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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#1
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720617/protocol-for-an-online-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-peer-supported-self-management-intervention-for-relatives-of-people-with-psychosis-or-bipolar-disorder-relatives-education-and-coping-toolkit-react
#2
Fiona Lobban, Heather Robinson, Duncan Appelbe, Johanna Barraclough, Emma Bedson, Lizzie Collinge, Susanna Dodd, Sue Flowers, Mahsa Honary, Sonia Johnson, Ceu Mateus, Barbara Mezes, Valerie Minns, Elizabeth Murray, Andrew Walker, Paula Williamson, Catherine Wintermeyer, Steven Jones
INTRODUCTION: Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720456/mechanistic-mathematical-models-an-underused-platform-for-hpv-research
#3
REVIEW
Marc D Ryser, Patti E Gravitt, Evan R Myers
Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the field...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712137/what-indigenous-australian-clients-value-about-primary-health-care-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#4
Judith Streak Gomersall, Odette Gibson, Judith Dwyer, Kim O'Donnell, Matthew Stephenson, Drew Carter, Kootsy Canuto, Zachary Munn, Edoardo Aromataris, Alex Brown
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise client perceptions of the unique characteristics and value of care provided in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) compared to mainstream/general practitioner services, and implications for improving access to quality, appropriate primary health care for Indigenous Australians. METHOD: Standardised systematic review methods with modification informed by ethical and methodological considerations in research involving Indigenous Australians...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708945/methods-used-for-immunization-coverage-assessment-in-canada-a-canadian-immunization-research-network-cirn-study
#5
Sarah E Wilson, Susan Quach, Shannon E MacDonald, Monika Naus, Shelley L Deeks, Natasha S Crowcroft, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Dat Tran, Jeff Kwong, Karen Tu, Nicolas L Gilbert, Caitlin Johnson, Shalini Desai
Accurate and complete immunization data are necessary to assess vaccine coverage, safety and effectiveness. Across Canada, different methods and data sources are used to assess vaccine coverage, but these have not been systematically described. Our primary objective was to examine and describe the methods used to determine immunization coverage in Canada. The secondary objective was to compare routine infant and childhood coverage estimates derived from the Canadian 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (cNICS) with estimates collected from provinces and territories (P/Ts)...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706107/interventions-that-improve-maternity-care-for-immigrant-women-in-the-uk-protocol-for-a-narrative-synthesis-systematic-review
#6
Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom, Catrin Evans, Myfanwy Morgan, Kuldip Kaur Bharj, Jeanette Eldridge, Basharat Hussain
INTRODUCTION: A quarter of all births in the UK are to mothers born outside the UK. There is also evidence that immigrant women have higher maternal and infant death rates and of inequalities in the provision and uptake of maternity services/birth centres. The topic is of great significance to the National Health Service because of directives that address inequalities and the changing patterns of migration to the UK. Our main question for the systematic review is 'what interventions exist that are specifically focused on improving maternity care for immigrant women in the UK?' The primary objective of this synthesis is to generate new interpretations of research evidence...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701965/the-depression-conundrum-and-the-advantages-of-uncertainty
#7
REVIEW
Jan E Celie, Tom Loeys, Mattias Desmet, Paul Verhaeghe
According to the WHO (2012), the prevalence of unipolar depressive disorders is rising, even in those places where mental health treatments are widely available. The WHO predicts that these disorders will be the leading contributor to the global burden of disease by 2030. This sobering projection fits poorly with how psychological treatments for depression are presented in the mainstream scientific literature: as highly effective therapies, based upon a sound understanding of the causes of distress. There is a clear discrepancy between the rising prevalence figures on the one hand, and the confident claims of this effectiveness research on the other...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700284/prevalence-of-financial-fraud-and-scams-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
David Burnes, Charles R Henderson, Christine Sheppard, Rebecca Zhao, Karl Pillemer, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699994/safe-surgery-validation-of-pre-and-postoperative-checklists
#9
Francine Taporosky Alpendre, Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz, Ana Maria Dyniewicz, Maria de Fátima Mantovani, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo E Silva, Gabriela de Souza Dos Santos
Objective: to develop, evaluate and validate a surgical safety checklist for patients in the pre and postoperative periods in surgical hospitalization units. Method: methodological research carried out in a large public teaching hospital in the South of Brazil, with application of the principles of the Safe Surgery Saves Lives Programme of the World Health Organization. The checklist was applied to 16 nurses of 8 surgical units and submitted for validation by a group of eight experts using the Delphi method online...
July 10, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698336/the-characteristics-of-national-health-initiatives-promoting-earlier-cancer-diagnosis-among-adult-populations-a-systematic-review-protocol
#10
Natalia Calanzani, David Weller, Christine Campbell
INTRODUCTION: The increasing burden of cancer morbidity and mortality has led to the development of national health initiatives to promote earlier cancer diagnosis and improve cancer survival. This protocol describes a systematic review aiming to identify the evidence about such initiatives among the adult population. We will describe their components, stakeholders and target populations, and summarise their outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search databases and websites for peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on national health initiatives in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697768/identifying-inequitable-healthcare-in-older-people-systematic-review-of-current-research-practice
#11
REVIEW
Sarah M Salway, Nick Payne, Melanie Rimmer, Stefanie Buckner, Hannah Jordan, Jean Adams, Kate Walters, Sarah L Sowden, Lynne Forrest, Linda Sharp, Mira Hidajat, Martin White, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: There is growing consensus on the importance of identifying age-related inequities in the receipt of public health and healthcare interventions, but concerns regarding conceptual and methodological rigour in this area of research. Establishing age inequity in receipt requires evidence of a difference that is not an artefact of poor measurement of need or receipt; is not warranted on the grounds of patient preference or clinical safety; and is judged to be unfair. METHOD: A systematic, thematic literature review was undertaken with the objective of characterising recent research approaches...
July 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697308/evaluation-of-life-cycle-assessment-lca-for-roadway-drainage-systems
#12
Diana M Byrne, Marta K Grabowski, Amy C B Benitez, Arthur R Schmidt, Jeremy S Guest
Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated, as stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695902/methods-for-classifying-obesity-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-review
#13
REVIEW
S L Silveira, T A Ledoux, S Robinson-Whelen, R Stough, M A Nosek
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: Review methods used to measure and classify obesity in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Outline the strengths and weaknesses of each method used to measure obesity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: International. METHODS: PubMed was used to identify articles before 2016. Search terms ('obesity' or 'weight status' and 'spinal cord injury'). Filters: adults, English and human...
July 11, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694063/crowdsourced-data-collection-for-public-health-a-comparison-with-nationally-representative-population-tobacco-use-data
#14
John D Kraemer, Andrew A Strasser, Eric N Lindblom, Raymond S Niaura, Darren Mays
INTRODUCTION: Internet-based crowdsourcing is increasingly used for social and behavioral research in public health, however the potential generalizability of crowdsourced data remains unclear. This study assessed the population representativeness of Internet-based crowdsourced data. METHODS: A total of 3999 U.S. young adults ages 18 to 30years were recruited in 2016 through Internet-based crowdsourcing to complete measures taken from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)...
July 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686621/risk-of-bias-and-confounding-of-observational-studies-of-zika-virus-infection-a-scoping-review-of-research-protocols
#15
Ludovic Reveiz, Michelle M Haby, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Carlos E Pinzón-Flores, Vanessa Elias, Emma Smith, Mariona Pinart, Nathalie Broutet, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Sylvain Aldighieri, Maria D Van Kerkhove
INTRODUCTION: Given the severity and impact of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas, numerous countries have rushed to develop research studies to assess ZIKV and its potential health consequences. In an effort to ensure that studies are comprehensive, both internally and externally valid, and with reliable results, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, Institut Pasteur, the networks of Fiocruz, the Consortia for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology (CONSISE) and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) have generated six standardized clinical and epidemiological research protocols and questionnaires to address key public health questions on ZIKV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684710/community-engaged-modeling-of-geographic-and-demographic-patterns-of-multiple-public-health-risk-factors
#16
Komal Basra, M Patricia Fabian, Raymond R Holberger, Robert French, Jonathan I Levy
Many health risk factors are intervention targets within communities, but information regarding high-risk subpopulations is rarely available at a geographic resolution that is relevant for community-scale interventions. Researchers and community partners in New Bedford, Massachusetts (USA) collaboratively identified high-priority behaviors and health outcomes of interest available in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We developed multivariable regression models from the BRFSS explaining variability in exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, and diabetes prevalence as a function of demographic and behavioral characteristics, and linked these models with population microdata developed using spatial microsimulation to characterize high-risk populations and locations...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682533/assessment-of-suicidal-ideation-and-behavior-report-of-the-international-society-for-cns-clinical-trials-and-methodology-consensus-meeting
#17
Phillip B Chappell, Michelle Stewart, Larry Alphs, Franco DiCesare, Sarah DuBrava, Jill Harkavy-Friedman, Pilar Lim, Sian Ratcliffe, Morton M Silverman, Steven D Targum, Stephen R Marder
OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus recommendations for assessment of suicidal ideation/suicidal behavior (SI/SB) in clinical trials. PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, and patient advocacy organizations participated in a consensus meeting that was sponsored by the International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology and held November 17-18, 2015. Prior to the meeting, teams of experts identified key areas of consensus and dissent related to SI/SB...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682192/a-systematic-review-of-literature-on-effectiveness-of-training-in-emergency-risk-communication
#18
Ann Neville Miller, Timothy Sellnow, Lindsay Neuberger, Andrew Todd, Rebecca Freihaut, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
Although disaster preparedness training is regularly conducted for a range of health-related professions, little evidence-based guidance is available about how best to actually develop capacity in staff for conducting emergency risk communication. This article presents results of a systematic review undertaken to inform the development of World Health Organization guidelines for risk communication during public health and humanitarian emergencies. A total of 6,720 articles were screened, with 24 articles identified for final analysis...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681707/the-comet-handbook-version-1-0
#19
REVIEW
Paula R Williamson, Douglas G Altman, Heather Bagley, Karen L Barnes, Jane M Blazeby, Sara T Brookes, Mike Clarke, Elizabeth Gargon, Sarah Gorst, Nicola Harman, Jamie J Kirkham, Angus McNair, Cecilia A C Prinsen, Jochen Schmitt, Caroline B Terwee, Bridget Young
The selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial when designing clinical trials in order to compare the effects of different interventions directly. For the findings to influence policy and practice, the outcomes need to be relevant and important to key stakeholders including patients and the public, health care professionals and others making decisions about health care. It is now widely acknowledged that insufficient attention has been paid to the choice of outcomes measured in clinical trials. Researchers are increasingly addressing this issue through the development and use of a core outcome set, an agreed standardised collection of outcomes which should be measured and reported, as a minimum, in all trials for a specific clinical area...
June 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676557/effect-of-specialist-palliative-care-services-on-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-advanced-incurable-illness-in-hospital-hospice-or-community-settings-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Jan Gaertner, Waldemar Siemens, Joerg J Meerpohl, Gerd Antes, Cornelia Meffert, Carola Xander, Stephanie Stock, Dirk Mueller, Guido Schwarzer, Gerhild Becker
Objective To assess the effect of specialist palliative care on quality of life and additional outcomes relevant to patients in those with advanced illness.Design Systematic review with meta-analysis.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and trial registers searched up to July 2016.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials with adult inpatients or outpatients treated in hospital, hospice, or community settings with any advanced illness...
July 4, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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