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CRF, Nervous System

Ayu Nishii, Seiichiro Amemiya, Natsuko Kubota, Takeshi Nishijima, Ichiro Kita
Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Wei Zhou, Yong-Hui Wan, Qian Chen, Yan-Ru Qiu, Xiao-Min Luo
CONTEXT: Tai Chi exercise has been shown to improve cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance in some cancer patients or survivors; however, such effects are yet to be verified in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of Tai Chi exercise on CRF in NPC patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy and then to evaluate ANS information indicated by heart rate variability parameters and their association with CRF...
March 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Martin Röhling, Alexander Strom, Gidon J Bönhof, Michael Roden, Dan Ziegler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the relationship of physical activity, exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) based on epidemiological, clinical, and interventional studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of CAN increases with age and duration of diabetes. Further risk factors for CAN comprise poor glycemic control, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and the presence of diabetic complications...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
Daniella S Battagello, Giovanne B Diniz, Paulo L Candido, Joelcimar M da Silva, Amanda R de Oliveira, Kelly R Torres da Silva, Claudimara F P Lotfi, José A de Oliveira, Luciane V Sita, Cláudio A Casatti, David A Lovejoy, Jackson C Bittencourt
Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a neuropeptide member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family that acts as a selective endogenous ligand for the CRF, subtype 2 (CRF2) receptor. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data from rodents revealed UCN3-containing neurons in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS), such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the rostral perifornical area (PFA), the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the superior paraolivary nucleus. UCN3-immunoreactive (UCN3-ir) terminals are distributed throughout regions that mostly overlap with regions of CRF2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Shirin Mollayeva, Ian Orchard, Angela B Lange
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging insect and a vector for human Chagas disease. The insect transmits the disease following feeding, when it excretes urine and feces contaminated with the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. A corticotropin-releasing factor-like peptide acts as a diuretic hormone in R. prolixus (Rhopr-CRF/DH); however, its distribution throughout the insect's central nervous system (CNS) and the expression of its receptor in feeding-related tissue as well as the female reproductive system suggests a multifaceted role for the hormone beyond that of diuresis...
March 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maiko Tanaka, Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Katsuya Sakimura, Yoshikazu Ootani, Yuu Sako, Takuto Kojima, Kazuyoshi Aso, Takahiko Yano, Keisuke Hirai
The aim of this study was to investigate peripheral and central roles of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in endocrinological and behavioral changes. Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration was measured as an activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. As behavioral changes, locomotion and anxiety behavior were measured after CRF challenge intravenously (i.v.) for the peripheral administration or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for the central administration. Plasma ACTH concentration was significantly increased by both administration routes of CRF; however, hyperlocomotion and anxiety behavior were induced only by the i...
July 6, 2017: Peptides
Hongtao Hu, Shen Xu, Shuang Hu, Weijia Xu, Hua Shui
Few studies have investigated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The present study analyzed the clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and imaging features of PRES in patients with CRF. A total of 42 patients with CRF with or without PRES were recruited in the current retrospective case-control study. Patient data taken prior to the onset of PRES in patients with CRF and PRES (n=21) were collected and analyzed. At the same time, data from patients with CRF but without PRES (n=21) were also analyzed...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Magdalena Kurnik-Lucka, Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Bugajski, Agata Furgała, Piotr Thor
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Yvette Tache, Muriel Larauche, Pu-Qing Yuan, Mulugeta Million
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways coordinate behavioral, endocrine, autonomic and visceral responses to stress. Convergent anatomical, molecular, pharmacological and functional experimental evidence supports a key role of brain CRF receptor (CRF-R) signaling in stress-related alterations of gastrointestinal functions. These include the inhibition of gastric acid secretion and gastric-small intestinal transit, stimulation of colonic enteric nervous system and secretorymotor function, increase intestinal permeability, and visceral hypersensitivity...
2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Christos Tsatsanis, Achille Gravanis, Pavlina D Avgoustinaki, George Liapakis, Andrew N Margioris
BACKGROUND: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, CRF and the Urocortins, and their receptors are present not only within the central nervous system but also in the periphery at various locations and at the sites of inflammation where they influence its progress in a complex local / paracrine manner. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the regulation of inflammatory process by CRF family of neuropeptides and receptors with a special sight into their role in inflammatory pain and in chronic low grade inflammation that occurs in obesity...
2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Beverly A S Reyes, J L Kravets, K L Connelly, E M Unterwald, E J Van Bockstaele
It is well established that central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems are important mediators of behavioral responses to stressors. More recent studies have defined a role for delta opioid receptors (DOPR) in maintaining emotional valence including anxiety. The amygdala plays an important role in processing emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. Activation of DOPR or inhibition of CRF in the amygdala reduces baseline and stress-induced anxiety-like responses...
March 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Chakravarthi Narla, Tanner Scidmore, Jaymin Jeong, Michelle Everest, Peter Chidiac, Michael O Poulter
Anxiety and stress increase the frequency of epileptic seizures. These behavioral states induce the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 40-amino acid neuropeptide neurotransmitter that coordinates many behavioral responses to stress in the central nervous system. In the piriform cortex, which is one of the most seizurogenic regions of the brain, CRF normally dampens excitability. By contrast, CRF increased the excitability of the piriform cortex in rats subjected to kindling, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
June 14, 2016: Science Signaling
Yael Kuperman, Meira Weiss, Julien Dine, Katy Staikin, Ofra Golani, Assaf Ramot, Tali Nahum, Claudia Kühne, Yair Shemesh, Wolfgang Wurst, Alon Harmelin, Jan M Deussing, Matthias Eder, Alon Chen
Signaling by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating the autonomic response to stressful challenges. Multiple hypothalamic nuclei regulate sympathetic outflow. Although CRFR1 is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus, the identity of these neurons and the role of CRFR1 here are presently unknown. Our studies show that nearly half of Arc-CRFR1 neurons coexpress agouti-related peptide (AgRP), half of which originate from POMC precursors...
June 14, 2016: Cell Metabolism
J E Medland, C S Pohl, L L Edwards, S Frandsen, K Bagley, Y Li, A J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for the later-life onset of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we utilized a porcine model of ELA, early weaning stress (EWS), to investigate the influence of ELA on the development and function of the enteric nervous system (ENS). METHODS: Female and castrated male (Male-C) piglets were weaned from their sow either at 15 days of age (EWS) or 28 days of age (late weaning control, LWC)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Aurora Pederzoli, Lucrezia Mola
During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied...
May 2016: Acta Histochemica
Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Zuzana Gáliková, Branislav Bednár, Ivana Daubnerová, Dušan Žitňan
Trissin has recently been identified as a conserved insect neuropeptide, but its cellular expression and function is unknown. We detected the presence of this neuropeptide in the silkworm Bombyx mori using in silico search and molecular cloning. In situ hybridisation was used to examine trissin expression in the entire central nervous system (CNS) and gut of larvae, pupae and adults. Surprisingly, its expression is restricted to only two pairs of small protocerebral interneurons and four to five large neurons in the frontal ganglion (FG)...
2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Ioline D Henter, Carlos A Zarate
Current therapeutic options for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with a lag of onset that can prolong distress and impairment for patients, and their antidepressant efficacy is often limited. All currently approved antidepressant medications for MDD act primarily through monoaminergic mechanisms. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and glutamate and its cognate receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD, and in the development of novel therapeutics for this disorder...
May 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Yuval Silberman, Tracy L Fetterly, Elias K Awad, Elana J Milano, Ted B Usdin, Danny G Winder
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) modulation of central amygdala (CeA) neurocircuitry plays a key role in the development of alcoholism via activation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor (CRFR) system. Previous work has predominantly focused on EtOH × CRF interactions on the CeA GABA circuitry; however, our laboratory recently showed that CRF enhances CeA glutamatergic transmission. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether EtOH modulates CeA glutamate transmission via activation of CRF signaling...
November 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jelle Caers, Kurt Boonen, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Liliane Schoofs, Matthias B Van Hiel
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted...
December 2015: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Avraham M Libster, Ben Title, Yosef Yarom
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuromodulator closely associated with stress responses. It is synthesized and released in the central nervous system by various neurons, including neurons of the inferior olive. The targets of inferior olivary neurons, the cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs), are endowed with CRF receptors. CRF increases the excitability of PNs in vivo, but the biophysical mechanism is not clear. Here we examine the effect of CRF on the firing properties of PNs using acute rat cerebellar slices...
December 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
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