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Testis, Corticotropin

Anouar Youssef, Isabelle Lihrmann, Anthony Falluel-Morel, Loubna Boukhzar
Selenoprotein T (SELENOT, SELT) is a thioredoxin-like enzyme anchored at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, whose primary structure is highly conserved during evolution. SELENOT is abundant in embryonic tissues and its activity is essential during development since its gene knockout in mice is lethal early during embryogenesis. Although its expression is repressed in most adult tissues, SELENOT remains particularly abundant in endocrine organs such as the pituitary, pancreas, thyroid and testis, suggesting an important role of this selenoprotein in hormone production...
May 22, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chiara Mameli, Giorgio Selvaggio, Chiara Cerini, Gaetano Bulfamante, Cristina Madia, Giovanna Riccipetitoni, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare cord-stromal tumors that may occur in testis or ovaries and may produce androgens or estrogens. The majority has been found in men between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Adults with androgen-secreting LCTs are usually asymptomatic; feminizing syndromes may result from the production of estradiol or the peripheral aromatization of testosterone. In children, LCTs usually present between 5 and 10 years of age with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty or gynecomastia. We report 2 cases of LCT in prepubertal boys presenting with advanced unilateral pubarche and testicular volume asymmetry...
November 2016: Pediatrics
Habyeong Kang, Hyo-Bang Moon, Kyungho Choi
Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardant widely used worldwide, and has been reported in environment and humans. However, only limited information is currently available on its toxicity on aquatic organisms. In this study, we employed zebrafish to evaluate possible toxicological responses including oxidative stress and endocrine disruption following exposure to DP. DP was dissolved in corn oil and was delivered to adult male zebrafish via gavage feeding. Delivery of DP was carried out twice on days 0 and 2, at up to 3 μg/g fish wet weight...
March 2016: Chemosphere
Ariadni Spyroglou, Anna Riester, Katharina Mueller-Peltzer, Ailing Lu, Juliane Rohde, Constanze Hantel, Claudia Kuehne, Alexandra Kulle, Felix Riepe, Jan M Deussing, Felix Beuschlein
Urocortin 2 (UCN2) is a neuropeptide of the CRH family, involved in homeostatic mechanisms, the stress response, and control of anxiety. To elucidate the effects of UCN2 on steroidogenesis, we developed a mouse model that allows a Cre recombinase-determined conditional overexpression of UCN2 (UCN2-COE). In these mice SF1-Cre-driven overexpression of UCN2 was restricted to the adrenal glands, gonads, and parts of the hypothalamus. UCN2-COE animals of both sexes revealed significantly higher plasma UCN2 levels and significantly higher UCN2 expression levels in the adrenals and ovaries...
July 2015: Endocrinology
Diana C Castañeda Cortés, Valerie S Langlois, Juan I Fernandino
Besides the well-known function of thyroid hormones (THs) for regulating metabolism, it has recently been discovered that THs are also involved in testicular development in mammalian and non-mammalian species. THs, in combination with follicle stimulating hormone, lead to androgen synthesis in Danio rerio, which results in the onset of spermatogenesis in the testis, potentially relating the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) gland to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Furthermore, studies in non-mammalian species have suggested that by stimulating the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), THs can be induced by corticotropin-releasing hormone...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jeffrey Dee Olpin, Benjamin Witt
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucocorticoids. The enzyme deficiency generally leads to a deficiency of cortisol and/or aldosterone production within the adrenal cortex. The lack of glucocorticoids generally leads to elevated levels of plasma corticotropin (ACTH), which often results in adrenal hyperplasia. Testicular adrenal rest tumors may develop in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to overstimulation of aberrant adrenal cells within the testes...
February 2014: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Tetsushi Hirano, Yoshihiro Kobayashi, Takuya Omotehara, Atsutoshi Tatsumi, Rie Hashimoto, Yuria Umemura, Daichi Nagahara, Youhei Mantani, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Nobuhiko Hoshi
Environmental stress affects various parts of mammals typically through the circulation of stress hormones. It has been identified as one of the possible reasons for male reproductive difficulties, but the complex mechanisms responsible for stress-induced reproductive suppression are poorly understood. Here, we examined the relationship between chronic environmental stress and hypothalamic kisspeptin, a recently discovered upstream regulator of the reproductive endocrine feedback system. We studied male mice under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure to replicate the situation of animals under chronic stress...
September 2014: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
S P Rossi, S Windschuettl, M E Matzkin, C Terradas, R Ponzio, E Puigdomenech, O Levalle, R S Calandra, A Mayerhofer, M B Frungieri
Melatonin acting through the hypothalamus and pituitary regulates testicular function. In addition, direct actions of melatonin at the testicular level have been recently suggested. We have described that melatonin inhibits androgen production in hamster Leydig cells via melatonin subtype 1a (mel1a) receptors and the local corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) system. The initial events of the melatonin/CRH signalling pathway have also been established. Melatonin and all components of the melatonergic/CRH system were also detected in Leydig cells of infertile men...
May 2014: Andrology
T R De Jong, B N Harris, J P Perea-Rodriguez, W Saltzman
Social environment and parental state affect stress responses in mammals, but their impact may depend on the social and reproductive strategy of the species. The influences of cohabitation with a male or female conspecific, and the birth of offspring, on the physiological and endocrine responses to chronic variable stress were studied in the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Adult male California mice were housed either with a male cage mate (virgin males, VM), a female cage mate (pair-bonded males, PBM), or a female cage mate and their first newborn litter (new fathers, NF)...
October 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Erin N McDowell, Anne E Kisielewski, Jack W Pike, Heather L Franco, Humphrey H-C Yao, Kamin J Johnson
Fetal testis steroidogenesis plays an important role in the reproductive development of the male fetus. While regulators of certain aspects of steroidogenesis are known, the initial driver of steroidogenesis in the human and rodent fetal testis is unclear. Through comparative analysis of rodent fetal testis microarray datasets, 54 candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific genes were identified. Fetal mouse testis interstitial expression of a subset of these genes with unknown expression (Crhr1, Gramd1b, Itih5, Vgll3, and Vsnl1) was verified by whole-mount in situ hybridization...
2012: PloS One
Soledad P Rossi, María E Matzkin, Claudio Terradas, Roberto Ponzio, Elisa Puigdomenech, Oscar Levalle, Ricardo S Calandra, Mónica B Frungieri
We have previously described that melatonin inhibits androgen production in hamster testes via melatonin subtype 1a (mel1a) receptors and the local corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) system. This study attempted to determine the initial events of the melatonin/CRH signaling pathway. In Leydig cells from reproductively active Syrian hamsters, Western blotting, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and a colorimetric assay demonstrated that melatonin and CRH activate tyrosine phosphatases and subsequently reduce the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (jnk), down-regulate the expression of c-jun, c-fos and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), and inhibit the production of testosterone...
August 1, 2012: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Michele Delfino, Jlenia Elia, Norina Imbrogno, Nicola Argese, Rossella Mazzilli, Vincenzo Toscano, Fernando Mazzilli
OBJECTIVE: Testicular adrenal rest tumors have been described in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The aim of this work was to (1) evaluate the prevalence of testicular adrenal rest tumors in patients with CAH; (2) study the hormonal profile; (3) define the sonographic features; (4) assess the seminal profile; and (5) initiate a longitudinal study on the possible role of corticotropin (ACTH) plasma levels in the induction and persistence of testicular adrenal rest tumors...
March 2012: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Soon Lee, Brian Braden, Sang Soo Kang, Catherine Rivier
The synthesis and release of testosterone (T) depends both on circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and on an array of testicular factors whose role remains incompletely understood. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) had been reported in the rat testes, where it was thought to inhibit T secretion. However, the discovery that the CRF-related peptides urocortins (Ucns), of which there are currently three subtypes (Ucn 1, 2 and 3), cross-react with many reagents previously used to detect CRF, has cast doubt on this concept...
April 2011: Neuropeptides
Jacek J Rozniecki, G Gary Sahagian, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Kai Tao, Stanley Jocobson, Bodi Zhang, Theoharis C Theoharides
Brain metastases from mammary adenocarcinoma constitute the chief cause of morbidity and mortality. Some evidence suggests that stress may contribute to disease progression and metastases. Here we show that acute restraint stress (30 min) induces statistically significant increase in brain metastases of systemically administered luciferase-tagged 4T1-BR-3P mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells as evidenced by the total brain-associated photons from 5.6 × 10(7) photons in unstressed controls to 1.7 × 10(8) photons in C57BL/6 (p = 0...
December 17, 2010: Brain Research
Erasmia Kiapekou, Evangelia Zapanti, George Mastorakos, Dimitris Loutradis
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide synthesized by neurons of the parvocellular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Central CRH is the principal regulator of the stress system influencing several systems in the brain and influenced by them. It activates the secretion of glucocorticoids and indirectly regulates the immune system and the immune response. Peripheral CRH is secreted by postganglionic sympathetic and unmyelinated sensory afferent neurons and has been identified in several peripheral tissues and organs, including those of the reproductive system (ovary, endometrium, placenta, and testis)...
September 2010: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M Gray, B Bingham, V Viau
The available evidence continues to illustrate an inhibitory influence of male gonadal activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under acute stress. However, far less is known about how these systems interact during repeated stress. Because HPA output consistently declines across studies examining repeated restraint, the potential mechanisms mediating this habituation are often inferred as being equivalent, even though these studies use a spectrum of restraint durations and exposures. To test this generalisation, as well as to emphasise a potential influence of the male gonadal axis on the process of HPA habituation, we compared the effects of two commonly used paradigms of repeated restraint in the rodent: ten daily episodes of 0...
February 2010: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hossein Tezval, Axel S Merseburger, Jürgen Serth, Thomas W Herrmann, Jan U Becker, Olaf Jahn, Markus A Kuczyk
OBJECTIVES: To provide the first insights into the potential role of urocortin in mammalian spermatogenesis, we studied the expression of urocortin and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2 in the human testis. Urocortin is a bioactive peptide with antiapoptotic and antiproliferative properties. The proper regulation of apoptosis and proliferation is of high physiologic relevance in the control of spermatogenesis in adulthood and of the noncycling stage of gonocytes in fetal life...
April 2009: Urology
Catherine L Rivier
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has previously been reported in rat testes in which it inhibits Leydig cells activity. However, recent studies in our laboratory have suggested that some of the effects originally attributed to CRF were instead due to the related peptide Urocortin 1 (Ucn 1) and that this latter hormone, not CRF, was detectable in Leydig cells. We show here that Ucn 1 [a mixed CRF receptor (CRFR) type 1 and CRFR2 agonist] and the CRFR1-selective peptide Stressin 1, but not Ucn 2 or Ucn 3 (both considered selective CRFR2 ligands), significantly blunt the testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin...
December 2008: Endocrinology
T Kozicz, L A P Bordewin, B Czéh, E Fuchs, E W Roubos
Stressful stimuli evoke neuronal and neuroendocrine responses helping an organism to adapt to changed environmental conditions. Chronic stressors may induce maladaptive responses leading to psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and major depression. A suitable animal model to unravel mechanisms involved in the control of adaptation to chronic stress is the psychological subordination stress in the male tree shrew. Subordinate male tree shrews exhibit chronic hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation as reflected in continuously elevated cortisol secretion, and structural changes in the hippocampal formation...
July 2008: Psychoneuroendocrinology
P James, C Rivier, S Lee
Our laboratory has shown that male testosterone levels are not solely controlled by the release of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and pituitary luteinising hormone, but are also regulated by a multisynaptic pathway connecting the brain and the testis that interferes with the testosterone response to gonadotrophins. This pathway, which is independent of the pituitary gland, is activated by an i.c.v. injection of either the stress-related peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, both of which alter androgen release and decrease levels of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein within Leydig cells...
February 2008: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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