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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#1
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430949/capturing-non-local-interactions-by-long-short-term-memory-bidirectional-recurrent-neural-networks-for-improving-prediction-of-protein-secondary-structure-backbone-angles-contact-numbers-and-solvent-accessibility
#2
Rhys Heffernan, Yuedong Yang, Kuldip Paliwal, Yaoqi Zhou
Motivation: The accuracy of predicting protein local and global structural properties such as secondary structure and solvent accessible surface area has been stagnant for many years because of the challenge of accounting for non-local interactions between amino acid residues that are close in three-dimensional structural space but far from each other in their sequence positions. All existing machine-learning techniques relied on a sliding window of 10-20 amino acid residues to capture some "short to intermediate" non-local interactions...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427457/integrative-modelling-of-tir-domain-containing-adaptor-molecule-inducing-interferon-%C3%AE-trif-provides-insights-into-its-autoinhibited-state
#3
Jarjapu Mahita, Ramanathan Sowdhamini
BACKGROUND: TRIF is a key protein in antiviral innate immunity, operating downstream of TLRs. TRIF activation leads to the production of interferon-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is evidence from experiments to suggest that the N-terminal domain of TRIF binds to its TIR domain to avoid constitutive activation. However, no structure of a complex between the N-terminal domain and the TIR domain exists till date. The disordered nature of the region connecting the N-terminal domain and the TIR domain compounds the issue of elucidating the mechanism of autoinhibition of TRIF...
April 20, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415379/chimeras-and-clusters-in-networks-of-hyperbolic-chaotic-oscillators
#4
A V Cano, M G Cosenza
We show that chimera states, where differentiated subsets of synchronized and desynchronized dynamical elements coexist, can emerge in networks of hyperbolic chaotic oscillators subject to global interactions. As local dynamics we employ Lozi maps, which possess hyperbolic chaotic attractors. We consider a globally coupled system of these maps and use two statistical quantities to describe its collective behavior: the average fraction of elements belonging to clusters and the average standard deviation of state variables...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415292/current-redistribution-in-resistor-networks-fat-tail-statistics-in-regular-and-small-world-networks
#5
Jörg Lehmann, Jakob Bernasconi
The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g., d-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414229/coding-the-assembly-of-polyoxotungstates-with-a-programmable-reaction-system
#6
Andreu Ruiz de la Oliva, Victor Sans, Haralampos N Miras, De-Liang Long, Leroy Cronin
Chemical transformations are normally conducted in batch or flow mode, thereby allowing the chemistry to be temporally or spatially controlled, but these approaches are not normally combined dynamically. However, the investigation of the underlying chemistry masked by the self-assembly processes that often occur in one-pot reactions and exploitation of the potential of complex chemical systems requires control in both time and space. Additionally, maintaining the intermediate constituents of a self-assembled system "off equilibrium" and utilizing them dynamically at specific time intervals provide access to building blocks that cannot coexist under one-pot conditions and ultimately to the formation of new clusters...
April 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414023/effect-of-spatial-and-temporal-stimulus-parameters-on-the-maturation-of-global-motion-perception
#7
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
There are discrepancies with respect to the age at which adult-like performance is reached on tasks assessing global motion perception. This is in part because performance in children depends on stimulus parameters. We recently showed that five-year-olds demonstrated adult-like performance over a range of speeds when the speed ratio was comprised of longer spatial and temporal displacements; but displayed immature performance when the speed ratio was comprised of shorter displacements. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect of these global motion stimulus parameters across a broader age range in order to estimate the age at which mature performance is reached...
April 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#8
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413103/do-larval-types-affect-genetic-connectivity-at-sea-testing-hypothesis-in-two-sibling-marine-gastropods-with-contrasting-larval-development
#9
Maria Vittoria Modica, Valeria Russini, Giulia Fassio, Marco Oliverio
In marine environments, connectivity among populations of benthic invertebrates is provided primarily by dispersion of larvae, with the duration of pelagic larval phase (PLD) supposed to represent one of the major factor affecting connectivity. In marine gastropods, PLD is linked to specific larval development types, which may be entirely intracapsular (thus lacking a pelagic dispersal), or include a short pelagic lecithotrophic or a long planktotrophic phase. In the present study, we investigated two sibling species of the cosmopolitan neogastropod genus Columbella (commonly known as dove shells): Columbella adansoni Menke, 1853, from the Macaronesian Atlantic archipelagos, with planktotrophic development, and Columbella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Mediterranean Sea, with intracapsular development...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413023/a-chemoattractant-guided-walk-through-lymphopoiesis-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-mature-b-lymphocytes
#10
Vivian Y Lim, Sandra Zehentmeier, Chris Fistonich, João P Pereira
B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412975/effect-of-cryopreservation-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cell-sheets
#11
Mengying Li, Cheng Feng, Xiuge Gu, Qin He, Fulan Wei
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation has been extensively applied to the long-term storage of a diverse range of biological materials. However, no comprehensive study is currently available on the cryopreservation of periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets which have been suggested as excellent transplant materials for periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cryopreservation on the structural integrity and functional viability of PDLSC sheets...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412811/two-dimensional-metal-free-organic-multiferroic-material-for-design-of-multifunctional-integrated-circuits
#12
Zhengyuan Tu, Menghao Wu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in a single 2D material is highly desirable for integration of multi-functional units in 2D material-based circuits. Herein, we report theoretical evidence of C6N8H organic network as being the first 2D organic multiferroic material with coexisting FM and FE properties. The ferroelectricity stems from multi-mode proton-transfer within the 2D C6N8H network, in which a long-range proton-transfer mode is enabled by the facilitation of oxygen molecule when the network is exposed to the air...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410318/characteristics-and-outcome-of-patients-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#13
Philipp Wohlfarth, Gernot Beutel, Pia Lebiedz, Hans-Joachim Stemmler, Thomas Staudinger, Matthieu Schmidt, Matthias Kochanek, Tobias Liebregts, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Elie Azoulay, Alexandre Demoule, Stefan Kluge, Morten Svalebjørg, Catherina Lueck, Johanna Tischer, Alain Combes, Boris Böll, Werner Rabitsch, Peter Schellongowski
OBJECTIVES: The acute respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent condition following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may serve as rescue therapy in refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome but has not been assessed in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: ICUs in 12 European tertiary care centers (Austria, Germany, France, and Belgium)...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408869/rapid-long-range-disynaptic-inhibition-explains-the-formation-of-cortical-orientation-maps
#14
Ján Antolík
Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403162/maintaining-extensivity-in-evolutionary-multiplex-networks
#15
Chris G Antonopoulos, Murilo S Baptista
In this paper, we explore the role of network topology on maintaining the extensive property of entropy. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks (layers), by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, HKS, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the layers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#16
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398578/social-anxiety-disorder-exhibit-impaired-networks-involved-in-self-and-theory-of-mind-processing
#17
Qian Cui, Eric J Vanman, Zhiliang Long, Yajing Pang, Yuyan Chen, Yifeng Wang, Qiyong Gong, Wei Zhang, Heng Chen, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Most previous studies regarding social anxiety disorder (SAD) have focused on the role of emotional dysfunction, while impairments in self- and theory of mind (ToM)-processing have been relatively neglected. The present study utilised functional connectivity density (FCD), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), and discriminant analyses to investigate impairments in self- and ToM-related networks in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD exhibited decreased long-range FCD in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and decreased short-range FCD in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG)-key nodes involved in self- and ToM-processing, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398041/pressure-induced-stable-beryllium-peroxide
#18
Shoutao Zhang, Fei Li, Haiyang Xu, Guochun Yang
Beryllium oxides, at ambient pressure, have been extensively studied due to their unique chemical bonds and applications. However, the long-desirable target beryllium peroxide (BeO2) has not been reported, thus far. Currently, the application of pressure has become a powerful tool in finding unusual stoichiometric compounds with exotic properties. Here, swarm structural searches in combination with first-principles calculations disclosed that the reaction of BeO and oxygen, at pressures above 89.6 GPa, yields BeO2...
April 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389669/exploring-functions-of-long-noncoding-rnas-across-multiple-cancers-through-co-expression-network
#19
Suqing Li, Bin Li, Yuanting Zheng, Menglong Li, Leming Shi, Xuemei Pu
In contrast to protein-coding genes, long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are much less well understood, despite increasing evidence indicating a wide range of their biological functions, and possible roles in various cancers. Based on public RNA-seq datasets of four solid cancer types, we here utilize Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA) to propose a strategy for exploring the functions of lncRNAs altered in more than two cancer types, which we call onco-lncRNAs. Results indicate that cancer-expressed lncRNAs show high tissue specificity and are weakly expressed, more so than protein-coding genes...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387521/hydrogels-with-modulated-ionic-load-for-mammalian-cell-harvesting-with-reduced-bacterial-adhesion
#20
Alberto Gallardo, Enrique Martínez-Campos, Carolina García, Aitziber L Cortajarena, Juan Rodríguez-Hernández
In this manuscript, we describe the fabrication of hydrogel supports for mammalian cell handling that can simultaneously prevent materials from microbial contamination and therefore allow storage in aqueous media. For that purpose, hydrogels based on the antifouling polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were functionalized with different ionic groups (anionic, cationic, or two types of zwitterions). In order to prevent bacterial adhesion in the long-term, we took advantage of the synergistic effect of inherently antifouling PVP and additional antifouling moieties incorporated within the hydrogel structure...
April 18, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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