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Public Health Research Methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230244/topical-anaesthetics-for-pain-control-during-repair-of-dermal-laceration
#1
REVIEW
Baraa O Tayeb, Anthony Eidelman, Cristy L Eidelman, Ewan D McNicol, Daniel B Carr
BACKGROUND: Topical local anaesthetics provide effective analgesia for patients undergoing numerous superficial procedures, including repair of dermal lacerations. The need for cocaine in topical anaesthetic formulations has been questioned because of concern about adverse effects, thus novel preparations of cocaine-free anaesthetics have been developed. This review was originally published in 2011 and has been updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether benefits of non-invasive topical anaesthetic application occur at the expense of decreased analgesic efficacy...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228133/is-there-enough-research-output-of-eu-projects-available-to-assess-and-improve-health-system-performance-an-attempt-to-understand-and-categorise-the-output-of-eu-projects-conducted-between-2002-and-2012
#2
Britta Zander, Reinhard Busse
BACKGROUND: Adequate performance assessment benefits from the use of disaggregated data to allow a proper evaluation of health systems. Since routinely collected data are usually not disaggregated enough to allow stratified analyses of healthcare needs, utilisation, cost and quality across different sectors, international research projects could fill this gap by exploring means to data collection or even providing individual-level data. The aim of this paper is therefore to (1) study the availability and accessibility of relevant European-funded health projects, and (2) to analyse their contents and methodologies...
February 22, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220393/common-and-distinct-regulation-of-human-and-mouse-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Christopher Cervantes, Feng Liu
Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation...
February 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213599/health-information-needs-source-preferences-and-engagement-behaviours-of-women-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-across-the-care-continuum-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#4
Carol A Tucker, M Pilar Martin, Ray B Jones
INTRODUCTION: The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202078/examples-of-sex-gender-sensitivity-in-epidemiological-research-results-of-an-evaluation-of-original-articles-published-in-jech-2006-2014
#5
Ingeborg Jahn, Claudia Börnhorst, Frauke Günther, Tilman Brand
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, sex and gender biases have been identified in various areas of biomedical and public health research, leading to compromised validity of research findings. As a response, methodological requirements were developed but these are rarely translated into research practice. The aim of this study is to provide good practice examples of sex/gender sensitive health research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of research articles published in JECH between 2006 and 2014...
February 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194599/common-factors-in-community-mental-health-intervention-a-scoping-review
#6
Sean A Kidd, Larry Davidson, Kwame McKenzie
While there is considerable research and commentary devoted to common factors in psychotherapy, their implications for community mental health interventions are much less clear. In response, a scoping review was conducted to answer the question, 'What is the evidence base for common factors in community mental health intervention?' A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed. A total of 60 publications were identified in this review with a focus primarily upon therapeutic alliance...
February 13, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194338/development-of-medical-writing-in-india-past-present-and-future
#7
REVIEW
Suhasini Sharma
Pharmaceutical medical writing has grown significantly in India in the last couple of decades. It includes preparing regulatory, safety, and publication documents as well as educational and communication material related to health and health-care products. Medical writing requires medical understanding, knowledge of drug development and the regulatory and safety domains, understanding of research methodologies, and awareness of relevant regulations and guidelines. It also requires the ability to analyze, interpret, and present biomedical scientific data in the required format and good writing skills...
January 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186067/national-monitoring-and-evaluation-of-health-it-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#8
Sidsel Villumsen, Christian Nøhr
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the pace of Health Information Technology (HIT) adoption across states is critical for providing data to formulate future national and regional HIT policies. However, repeated monitoring of the progress on implementation of the strategies is often scarce. The lack of systematic monitoring of progress in availability and use of HIT has led to a need for an overview of the key concepts and methodologies used in the scattered scientific literature. The scoping study aims at achieving both in-depth and broad results, identifying all relevant material, regardless of the design...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183354/protocol-for-the-analysis-of-a-natural-experiment-on-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-diabetes-care-in-community-health-centers
#9
Nathalie Huguet, Heather Angier, Miguel Marino, K John McConnell, Megan J Hoopes, Jean P O'Malley, Lewis A Raynor, Sonja Likumahuwa-Ackman, Heather Holderness, Jennifer E DeVoe
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansions could substantially improve access to health insurance and healthcare services for patients at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), with pre-DM, or already diagnosed with DM. The ACA called for every state to expand Medicaid coverage by 2014. In a 2012 legal challenge, the US Supreme Court ruled that states were not required to implement Medicaid expansions. This 'natural experiment' presents a unique opportunity to learn whether and to what extent Medicaid expansion can affect healthcare access and services for patients with DM risk, pre-DM, or DM...
February 10, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181214/aspirin-single-dose-for-perineal-pain-in-the-early-postpartum-period
#10
REVIEW
Sujana Molakatalla, Emily Shepherd, Rosalie M Grivell
BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma (due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy) or in association with operative vaginal birth) is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179739/engaging-in-collaborative-research-focus-on-the-pharmacy-practitioner
#11
Melissa Badowski, Joseph E Mazur, Simon W Lam, Marta Miyares, Lucas Schulz, Sarah Michienzi
Research offers an opportunity for investigators to explore unanswered questions, highlight best practices, and engage in collaboration. Clinical research can engage health care professionals to identify treatments or procedures to enhance patient care, quality of life, and outcomes. Research may also include experiences in a unique practice site or teaching methodology of trainees, staff, or patients. The goal of research is to improve individual patient care via dissemination of knowledge through publications...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165272/systematic-review-of-smart-recovery-outcomes-process-variables-and-implications-for-research
#12
Alison K Beck, Erin Forbes, Amanda L Baker, Peter J Kelly, Frank P Deane, Anthony Shakeshaft, David Hunt, John F Kelly
Clinical guidelines recommend Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery) and 12-step models of mutual aid as important sources of long-term support for addiction recovery. Methodologically rigorous reviews of the efficacy and potential mechanisms of change are available for the predominant 12-step approach. A similarly rigorous exploration of SMART Recovery has yet to be undertaken. We aim to address this gap by providing a systematic overview of the evidence for SMART Recovery in adults with problematic alcohol, substance, and/or behavioral addiction, including (i) a commentary on outcomes assessed, process variables, feasibility, current understanding of mental health outcomes, and (ii) a critical evaluation of the methodology...
February 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164448/interactions-between-sleep-movement-and-other-non-movement-behaviours-in-the-pathogenesis-of-childhood-obesity
#13
REVIEW
J-P Chaput, T J Saunders, V Carson
Research examining the health effects of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep on different health outcomes has largely been conducted independently or in isolation of the other behaviours. However, the fact that time is finite (i.e. 24 h) suggests that the debate on whether or not the influence of a single behaviour is independent of another one is conceptually incorrect. Time spent in one behaviour should naturally depend on the composition of the rest of the day. Recent evidence using more appropriate analytical approaches to deal with this methodological issue shows that the combination of sleep, movement and non-movement behaviours matters and all components of the 24-h movement continuum should be targeted to enhance health and prevent childhood obesity...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162839/a-systematic-review-of-measurement-properties-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-used-in-patients-undergoing-total-knee-arthroplasty
#14
Joel J Gagnier, Megan Mullins, Hsiaomin Huang, Danica Marinac-Dabic, Anna Ghambaryan, Benjamin Eloff, Faisal Mirza, Manuel Bayona
BACKGROUND: While clinical research on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes is prevalent in the literature, studies often have poor methodological and reporting quality. A high-quality patient-reported outcome instrument is reliable, valid, and responsive. Many studies evaluate these properties, but none have done so with a systematic and accepted method. The objectives of this study were to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for TKA, and to critically appraise, compare, and summarize their psychometric properties using accepted methods...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161005/surgery-investigators-funded-through-the-national-institutes-of-health-a-rebirth
#15
Yinin Hu, Brandy L Edwards, Kevin Hu, Kendall D Brooks, Craig L Slingluff
BACKGROUND: Funding toward surgical research through the National Institutes of Health has decreased relative to other medical specialties. This study was initiated to characterize features of academically successful surgeon-scientists and departments of surgery. We hypothesized that there may be decreases in young investigators obtaining independent National Institutes of Health awards and that successful academic departments of surgery may be depending increasingly on PhD faculty. METHODS: The National Institutes of Health RePORTER database was queried for grants awarded to departments of surgery during fiscal years 2003 and 2013...
February 1, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157615/application-of-landscape-epidemiology-to-assess-potential-public-health-risk-due-to-poor-sanitation
#16
Kaveh Deilami, John F Hayes, James McGree, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Clear identification of areas vulnerable to waterborne diseases is essential for protecting community health. This is particularly important in developing countries where unsafe disposal of domestic wastewater and limited potable water supply pose potential public health risks. However, data paucity can be a compounding issue. Under these circumstances, landscape epidemiology can be applied as a resource efficient approach for mapping potential disease risk areas associated with poor sanitation. However, in order to realise the full potential offered by this approach, an in-depth understanding of the impact of different classes of an explanatory variable on a target disease and the validity of hotspot analysis using limited datasets is needed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157145/current-perspectives-on-therapy-dog-welfare-in-animal-assisted-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Lisa Maria Glenk
Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress...
February 1, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153038/priority-gaps-and-promising-areas-in-maternal-health-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-summary-findings-of-a-mapping-of-2292-publications-between-2000-and-2012
#18
EDITORIAL
Matthew F Chersich, Greg Martin
This commentary sums the findings of a series of papers on a study that mapped the global research agenda for maternal health. The mapping reviewed published interventional research across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2012, specifically focusing on investigating the topics covered by this research, the methodologies applied, the funding landscape and trends in authorship attribution.The overarching aim underpinning the mapping activities was to evaluate whether research and funding align with causes of maternal mortality, and thereby highlight gaps in research priorities and governance...
February 2, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152741/quality-improvement-strategies-in-medical-oncology-a-qualitative-analysis-from-a-scoping-review
#19
Laavanya Dharmakulaseelan, Simron Singh, Adam E Haynes, Brian M Wong, Matthew C Cheung
: 203 Background: In 2001, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) outlined imperatives to improve quality of care. Quality improvement (QI) has since become essential to cancer care but barriers still exist to the publication of and participation in QI initiatives, including limited recognition for QI and uncertainty with methodologies. We sought to identify strategies used in QI in scholarly medical oncology literature to provide practical guidance for QI. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review using Arksey and O'Malley's framework...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134071/everyday-dangers-the-impact-infectious-disease-has-on-the-health-of-paramedics-a-scoping-review
#20
Brodie Thomas, Peter O'Meara, Evelien Spelten
BACKGROUND: Paramedics respond to emergency scenes in often uncontrolled settings without being aware of potential risks. This makes paramedicine one of the most dangerous occupations. One of these dangers is the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Research in this area is predominantly focused on compliance in the use of protective equipment, attitudes and perceptions of paramedics, infectious disease policy, and exposure rates to blood and body fluids. The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what is known about the impact of infectious disease on the health of paramedics...
January 30, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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