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Public Health Research Methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149382/local-and-global-challenges-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-outcome-and-rehabilitation-assessment
#1
L E Schrieff-Elson, N Steenkamp, M I Hendricks, K G F Thomas, U K Rohlwink
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in children in both high- and low- and middle-income countries. Predicting outcome after pediatric TBI is challenging given the wide range of injury and non-injury-related factors which may have an impact. Some of these factors are relevant globally (like heterogeneity in patient and injury-related factors and research methodology) and others are more specific to local contexts (like sociodemographic and cultural factors)...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148321/impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-s-dependent-coverage-expansion-on-the-health-care-and-health-status-of-young-adults-what-do-we-know-so-far
#2
Joshua Breslau, Bradley D Stein, Bing Han, Shoshanna Shelton, Hao Yu
The dependent coverage expansion (DCE), a component of the Affordable Care Act, required private health insurance policies that cover dependents to offer coverage for policyholders' children through age 25. This review summarizes peer-reviewed research on the impact of the DCE on the chain of consequences through which it could affect public health. Specifically, we examine the impact of the DCE on insurance coverage, access to care, utilization of care, and health status. All studies find that the DCE increased insurance coverage, but evidence regarding downstream impacts is inconsistent...
December 1, 2016: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148106/epidemiology-of-donors-and-recipients-lessons-from-the-scandat-database
#3
REVIEW
G Edgren, H Hjalgrim
With the development of several 'vein-to-vein' databases, which capture data on the entire donor-recipient continuum and link this data to health outcomes, there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the health effects of all aspects of the practice of transfusion medicine. The Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database is one of several such databases, which includes all electronically available data on blood donors, donations and transfusions since the late 1960s in Sweden and the early 1980s in Denmark...
November 16, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145806/computer-and-telephone-delivered-interventions-to-support-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-research-output-and-quality
#4
Amy Waller, Sophie Dilworth, Elise Mansfield, Rob Sanson-Fisher
BACKGROUND: To assess the scope, volume and quality of research on the acceptability, utilisation and effectiveness of telephone- and computer-delivered interventions for caregivers of people living with dementia. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched (Jan 1990 - Dec 2016). Eligible papers were classified as data-based descriptive, measurement or intervention studies. Intervention studies were first categorised according to mode of delivery (e...
November 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143223/accelerating-and-strengthening-native-american-health-research-through-a-collaborative-nih-initiative
#5
Aria Davis Crump, Kathy Etz, Judith A Arroyo, Nanci Hemberger, Shobha Srinivasan
This paper is intended to provide an overview of the considerations that informed the development of a National Institutes of Health funding opportunity to promote health and prevent disease in Native Americans, including American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities. NIH Institute staff thoughtfully considered epidemiologic research findings and feedback from constituents regarding the need for more published research overall and stronger prevention efforts to address persistent health concerns affecting many Native communities...
November 16, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141963/current-and-new-challenges-in-occupational-lung-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Sara De Matteis, Dick Heederik, Alex Burdorf, Claudio Colosio, Paul Cullinan, Paul K Henneberger, Ann Olsson, Anne Raynal, Jos Rooijackers, Tiina Santonen, Joaquin Sastre, Vivi Schlünssen, Martie van Tongeren, Torben Sigsgaard
Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141032/a-qualitative-exploration-of-malaria-operational-research-situation-in-nigeria
#7
IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Maduka D Ughasoro, Akintayo Ogunwale, Oluwaseun Odeyinka, Obafemi Babalola, Salami Sharafadeen, Al-Mukhtar Y Adamu, Olufemi Ajumobi, Taiwo Orimogunje, Patrick Nguku
BACKGROUND: Malaria, remains one of the leading causes of high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite implementation of several public health interventions for its control. Operational limitations and methodological gaps have been associated with malaria control interventions and research, and these have necessitated the need for a well-tailored Malaria Operational Research (MOR) agenda. However, there is paucity of evidence-based information on relevant stakeholders' experience, awareness, perceptions and use of MOR and suggestions on setting MOR agenda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139332/the-views-of-adults-with-huntington-s-disease-on-assisted-dying-a-qualitative-exploration
#8
Laurence Regan, Nancy J Preston, Fiona J R Eccles, Jane Simpson
BACKGROUND: Assisted dying is frequently debated publicly and research often includes the views of health professionals on this issue. However, the views of people with life-limiting conditions, for whom this issue is likely to have a different resonance, are less well represented. AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore the views of people who live with the inevitability of developing Huntington's disease, a genetically transmitted disease which significantly limits life, on assisted dying...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137659/the-effectiveness-of-research-implementation-strategies-for-promoting-evidence-informed-policy-and-management-decisions-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Mitchell N Sarkies, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Elizabeth H Skinner, Romi Haas, Haylee Lane, Terry P Haines
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137552/clinical-governance-breakdown-australian-cases-of-wilful-blindness-and-whistleblowing
#10
Sonja Cleary, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: After their attempts to have patient safety concerns addressed internally were ignored by wilfully blind managers, nurses from Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service felt compelled to 'blow the whistle'. Wilful blindness is the human desire to prefer ignorance to knowledge; the responsibility to be informed is shirked. OBJECTIVE: To provide an account of instances of wilful blindness identified in two high-profile cases of nurse whistleblowing in Australia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133338/social-work-s-scope-of-practice-in-the-provision-of-primary-mental-health-care-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#11
Rachelle Ashcroft, Toula Kourgiantakis, Judith Belle Brown
INTRODUCTION: Social work is a key member of interprofessional primary healthcare teams and foundational to primary healthcare reforms that aim to improve the provision of mental healthcare. Little is known, however, about social work's scope of practice within primary healthcare settings, particularly in the provision of mental healthcare. The objective of this study is to identify and describe social work's scope of practice as it relates to mental healthcare in primary healthcare settings...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125183/ovarian-surgery-for-symptom-relief-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Sam Lepine, Junyoung Jo, Mostafa Metwally, Ying C Cheong
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Long-term health concerns include an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and the development of precancerous disease of the womb...
November 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122002/a-european-network-for-food-borne-parasites-euro-fbp-meeting-report-on-analytical-methods-for-food-borne-parasites-in-human-and-veterinary-diagnostics-and-in-food-matrices
#13
Christian Klotz, Barbara Šoba, Miha Skvarč, Sarah Gabriël, Lucy J Robertson
Food-borne parasites (FBPs) are a neglected topic in food safety, partly due to a lack of awareness of their importance for public health, especially as symptoms tend not to develop immediately after exposure. In addition, methodological difficulties with both diagnosis in infected patients and detection in food matrices result in under-detection and therefore the potential for underestimation of their burden on our societies. This, in consequence, leads to lower prioritization for basic research, e.g. for development new and more advanced detection methods for different food matrices and diagnostic samples, and thus a vicious circle of neglect and lack of progress is propagated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119009/parents-perceptions-of-reasons-for-excess-weight-loss-in-obese-children-a-peer-researcher-approach
#14
Fiona Gillison, Geraldine Cooney, Valerie Woolhouse, Angie Davies, Fiona Dickens, Penny Marno
Background: This study reports on the process of conducting participatory research by training peer researchers to conduct interviews and analyse data collected with parents of overweight children. The methodology was chosen as a means of (a) encouraging participation among a hard-to-engage group (i.e., parents of overweight children), and (b) generating novel insights and challenging academic/health professional assumptions through the involvement of parents in the interpretation of findings...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117226/sexual-assault-incidents-among-college-undergraduates-prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-risk
#15
Claude A Mellins, Kate Walsh, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie Wall, Louisa Gilbert, John S Santelli, Martie Thompson, Patrick A Wilson, Shamus Khan, Stephanie Benson, Karimata Bah, Kathy A Kaufman, Leigh Reardon, Jennifer S Hirsch
Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes) and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112494/proposal-for-the-creation-of-a-national-strategy-for-precision-medicine-in-cancer-a-position-statement-of-seom-seap-and-sefh
#16
Pilar Garrido, Azucena Aldaz, Miguel Ángel Calleja, Enrique De Álava, María Jesús Lamas, Miguel Martín, Xavier Matías-Guiu, José Palacios, Ruth Vera
Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Precision medicine is transforming clinical and biomedical research, as well as health care itself from a conceptual, as well as a methodological viewpoint, providing extraordinary opportunities to improve public health and lower the costs of the healthcare system. However, the implementation of precision medicine poses ethical-legal, regulatory, organizational and knowledge-related challenges...
November 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110677/using-meta-quality-to-assess-the-utility-of-volunteered-geographic-information-for-science
#17
Shaun A Langley, Joseph P Messina, Nathan Moore
BACKGROUND: Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has strong potential to be increasingly valuable to scientists in collaboration with non-scientists. The abundance of mobile phones and other wireless forms of communication open up significant opportunities for the public to get involved in scientific research. As these devices and activities become more abundant, questions of uncertainty and error in volunteer data are emerging as critical components for using volunteer-sourced spatial data...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105853/measuring-the-impact-of-medicines-regulatory-interventions-systematic-review-and-methodological-considerations
#18
Thomas Goedecke, Daniel Morales, Alexandra Pacurariu, Xavier Kurz
AIM: Evaluating the public health impact of regulatory interventions is important but there is currently no common methodological approach to guide this evaluation. This systematic review provides a descriptive overview of the analytical methods for impact research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of European Union or non-European Union regulatory actions to safeguard public health published until March 2017...
November 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097072/recommendations-for-randomised-trials-in-surgical-oncology
#19
J C Glasbey, E L Magill, K Brock, S P Bach
Trials of surgical procedures in the treatment of malignant disease face a unique set of challenges. This review aimed to describe recommendations for the design, delivery and reporting of randomised trials in surgical oncology. A literature search was carried out without date limits to identify articles related to trial methodology research in surgery and surgical oncology. A narrative review was framed around two open National Institute of Health Research portfolio trials in colon and rectal cancer: the STAR-TREC trial (ISRCTN14240288) and the ROCCS trial (ISRCTN46330337)...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096721/methodological-quality-and-transparency-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-non-communicable-diseases-using-the-agree-ii-instrument-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa Molino, Eliane Ribeiro, Nicolina Silvana Romano-Lieber, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Daniela Oliveira de Melo
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) constitute an important tool for the promotion of evidence-based health, which may improve healthcare outcomes for individuals with NCDs. Studies have shown that many CPGs have poor or moderate quality. Therefore, the aim of the proposed study is to systematically identify and appraise CPGs for pharmacological treatment of the most prevalent NCDs in primary care. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search will be conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library...
November 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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