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CRF, Nervous System

Magdalena Kurnik-Lucka, Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Bugajski, Agata Furgała, Piotr Thor
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Yvette Taché, Mulugeta Million, Muriel Larauche, Pu-Qing Yuan
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways coordinate the behavioral, endocrine, autonomic and visceral responses to stress. Convergent anatomical, molecular, pharmacological and functional experimental evidence supports an important role of brain CRF receptor signaling in stress-related alterations of gastrointestinal functions. These include the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and gastro-small intestinal transit, the stimulation of colonic enteric nervous system and secretory-motor function, enhanced intestinal permeability, and visceral hypersensitivity...
February 23, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Andrew N Margioris, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Christos Tsatsani, Achille Gravanis, Pavlina Avgoustinaki, George Liapakis
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, CRF and the Urocortins, and their receptors are present not only within the central nervous system but also in the periphery at various locations and at the sites of inflammation where they influence its progress in a complex local / paracrine manner. These neuropeptides are either produced locally, by components of the inflammatory response or they may reach the inflammation sites via postganglionic sympathetic and sensory afferent nerve transport...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Beverly A S Reyes, J L Kravets, K L Connelly, E M Unterwald, E J Van Bockstaele
It is well established that central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems are important mediators of behavioral responses to stressors. More recent studies have defined a role for delta opioid receptors (DOPR) in maintaining emotional valence including anxiety. The amygdala plays an important role in processing emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. Activation of DOPR or inhibition of CRF in the amygdala reduces baseline and stress-induced anxiety-like responses...
March 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Chakravarthi Narla, Tanner Scidmore, Jaymin Jeong, Michelle Everest, Peter Chidiac, Michael O Poulter
Anxiety and stress increase the frequency of epileptic seizures. These behavioral states induce the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 40-amino acid neuropeptide neurotransmitter that coordinates many behavioral responses to stress in the central nervous system. In the piriform cortex, which is one of the most seizurogenic regions of the brain, CRF normally dampens excitability. By contrast, CRF increased the excitability of the piriform cortex in rats subjected to kindling, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2016: Science Signaling
Yael Kuperman, Meira Weiss, Julien Dine, Katy Staikin, Ofra Golani, Assaf Ramot, Tali Nahum, Claudia Kühne, Yair Shemesh, Wolfgang Wurst, Alon Harmelin, Jan M Deussing, Matthias Eder, Alon Chen
Signaling by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating the autonomic response to stressful challenges. Multiple hypothalamic nuclei regulate sympathetic outflow. Although CRFR1 is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus, the identity of these neurons and the role of CRFR1 here are presently unknown. Our studies show that nearly half of Arc-CRFR1 neurons coexpress agouti-related peptide (AgRP), half of which originate from POMC precursors...
June 14, 2016: Cell Metabolism
J E Medland, C S Pohl, L L Edwards, S Frandsen, K Bagley, Y Li, A J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for the later-life onset of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we utilized a porcine model of ELA, early weaning stress (EWS), to investigate the influence of ELA on the development and function of the enteric nervous system (ENS). METHODS: Female and castrated male (Male-C) piglets were weaned from their sow either at 15 days of age (EWS) or 28 days of age (late weaning control, LWC)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Aurora Pederzoli, Lucrezia Mola
During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied...
May 2016: Acta Histochemica
Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Zuzana Gáliková, Branislav Bednár, Ivana Daubnerová, Dušan Žitňan
Trissin has recently been identified as a conserved insect neuropeptide, but its cellular expression and function is unknown. We detected the presence of this neuropeptide in the silkworm Bombyx mori using in silico search and molecular cloning. In situ hybridisation was used to examine trissin expression in the entire central nervous system (CNS) and gut of larvae, pupae and adults. Surprisingly, its expression is restricted to only two pairs of small protocerebral interneurons and four to five large neurons in the frontal ganglion (FG)...
2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Ioline D Henter, Carlos A Zarate
Current therapeutic options for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with a lag of onset that can prolong distress and impairment for patients, and their antidepressant efficacy is often limited. All currently approved antidepressant medications for MDD act primarily through monoaminergic mechanisms. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and glutamate and its cognate receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD, and in the development of novel therapeutics for this disorder...
May 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Yuval Silberman, Tracy L Fetterly, Elias K Awad, Elana J Milano, Ted B Usdin, Danny G Winder
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) modulation of central amygdala (CeA) neurocircuitry plays a key role in the development of alcoholism via activation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor (CRFR) system. Previous work has predominantly focused on EtOH × CRF interactions on the CeA GABA circuitry; however, our laboratory recently showed that CRF enhances CeA glutamatergic transmission. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether EtOH modulates CeA glutamate transmission via activation of CRF signaling...
November 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jelle Caers, Kurt Boonen, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Liliane Schoofs, Matthias B Van Hiel
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted...
December 2015: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Avraham M Libster, Ben Title, Yosef Yarom
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuromodulator closely associated with stress responses. It is synthesized and released in the central nervous system by various neurons, including neurons of the inferior olive. The targets of inferior olivary neurons, the cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs), are endowed with CRF receptors. CRF increases the excitability of PNs in vivo, but the biophysical mechanism is not clear. Here we examine the effect of CRF on the firing properties of PNs using acute rat cerebellar slices...
December 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Paulo J C Vieira, Leonardo R Silva, Vinicius Z Maldamer, Gerson Cipriano, Adriana M G Chiappa, Rodrigo Schuster, Victor H F Boni, Tatiani Grandi, Andiara Wolpat, Bruno T Roseguini, Gaspar R Chiappa
The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion...
March 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Laurie L Wellman, Linghui Yang, Larry D Sanford
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a major mediator of central nervous system responses to stressors, including alterations in wakefulness and sleep. However, its role in mediating stress-induced alterations in sleep has not been fully delineated. In this study, we assessed the role of CRF and the non-specific CRF antagonist, astressin (AST), in regulating changes in sleep produced by signaled, escapable shock (SES) and signaled inescapable shock (SIS), two stressors that can increase or decrease sleep, respectively...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M B Arciszewski, S Mozel, W Sienkiewicz
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide existing in two variant forms (of either 27 or 38 residues), widely present in numerous organs and evoking multiple effects both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution pattern of PACAP-27 expression in the ovine pancreas. Using double immunohistochemical stainings co-localizations of PACAP-27 with galanin, SP or CRF were studied in intrapancreatic neurons. In intrapancreatic ganglia, immunoreactivty to PACAP-27 was found in 87...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Cristina Sánchez-González, Carlos López-Chaves, Jorge Gómez-Aracena, Pilar Galindo, Pilar Aranda, Juan Llopis
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake...
2015: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Giacomo Pozzoli, Maria Laura De Simone, Emilia Cantalupo, Carlo Cenciarelli, Lucia Lisi, Alma Boninsegna, Cinzia Dello Russo, Alessandro Sgambato, Pierluigi Navarra
Our group has previously shown that corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) inhibits proliferation of human endocrine-related cancer cell lines via the activation of CRF type-1 receptors (CRF-R1). Tumors originating from the nervous system also express CRF receptors but their role on neoplastic cell proliferation was poorly investigated. Here we investigated the effect of CRF receptor stimulation on nervous system-derived cancer cells, using the SK-N-SH (N) human neuroblastoma cell line as an experimental model...
September 5, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
A Czujkowska, M B Arciszewski
Galanin is a neuropeptide widely present in the enteric nervous system of numerous animal species and exhibiting neurotransmittery/neuromodulatory roles. Colocalization patterns of galanin with substance P (SP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and calbindin were studied in the small intestine of the wild boar using immunofluorescence technique. We demonstrated the presence of SP in substantial populations of galanin-immunoreactive (IR) submucous neurons. Additionally, different amounts of nerve fibres exhibiting simultaneous presence of galanin and SP were noted in the small intestinal smooth musculature, submucous ganglia, lamina muscularis mucosae and mucosa...
April 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Sonia Fatigoni, Guglielmo Fumi, Fausto Roila
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a very common and distressing symptom experienced by most cancer patients, during and after treatments and also at the end of life. There is no accepted definition of CRF, because it is a multifaceted symptom that involves multiple biopsychosocial aspects. Several scales for assessing CRF have been used, unidimensional or multidimensional, but there is no agreement regarding the best instrument to measure CRF. Concerning the CRF treatment, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions have been used...
January 2015: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
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