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Public Health Research Methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933677/exploring-health-work-a-critical-action-perspective
#1
John Hassard, Paula Hyde, Julie Wolfram Cox, Edward Granter, Leo McCann
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a hybrid approach to the research developed during a multi-researcher, ethnographic study of NHS management in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This methodological paper elaborates a hybrid approach to the sociological analysis - the critical-action theory - and indicates how it can contribute to the critical health management studies. Findings After exploring the various theoretical, methodological and philosophical options available, the paper discusses the main research issues that influenced the development of this perspective and the process by which the critical-action perspective was applied to the studies of managerial work in four health service sectors - acute hospitals, ambulance services, community services and mental healthcare...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929554/optimizing-patient-and-public-involvement-ppi-identifying-its-essential-and-desirable-principles-using-a-systematic-review-and-modified-delphi-methodology
#2
Rebecca L Baines, Sam Regan de Bere
BACKGROUND: There is international interest in the active involvement of patients and the public. However, consensus on how best to optimize its application is currently unavailable. OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the underlying principles of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services, research, education and regulation across medicine, dentistry and nursing. DESIGN: A four-phase methodology: (i) an extensive systematic review of published and grey literature; (ii) inductive thematic analysis of review findings; (iii) development of best practice principles; and (iv) consensus testing of identified principles using a modified Delphi methodology...
September 19, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929402/characteristics-of-laws-requiring-physicians-to-report-patient-information-for-public-health-surveillance-notable-patterns-from-a-nevada-case-study
#3
Maxim Gakh, Brian Labus, Brittany Walker
Laws across the globe require healthcare providers to disclose patient health information to public health entities for surveillance and intervention purposes. Physicians play a unique role in such mandatory reporting regimes. However, research reveals consistent under-reporting and points to limited knowledge of mandates, perceived burdens of reporting, misaligned incentives and penalties, and a lack of streamlined processes as significant reporting barriers. These barriers suggest that how legal mandates are structured may impact compliance; yet little research systematically examines their characteristics...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926600/publication-trends-of-research-on-diabetes-mellitus-and-t-cells-1997-2016-a-20-year-bibliometric-study
#4
Ye Gao, Yiran Wang, Xiao Zhai, Yifei He, Rong Chen, Jingjing Zhou, Ming Li, Qijin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a huge burden for human health. Recent studies show the close relationship between DM and T cells. We investigated the trend in DM and T cells research. METHODS: Using the Web of Science database, we searched the publications on DM and T cells in 1997-2016, and studied the source data using bibliometric methodology. Excel 2016, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the publication trend in DM and T cells research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922704/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#5
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), e.g. sofosbuvir, are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). Sustained virological response (SVR) is used by investigators and regulatory agencies as a surrogate outcome for morbidity and mortality, based solely on observational evidence...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915435/an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-on-the-public-health-consequences-of-social-isolation-and-loneliness
#6
REVIEW
N Leigh-Hunt, D Bagguley, K Bash, V Turner, S Turnbull, N Valtorta, W Caan
OBJECTIVES: Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality...
September 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914122/improving-health-in-prisons-from-evidence-to-policy-to-implementation-experiences-from-the-uk
#7
Jane Leaman, Anna Amelia Richards, Lynn Emslie, Eamonn Joseph O'Moore
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the components of a high-quality prison healthcare system and the impact, ten-years on, of the transfer of accountability in England, from a justice ministry to a health ministry. Design/methodology/approach A rapid the evidence review was undertaken, which included a review of 82 papers and qualitative interviews with key informants. The concepts and themes identified were summarised and analysed through a framework analysis, designed to improve population outcomes and address health inequalities...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914094/quality-assessment-of-economic-evaluations-of-suicide-and-self-harm-interventions
#8
Lizell Bustamante Madsen, Michael Eddleston, Kristian Schultz Hansen, Flemming Konradsen
BACKGROUND: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. AIM: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016...
September 15, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912672/maximizing-the-potential-of-longitudinal-cohorts-for-research-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-community-perspective
#9
Catherine J Moody, Derick Mitchell, Grace Kiser, Dag Aarsland, Daniela Berg, Carol Brayne, Alberto Costa, Mohammad A Ikram, Gail Mountain, Jonathan D Rohrer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Leonard H van den Berg, Joanna M Wardlaw
Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905680/roma-never-die-alone
#10
Tania Garcia-Espinel, Laura Aso, Gisela Redondo-Sama, Ainhoa Flecha
A common characteristic of Roma as a cultural group is that they do not allow their elderly to die alone. Nevertheless, rooted in a mainstream cultural perspective of health provision services, public institutions usually do not allow Roma people to be with their loved ones in their last moments. Following the communicative methodology, we conducted a communicative case study on the death of the most relevant female Roma leader in Catalonia. She was accompanied by more than two hundred family members and friends in her room and corridor at an important hospital in Barcelona...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903473/baseline-anatomical-assessment-of-the-uterus-and-ovaries-in-infertile-women-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-on-which-assessment-methods-are-the-safest-and-most-effective-in-terms-of-improving-fertility-outcomes
#11
Sarah C Armstrong, Marian Showell, Elizabeth A Stewart, Robert W Rebar, Sheryl Vanderpoel, Cynthia M Farquhar
BACKGROUND: This review focuses on the initial presentation of women who suspect that they are infertile, and how best to assess the anatomy of their uterus and ovaries in order to investigate the cause of their infertility, and potentially improve desired fertility outcomes. This review was undertaken as part of a World Health Organization initiative to assess the evidence available to address guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility within a global context. Providing access to care for infertile women will help to ease the psycho-social burdens, such as ostracization, intimate partner violence and other negative consequences of being involuntarily childless or unable to become pregnant despite desiring a biological child or children...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898961/the-economic-impact-of-workplace-wellness-programmes-in-canada
#13
J C Jacobs, E Yaquian, S M Burke, M Rouse, G Zaric
Background: The economic benefits of workplace wellness programmes (WWPs) are commonly cited as a reason for employers to implement such programmes; however, there is limited evidence outside of the US context exploring their economic impact. US evidence is less relevant in countries such as Canada with universal publicly funded health systems because of the lower potential employer savings from WWPs. Aims: To conduct a systematic review of the Canadian literature investigating the economic impact of WWPs from an employer perspective...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898503/using-appreciative-inquiry-methodology-to-develop-a-weight-management-program-for-obese-children-in-new-zealand
#14
Tasileta Teevale, Joseph K Kaholokula
OBJECTIVES: Paediatric obesity predicts adult obesity, and alarming new data in New Zealand reveals that obesity among the young continues to rise. In this study, we used a novel solution-focused paradigm, or appreciative inquiry perspective, to explore the factors that influence not just obese but non-obese states (that is, healthy weight as well as obesity), in Pacific adolescents (aged 13-17) living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. METHODS: Sixty-eight parents and adolescents from 30 families were recruited and interviewed, resulting in 15 obese and 15 healthy weight adolescents participating in the study...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894766/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-and-the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#15
Andrea L Lorden, Luohua Jiang, Tiffany A Radcliff, Kathleen A Kelly, Robert L Ohsfeldt
BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. AIMS: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893477/live-attenuated-tetravalent-dengue-vaccines-the-needs-and-challenges-of-post-licensure-evaluation-of-vaccine-safety-and-effectiveness
#16
REVIEW
Ole Wichmann, Kirsten Vannice, Edwin J Asturias, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Ira Longini, Anna Lena Lopez, Peter G Smith, Hasitha Tissera, In-Kyu Yoon, Joachim Hombach
Since December 2015, the first dengue vaccine has been licensed in several Asian and Latin American countries for protection against disease from all four dengue virus serotypes. While the vaccine demonstrated an overall good safety and efficacy profile in clinical trials, some key research questions remain which make risk-benefit-assessment for some populations difficult. As for any new vaccine, several questions, such as very rare adverse events following immunization, duration of vaccine-induced protection and effectiveness when used in public health programs, will be addressed by post-licensure studies and by data from national surveillance systems after the vaccine has been introduced...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892501/implementation-of-a-study-to-examine-the-persistence-of-ebola-virus-in-the-body-fluids-of-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-in-sierra-leone-methodology-and-lessons-learned
#17
Gibrilla Fadlu Deen, Suzanna L R McDonald, Jaclyn E Marrinan, Foday R Sesay, Elizabeth Ervin, Anna E Thorson, Wenbo Xu, Ute Ströher, Patricia Ongpin, Neetu Abad, Archchun Ariyarajah, Tasneem Malik, Hongtu Liu, Christine Ross, Kara N Durski, Philippe Gaillard, Oliver Morgan, Pierre Formenty, Barbara Knust, Nathalie Broutet, Foday Sahr
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic was unprecedented in terms of the number of cases and survivors. Prior to this epidemic there was limited data available on the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids and the potential risk of transmission, including sexual transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the urgent need to determine the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids, an observational cohort study was designed and implemented during the epidemic response operation in Sierra Leone...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891342/towards-a-critical-health-equity-research-stance-why-epistemology-and-methodology-matter-more-than-qualitative-methods
#18
Lisa Bowleg
Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882443/debate-on-vaccines-and-autoimmunity-do-not-attack-the-author-yet-discuss-it-methodologically
#19
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Since Jenner, vaccines and vaccinations have stirred a hot, highly polarized debate, leading to contrasting positions and feelings, ranging from acritical enthusiasm to blind denial. On the one hand, we find anti-vaccination movements which divulge and disseminate misleading information, myths, prejudices, and even frauds, with the main aim of denying that vaccination practices represent a major public health measure, being effective in controlling infectious diseases and safeguarding the wellbeing of entire communities...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881046/a-meta-analysis-of-the-effect-on-maternal-health-of-upright-positions-during-the-second-stage-of-labour-without-routine-epidural-analgesia
#20
REVIEW
Ayse Deliktas, Kamile Kukulu
AIM: To detect the effect on maternal health of upright positions during the second stage of labour. BACKGROUND: Maternal position during labour has an important effect on maternal and foetal health. DESIGN: A meta-analysis was used based on the Cochrane Handbook. DATA SOURCES: Randomized/nonrandomized clinical trials were searched with English and Turkish key words in databases (CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, Springer Link, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations, Proquest, ULAKBİM (Turkish Academic Network and Information Center) and YÖK (Turkish Council of Higher Education) (1970-December 2015)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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