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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212796/sodium-calcium-exchanger-in-pig-coronary-artery
#1
A K Grover
This review focuses on the sodium-calcium exchangers (NCX) in the left anterior descending coronary artery smooth muscle. Bathing tissues in Na(+)-substituted solutions caused them to contract. In cultured smooth muscle cells, it increased the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and extracellular entry of (45)Ca(2+). All three activities were attributed to NCX since they were inhibited by NCX inhibitors. The tissues also expressed the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Ca(2+) pump SERCA2b whose activity was much greater than that of NCX...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212423/phenolic-extract-from-oleaster-olea-europaea-var-sylvestris-leaves-reduces-colon-cancer-growth-and-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#2
Wafa Zeriouh, Abdelhafid Nani, Meriem Belarbi, Adélie Dumont, Charlotte de Rosny, Ikram Aboura, Fatima Zahra Ghanemi, Babar Murtaza, Danish Patoli, Charles Thomas, Lionel Apetoh, Cédric Rébé, Dominique Delmas, Naim Akhtar Khan, François Ghiringhelli, Mickael Rialland, Aziz Hichami
Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211632/amp-activated-protein-kinase-activator-a-769662-increases-intracellular-calcium-and-atp-release-from-astrocytes-in-an-ampk-independent-manner
#3
Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Josephine L Robb, Ana M Cruz, Amrinder Malhi, Paul G Weightman Potter, Michael L J Ashford, Rory J McCrimmon, Kate L J Ellacott, Craig Beall
AIM: Astrocytes are the main sources of extracellular ATP (eATP) within the brain, which functions as a gliotransmitter, capable of modulating neuronal and astrocytic activity. These cells play an important role in regulating energy homeostasis partly via astrocyte-derived ATP. Given the role of AMPK in regulating intracellular ATP levels, we hypothesised that AMPK may alter ATP release from astrocytes. METHODS: Measurements of ATP release were made from human U373 astrocytoma cells, primary mouse hypothalamic (HTAS) and cortical astrocytes (CRTAS) and wild type and AMPK α1/α2 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181698/calcium-uptake-via-mitochondrial-uniporter-contributes-to-palmitic-acid-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-podocytes
#4
Zeting Yuan, Aili Cao, Hua Liu, Henjiang Guo, Yingjun Zang, Yi Wang, Yunman Wang, Hao Wang, Peihao Yin, Wen Peng
Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178976/advanced-glycation-end-products-induce-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-release-from-human-platelets-through-the-src-family-kinase-activation
#5
Kazuo Furukawa, Ichiro Fuse, Yuriko Iwakura, Hidekazu Sotoyama, Osamu Hanyu, Hiroyuki Nawa, Hirohito Sone, Nobuyuki Takei
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts beneficial effects not only on diabetic neuropathies but also on cardiovascular injury. There is argument regarding the levels of serum BDNF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Because BDNF in peripheral blood is rich in platelets, this may represent dysregulation of BDNF release from platelets. Here we focused on advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are elevated in patients with DM and have adverse effects on cardiovascular functions...
February 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130160/chelerythrine-promotes-ca-2-dependent-calpain-activation-in-neuronal-cells-in-a-pkc-independent-manner
#6
Ana Saavedra, Sara Fernández-García, Silvia Cases, Mar Puigdellívol, Rafael Alcalá-Vida, Núria Martín-Flores, Jordi Alberch, Silvia Ginés, Cristina Malagelada, Esther Pérez-Navarro
BACKGROUND: Chelerythrine is widely used as a broad range protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, but there is controversy about its inhibitory effect. Moreover, it has been shown to exert PKC-independent effects on non-neuronal cells. METHODS: In this study we investigated possible off-target effects of chelerythrine on cultured cortical rodent neurons and a neuronal cell line. RESULTS: We found that 10μM chelerythrine, a commonly used concentration in neuronal cultures, reduces PKC and cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrates phosphorylation in mouse cultured cortical neurons, but not in rat primary cortical neurons or in a striatal cell line...
January 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114360/extracellular-ca2-is-required-for-fertilization-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#7
Katherine L Wozniak, Brianna L Mayfield, Alexis M Duray, Maiwase Tembo, David O Beleny, Marc A Napolitano, Monica L Sauer, Bennett W Wisner, Anne E Carlson
BACKGROUND: The necessity of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization and early embryonic development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is controversial. Ca2+ entry into X. laevis sperm is reportedly required for the acrosome reaction, yet fertilization and embryonic development have been documented to occur in high concentrations of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Here we sought to resolve this controversy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using the appearance of cleavage furrows as an indicator of embryonic development, we found that X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104916/trpv1-activation-counters-diet-induced-obesity-through-sirtuin-1-activation-and-prdm-16-deacetylation-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#8
P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high fat (±capsaicin; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075020/adenosine-receptors-regulate-gap-junction-coupling-of-the-human-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells-hcmec-d3-by-ca-2-influx-through-cng-channels
#9
Almke Bader, Willem Bintig, Daniela Begandt, Anne Klett, Ina G Siller, Carola Gregor, Frank Schaarschmidt, Babette Weksler, Ignacio Romero, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Stefan W Hell, Anaclet Ngezahayo
The human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was used to characterize the physiological link between adenosine receptors and the gap junction coupling in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Expressed adenosine receptor subtypes and connexin (Cx) isoforms were identified by RT-PCR. Scrape loading/dye transfer was used to evaluate the impact of the A2A and A2B adenosine receptor subtype agonist 2-phenylaminoadenosine (2-PAA) on the gap junction coupling. We found that 2-PAA stimulated cAMP synthesis and enhanced gap junction coupling in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057718/calcium-mediated-oxidative-stress-a-common-mechanism-in-tight-junction-disruption-by-different-types-of-cellular-stress
#10
Ruchika Gangwar, Avtar Meena, Pradeep Shukla, Archana Nagaraja, Piotr Dorniak, Sandeep Pallikuth, Christopher Waters, Anil Sood, Radhakrishna Rao
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro , and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA. Knockdown of CaV1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052644/effect-of-thymol-on-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-homeostasis-and-viability-in-pc3-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Jeng-Hsien Yeh, Chiang-Ting Chou, I-Shu Chen, Ti Lu, Ko-Long Lin, Chia-Cheng Yu, Wei-Zhe Liang, Hong-Tai Chang, Chun-Chi Kuo, Chin-Man Ho, Wen-Teng Chang, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan
Thymol is a phenolic compound that affects physiology in different cell models. However, whether thymol affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unknown. The action of this compound on cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells was explored. The results show that thymol at concentrations of 100-1500 μM caused [Ca²⁺]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²⁺ reduced thymol’s effect by approximately 80%...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049872/involvement-of-calcium-channels-and-intracellular-calcium-in-bull-sperm-thermotaxis
#12
Md Anisuzzaman Mondal, Yuji Takagi, Shoji A Baba, Koh-Ichi Hamano
Thermotaxis that sperm migrate to higher temperature area has been confirmed in rabbit and human. In this study, we examined the migration ability of bull sperm in a temperature gradient to confirm thermotaxis and elucidate the involvement of calcium in such thermotaxis, as well as the relation between sperm capacitation and bull fertility. Thermotaxis was evaluated in a temperature gradient of 34-42ºC using a cross-type column 22-mm long, 40-mm wide, and 100-μm deep. Significantly more sperm migrated to the high-temperature area of 39ºC in a 2ºC temperature gradient, and to 40ºC in a 1ºC temperature gradient...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000054/5-flurouracil-disrupts-nuclear-export-and-nuclear-pore-permeability-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#13
Kelly J Higby, Melissa M Bischak, Christina A Campbell, Rebecca G Anderson, Sarah A Broskin, Lauren E Foltz, Jarrett A Koper, Audrey C Nickle, Karen K Resendes
Regulation of nuclear transport is an essential component of apoptosis. As chemotherapy induced cell death progresses, nuclear transport and the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are slowly disrupted and dismantled. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and the camptothecin derivatives irinotecan and topotecan, are linked to altered nuclear transport of specific proteins; however, their general effects on the NPC and transport during apoptosis have not been characterized. We demonstrate that 5-FU, but not topotecan, increases NPC permeability, and disrupts Ran-mediated nuclear transport before the disruption of the NPC...
December 20, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999084/cngc2-is-a-ca2-influx-channel-that-prevents-accumulation-of-apoplastic-ca2-in-the-leaf
#14
Yan Wang, Yan Kang, Chunli Ma, Ruiying Miao, Caili Wu, Yu Long, Ting Ge, Zinian Wu, Xiangyang Hou, Junxia Zhang, Zhi Qi
Ca2+ is absorbed by roots and transported upward through the xylem to the apoplastic space of the leaf, after which it is deposited into the leaf cell. In Arabidopsis, tonoplast-localized Ca2+/H+ transporters CATION EXCHANGER (CAX) 1 and CAX3 sequester Ca2+ from the cytosol into vacuole, but it is not known what transporter mediates the initial Ca2+ influx from the apoplast to the cytosol. Here, we report that Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL2 (CNGC2) encodes a protein with Ca2+ influx channel activity and is expressed in the leaf areas surrounding the free endings of minor veins, which is the primary site for Ca2+ unloading from the vasculature and influx into leaf cells...
December 20, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992454/the-effects-of-swiprosin-1-on-the-formation-of-pseudopodia-like-structures-and-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-coupling-in-cultured-adult-rat-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#15
Franziska Nippert, Rolf Schreckenberg, Antonia Hess, Martin Weber, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that adult terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes adapt to stress by cellular de- and redifferentiation. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that swiprosin-1 is a key player in this process. Furthermore, the relationship between swiprosin-1 and β-adrenoceptor coupling was analyzed. METHODS: In order to study the function of swiprosin-1 in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVC) they were isolated and cultured in a medium containing 20% fetal calf serum (FCS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990666/increased-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-mediates-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-wz35-via-activating-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Minxiao Chen, Bin Zhou, Peng Zhong, Vinothkumar Rajamanickam, Xuanxuan Dai, Kanchana Karvannan, Huiping Zhou, Xiuhua Zhang, Guang Liang
BACKGROUND: The limited treatment option for recurrent prostate cancer and eventual resistant to conventional chemotherapy drugs has fueled continued interest in finding new anti-neoplastic agents. WZ35, a chemical analog of curcumin, had been demonstrated to have high chemical stability and potential anticancer effects in gastric cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-prostate cancer effects of WZ35 in vitro and in vivo as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Two prostate cancer cell lines RM-1 and DU145 were utilized to test the anti-cancer effects of WZ35 and the underlying mechanism...
December 19, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988307/interleukin-6-and-neuregulin-1-as-regulators-of-utrophin-expression-via-the-activation-of-nrg-1-erbb-signaling-pathway-in-mdx-cells
#17
Nevenka Juretić, Josefina Díaz, Felipe Romero, Gustavo González, Enrique Jaimovich, Nora Riveros
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease originated by mutations in the dystrophin gene. A promising therapeutic approach deals with functional substitution of dystrophin by utrophin, a structural homolog that might be able to compensate dystrophin absence in DMD muscle fibers. It has been described that both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; Heregulin-HRG) induce utrophin expression in skeletal muscle. We investigated a possible functional link among IL-6, NRG-1 and utrophin, in normal (C57) and dystrophic (mdx) skeletal muscle cells...
December 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986325/effects-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-1-trpc1-on-the-mechanical-stretch-induced-expression-of-airway-remodeling-associated-factors-in-human-bronchial-epithelioid-cells
#18
Qian Yu, Minchao Li
Research has shown that mechanical stress stimulation can cause airway remodeling. We investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on the expression of the airway remodeling-associated factors interleukin-13 (IL-13) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) and signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelioid (16HBE) cells under mechanical stretch. A Flexcell FX-4000 Tension System with a flexible substrate was applied to stretch 16HBE cells at a 15% elongation amplitude and 1Hz frequency, with stretching for 0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958326/calcium-channels-and-oxidative-stress-mediate-a-synergistic-disruption-of-tight-junctions-by-ethanol-and-acetaldehyde-in-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#19
Geetha Samak, Ruchika Gangwar, Avtar S Meena, Roshan G Rao, Pradeep K Shukla, Bhargavi Manda, Damodaran Narayanan, Jonathan H Jaggar, RadhaKrishna Rao
Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde in most tissues. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on the tight junction integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase sensitized Caco-2 cells to ethanol-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction, whereas aldehyde dehydrogenase attenuated acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption. Ethanol up to 150 mM did not affect tight junction integrity or barrier function, but it dose-dependently increased acetaldehyde-mediated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941214/calcium-alterations-signal-either-to-senescence-or-to-autophagy-induction-in-stem-cells-upon-oxidative-stress
#20
Aleksandra V Borodkina, Alla N Shatrova, Pavel I Deryabin, Anastasiia A Griukova, Polina A Abushik, Sergei M Antonov, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Elena B Burova
Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) has been reported to play an important role in autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, however, a little is known about its impact in senescence. Here we investigated [Ca(2+)]i contribution to oxidative stress-induced senescence of human endometrium-derived stem cells (hMESCs). In hMESCs sublethal H2O2-treatment resulted in a rapid calcium release from intracellular stores mediated by the activation of PLC/IP3/IP3R pathway. Notably, further senescence development was accompanied by persistently elevated [Ca(2+)]i levels...
December 8, 2016: Aging
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