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Public Health Research Methodology

Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Khe Foon Hew, Chung Kwan Lo
BACKGROUND: The use of flipped classroom approach has become increasingly popular in health professions education. However, no meta-analysis has been published that specifically examines the effect of flipped classroom versus traditional classroom on student learning. This study examined the findings of comparative articles through a meta-analysis in order to summarize the overall effects of teaching with the flipped classroom approach. We focused specifically on a set of flipped classroom studies in which pre-recorded videos were provided before face-to-face class meetings...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alessia Bramanti, Ernesto D'Aloja, Federico Cabras, Pasquale Paribello, Maria Francesca Moro, Jutta Lindert, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Introduction: Two main demographic phenomena have substantially changed the condition of elderly: the growth of the urban population and the increase in longevity. Objective: The aim of the present review is to investigate how the elderly living in the cities perceive the sense of insecurity compared to those who reside in rural areas, and their Quality of Life (QoL). Method: Studies published from January 2011 to August 2017 were identified on Google and PubMed combining the following terms: "elderly urban/rural QoL" or "old age urban/rural QoL"...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Dylan Kneale, Antonio Rojas-García, James Thomas
As evidence generators, we need to respond to the changes in the health delivery landscape if we are to continue to support public health decision-makers to make informed and judicious evidence-based choices. This study employs documentary analysis to (i) explore the extent of research evidence use in public health decision-making; (ii) to analyse occurrences of research evidence use in decision-making and (iii) to ascertain whether patterns of evidence use overlap with other area characteristics. Health and Wellbeing Strategies constitute the main source of documentary evidence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
E Byrne, E Elliott, R Saltus, J Angharad
Background: We propose that arts based methodologies can be of value in the production and exchange of evidence in supporting public health related policy. This article reports on a collaborative piece of work resulting from two projects which took place in a former coal mining town in South Wales. Methods: We used a participatory framework whereby researchers, community members and artists co-produced 'evidence' through the creative arts to inform public policy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
M Cheetham, A Wiseman, B Khazaeli, E Gibson, P Gray, P Van der Graaf, R Rushmer
Background: Embedded research (ER) is recognized as one way to strengthen the integration of evidence into public health (PH) practice. In this paper, we outline a promising example of the co-production of research evidence between Fuse, the UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health and a local authority (LA) in north east England. Methods: We critically examine attempts to share and use research findings to influence decision-making in a LA setting, drawing on insights from PH practitioners, managers, commissioners and academic partners involved in this organizational case study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Mihaela Kelemen, Emma Surman, Lisa Dikomitis
BACKGROUND: A significant challenge in Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) in health research is to include a wide range of opinions and experiences, including from those who repeatedly find themselves at the margins of society. OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the debate around PPIE by introducing a bottom-up methodology: cultural animation (CA). Cultural Animation is an arts-based methodology of knowledge co-production and community engagement which employs a variety of creative and participatory exercises to help build trusting relationships between diverse participants (expert and non-experts) and democratize the process of research...
March 12, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Lisa Beccaria, Megan Y C A Kek, Henk Huijser
OBJECTIVES: In this paper, a review of nursing education literature is employed to ascertain the extent to which nursing educators apply theory to their research, as well as the types of theory they employ. In addition, the use of research methodologies in the nursing education literature is explored. DESIGN: An integrative review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition databases from 2001 to 2016, of which 140 were reviewed...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Olivia I Okereke, Charles F Reynolds, David Mischoulon, Grace Chang, Nancy R Cook, Trisha Copeland, Georgina Friedenberg, Julie E Buring, JoAnn E Manson
RATIONALE: Depression is a leading cause of disease burden and disability for older adults; thus, prevention is a priority. Biologic and observational data support potential mental health benefits of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids; however, it is unclear whether these supplements can prevent late-life depression. DESIGN: We describe the novel methodology of a large-scale prevention study: VITAL-DEP (VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL-Depression Endpoint Prevention), an ancillary to the VITAL trial...
March 8, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Ana P Ortiz, Daisy González, Jeslie Ramos, Cristina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Reyes, Cynthia M Pérez
BACKGROUND: Despite limited data, research suggests that marijuana use is associated with oral HPV infection and periodontitis, two potential oropharyngeal cancer risk factors. We assessed these associations in a Hispanic adult population in Puerto Rico. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 735 adults assessed marijuana use, determined through an audio computer-assisted self-interview, and periodontitis and self-collection of oral HPV samples following the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Rodrigo Postigo, Sabine Brosch, Jim Slattery, Anja van Haren, Jean-Michel Dogné, Xavier Kurz, Gianmario Candore, Francois Domergue, Peter Arlett
The analysis of safety data from spontaneous reporting systems has a proven value for the detection and analysis of the risks of medicines following their placement on the market and use in medical practice. EudraVigilance is the pharmacovigilance database to manage the collection and analysis of suspected adverse reactions to medicines authorised in the European Economic Area. EudraVigilance first operated in December 2001, with access to the database being governed by the EudraVigilance access policy. We performed a literature search including data up to December 2016 to demonstrate how the data from EudraVigilance has been used in scientific publications...
March 9, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Nicola Parkin, Susan Furness, Anwar Shah, Bikram Thind, Zoe Marshman, Gillian Glenroy, Fiona Dyer, Philip E Benson
BACKGROUND: The permanent canine tooth in the maxillary (upper) jaw sometimes does not erupt into the mouth correctly. In about 1% to 3% of the population these teeth will be diverted into the roof of the mouth (palatally). It has been suggested that if the primary canine is removed at the right time this palatal eruption might be avoided. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of extracting the primary maxillary canine on the eruption of the palatally ectopic maxillary permanent canine...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephanie Mazzucca, Rachel G Tabak, Meagan Pilar, Alex T Ramsey, Ana A Baumann, Emily Kryzer, Ericka M Lewis, Margaret Padek, Byron J Powell, Ross C Brownson
Background: The need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions. Methods: We reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Peter F Howard, Zhanming Liang, Sandra Leggat, Leila Karimi
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report on the validation of a management competency assessment tool for health services managers (HSM), which resulted from the development and validation of the framework, addressed by a previous paper. Design/methodology/approach The management competency assessment tool (MCAP Tool) was validated using assessment data from a sample of 117 senior and middle managers working in two public hospitals and five community services in Victoria, Australia. The assessments were conducted between January 2013 and September 2014...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
A Rosser, F M Marx, M Pareek
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB), defined as TB that recurs after a patient has been considered cured, constitutes a challenge to TB control. In low TB burden countries, the underlying causes and consequences of recurrent TB are poorly understood. We conducted a literature review to summarise the evidence of recurrent TB in low-burden settings and to address current gaps in knowledge. We included peer-reviewed publications on studies conducted in countries with an estimated TB incidence of <100 cases per 100 000 population...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Letícia M Ricardo, Bianca M Dias, Fernanda L B Mügge, Viviane V Leite, Maria G L Brandão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes the potential of plants used in secular traditional medicine and considers this an important source of evidence to assess their effectiveness and safety. Brazil is rich in biodiversity and traditional uses based on the Amerindian culture. However, many processes started with the arrival of the Portuguese in the year 1500. The sucessive economic cycles, for example, led to destruction of native vegetation and an intense cultural erosion...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Junqiang Zhao, Xinjuan Liu, Wei Zhang, Yana Xing, Sang Wouk Cho, Yufang Hao
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based nursing has been highlighted and highly developed in recent decades in mainland China. Nevertheless, little is known about its overall development. AIMS: To gain insights on the overall development of evidence-based nursing in the most recent 5 years and to inform future evidence-based nursing research in mainland China. METHOD: Four Chinese and four English databases were searched with the search terms "evidence-based practice," "nurse or nursing," and "China or Chinese" from 2012 to 2016...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Emilio Villa-González, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Kelly R Evenson, Palma Chillón
Active commuting to school has been recognized as a potential avenue to increase physical activity in children and adolescents. However, active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main aim in the current study was to update a previous systematic review on interventions focused on active travel to school, following the same methodology and addressing the quality and effectiveness of new studies detected in the more recent scientific literature. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active commuting to school published from February 2010 to December 2016...
February 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Patricia Healy, Sandra Galvin, Paula R Williamson, Shaun Treweek, Caroline Whiting, Beccy Maeso, Christopher Bray, Peter Brocklehurst, Mary Clarke Moloney, Abdel Douiri, Carrol Gamble, Heidi R Gardner, Derick Mitchell, Derek Stewart, Joan Jordan, Martin O'Donnell, Mike Clarke, Sue H Pavitt, Eleanor Woodford Guegan, Amanda Blatch-Jones, Valerie Smith, Hannah Reay, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Despite the problem of inadequate recruitment to randomised trials, there is little evidence to guide researchers on decisions about how people are effectively recruited to take part in trials. The PRioRiTy study aimed to identify and prioritise important unanswered trial recruitment questions for research. The PRioRiTy study - Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) included members of the public approached to take part in a randomised trial or who have represented participants on randomised trial steering committees, health professionals and research staff with experience of recruiting to randomised trials, people who have designed, conducted, analysed or reported on randomised trials and people with experience of randomised trials methodology...
March 1, 2018: Trials
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