotoxin GVIA to examine the calcium dependence of the synchronous, asynchronous, spontaneous, and thermally gated modes of release...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jacinta H Martin, Elizabeth G Bromfield, R John Aitken, Tessa Lord, Brett Nixon
These data document the vitality of mature mouse oocytes (Metaphase II (MII)) and early stage embryos (zygotes) following exposure to the genotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, in combination with PSC833, a selective inhibitor of permeability glycoprotein. They also illustrate the vitality of parthenogencially activated and fertilized embryos following incubation with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)), cycloheximide (an antibiotic that is capable of inhibiting protein synthesis), and hydrogen peroxide (a potent reactive oxygen species)...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Cheol Yi Hong, Hyun-Ju Lee, Nu-Ri Choi, Sung-Hoon Jung, Manh-Cuong Vo, My Dung Hoang, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Je-Jung Lee
The migration of dendritic cells (DCs) to secondary lymphoid organs depends on chemoattraction through the interaction of the chemokine receptors with chemokines. However, the mechanism of how lymphoid chemokines attract DCs to lymphoid organs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of DC migration in response to the lymphoid chemokine CCL21. CCL21-mediated DC migration is controlled by the regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (SERCA2) expression rather than through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases CCL21-exposed mature DCs (mDCs) exhibited decreased SERCA2 expression but not decreased phospholamban (PLB) or Hax-1 expression, which are known to be SERCA2-interacting proteins...
2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Shu-Chung Hsieh, Chun-Chi Wu, Shih-Lan Hsu, Jung-Hsing Yen
AIMS: To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of gallic acid (GA) on the cytostatic and cytotoxicity of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HSFs were treated with a serial dose of GA for indicated time. The cytostatic and cytotoxicity of GA were evaluated by microscopy, trypan blue exclusion assay and LDH releasing. The mechanisms of GA-induced cytostatic were examined by cell cycle distribution assay and the expression of cell cycle-relative protein...
August 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Hwa-Young Lee, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Sun-Young Park, Han-Jung Chae, Jong-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: In bone metabolism, Ca(2+) disturbance and oxidative damage are the main biochemical factors related to pathology. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that also control bone endocrinology. Endocrine hormones and proteins are matured, folded, and secreted in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress has emerged as a new pathological mechanism to explain bone disturbance. Here we studied the role of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPHs) in the regulation of ER stress. METHODS: Cell viability was determined in vitro using trypan blue dye exclusion...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yang-Xia Li, Yan-Li Ren, Hai-Jing Fu, Ling Zou, Ying Yang, Zhi Chen
During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, three viral envelope proteins of HBV are overexpressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The large S protein (LHBs) and truncated middle S protein (MHBst) have been documented to play roles in regulating host gene expression and contribute to hepatic disease development. As a predominant protein at the ultrastructural level in biopsy samples taken from viremic patients, the role of the middle S protein (MHBs) remains to be understood despite its high immunogenicity...
2016: PloS One
Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation and death are involved in the pathogenesis of glomerular disorders. The mechanisms that control GMC survival are poorly understood, but may include signal transduction pathways that are modulated by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration. In this study, we investigated whether activation of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) 6 channels and successive [Ca(2+)]i elevation alter neonatal GMC survival. Hyperforin (HF)-induced TRPC6 channel activation increased [Ca(2+)]i concentration, inhibited proliferation, and triggered apoptotic cell death in primary neonatal pig GMCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lei-Lei Liu, Qin-Qin Deng, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Sigma receptor (σR), a unique receptor family, is classified into three subtypes: σR1, σR2 and σR3. It was previously shown that σR1 activation induced by 1μM SKF10047 (SKF) suppressed N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses of rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and the suppression was mediated by a distinct Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase C (PLC)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. In the present work, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we further demonstrate that SKF of higher dosage (50μM) significantly suppressed AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (L-EPSCs) of retinal ON-type GCs (ON GCs), and the effect was reversed by the σR1 antagonist BD1047, suggesting the involvement of σR1...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"