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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337538/sustainable-polyester-elastomers-from-lactones-synthesis-properties-and-enzymatic-hydrolyzability
#2
Guilhem X De Hoe, Michael T Zumstein, Brandon J Tiegs, Jacob P Brutman, Kristopher McNeill, Michael Sander, Geoffrey W Coates, Marc A Hillmyer
Chemically cross-linked elastomers are an important class of polymeric materials with excellent temperature and solvent resistance. However, nearly all elastomers are petroleum-derived and persist in the environment or in landfills long after they are discarded; this work strives to address these issues by demonstrating the synthesis of renewable, enzymatically hydrolyzable, and mechanically competitive polyester elastomers. The elastomers described were synthesized using a novel bis(β-lactone) cross-linker and star-shaped, hydroxyl-terminated poly(γ-methyl-ε-caprolactone)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337526/carbon-nanotube-web-with-carboxylated-polythiophene-assist-for-high-performance-battery-electrodes
#3
Yo-Han Kwon, Jung Jin Park, Lisa M Housel, Krysten Minnici, Guoyan Zhang, Sujin R Lee, Seung Woo Lee, Zhongming Chen, Suguru Noda, Esther S Takeuchi, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok, Elsa Reichmanis
A carbon nanotube (CNT) web electrode comprising magnetite spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) linked by the carboxylated conjugated polymer, poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate) thiophene] (PPBT), was designed to demonstrate benefits derived from the rational consideration of electron/ion transport coupled with the surface chemistry of the electrode materials components. To maximize transport properties, the approach introduces monodispersed spherical Fe3O4 (sFe3O4) for uniform Li+ diffusion and a FWNT web electrode frame that affords characteristics of long-ranged electronic pathways and porous networks...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336158/chromosome-gene-orientations-inversion-networks-goins-of-plasmodium-proteome
#4
Viviana F Quevedo-Tumailli, Bernabe Ortega-Tenezaca, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz
The spatial distribution of genes in chromosomes seems not to be random. For instance, only 10% of genes are transcribed from bidirectional promoters in humans and many more are organised in larger clusters. This raises intriguing questions asked by different authors before. We would like to add a few more questions in this context, related to gene orientation inversions. Does gene orientation (inversion) follow a random pattern? Is it relevant to biological activity somehow? In this paper, we define a new kind of network coined as the Gene Orientation Inversion Network (GOIN)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336157/glycerol-hydrogen-bonding-network-dominates-structure-and-collective-dynamics-in-a-deep-eutectic-solvent
#5
A Faraone, D V Wagle, G A Baker, E C Novak, M Ohl, D Reuter, P Lunkenheimer, A Loidl, E Mamontov
The deep eutectic solvent glyceline formed by choline chloride and glycerol in 1:2 molar ratio is much less viscous compared to glycerol, which facilitates its use in many applications where high viscosity is undesirable. Despite the large difference in viscosity, we have found that the structural network of glyceline is completely defined by its glycerol constituent, which exhibits complex microscopic dynamic behavior, as expected from a highly correlated hydrogen-bonding network. Choline ions occupy interstitial voids in the glycerol network and show little structural or dynamic correlations with glycerol molecules...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335556/thermodynamic-insight-into-stimuli-responsive-behaviour-of-soft-porous-crystals
#6
L Vanduyfhuys, S M J Rogge, J Wieme, S Vandenbrande, G Maurin, M Waroquier, V Van Speybroeck
Knowledge of the thermodynamic potential in terms of the independent variables allows to characterize the macroscopic state of the system. However, in practice, it is difficult to access this potential experimentally due to irreversible transitions that occur between equilibrium states. A showcase example of sudden transitions between (meta)stable equilibrium states is observed for soft porous crystals possessing a network with long-range structural order, which can transform between various states upon external stimuli such as pressure, temperature and guest adsorption...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334913/identifying-enablers-and-barriers-to-individually-tailored-prescribing-a-survey-of-healthcare-professionals-in-the-uk
#7
Joanne Reeve, Nicky Britten, Richard Byng, Jo Fleming, Janet Heaton, Janet Krska
BACKGROUND: Many people now take multiple medications on a long-term basis to manage health conditions. Optimising the benefit of such polypharmacy requires tailoring of medicines use to the needs and circumstances of individuals. However, professionals report barriers to achieving this in practice. In this study, we examined health professionals' perceptions of enablers and barriers to delivering individually tailored prescribing. METHODS: Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) informed an on-line survey of health professionals' views of enablers and barriers to implementation of Individually Tailored Prescribing (ITP) of medicines...
January 15, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334318/molecular-dynamics-perspective-on-the-thermal-stability-of-mandelate-racemase
#8
Jiali Gu, Hongfei Tong, Laiyu Sun, Zhijian Lin
Mandelate racemase from Pseudomonas putida is a promising candidate for the dynamic kinetic resolution of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids. In the present study, the thermal stability of mandelate racemase was investigated through molecular dynamics simulations in the temperature range of 303 K to 363 K, which can guide the design of mandelate racemase with higher stability. The basic features such as radius of gyration, surface accessibility, and secondary structure content suggested the instability of mandelate racemase at high temperatures...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324793/phylogeography-of-screaming-hairy-armadillo-chaetophractus-vellerosus-successive-disjunctions-and-extinctions-due-to-cyclical-climatic-changes-in-southern-south-america
#9
Sebastián Poljak, Alejandro M Ferreiro, Marina B Chiappero, Julieta Sánchez, Magalí Gabrielli, Marta S Lizarralde
Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323385/2d-end-to-end-carbon-nanotube-conductive-networks-in-polymer-nanocomposites-a-conceptual-design-to-dramatically-enhance-the-sensitivities-of-strain-sensors
#10
Jun-Hong Pu, Xiang-Jun Zha, Min Zhao, Shengyao Li, Rui-Ying Bao, Zheng-Ying Liu, Bang-Hu Xie, Ming-Bo Yang, Zhanhu Guo, Wei Yang
New generation wearable devices require mechanically compliant strain sensors with a high sensitivity in a full detecting range. Herein, novel 2D end-to-end contact conductive networks of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were designed and realized in an ethylene-α-octene block copolymer (OBC) matrix. The prepared strain sensor showed a high gauge factor (GF) of 248 even at a small strain (5%) and a linear resistance response throughout the whole strain range. The sensors also exhibited very good stretchability up to 300% and high cycling durability...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322514/the-yin-and-yang-of-yy1-in-tumor-growth-and-suppression
#11
REVIEW
Levon M Khachigian
Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a zinc finger protein and member of the GLI-Kruppel family that can activate or inactivate gene expression depending on interacting partners, promoter context and chromatin structure, and may be involved in the transcriptional control of ∼10% of the total mammalian gene set. A growing body of literature indicates that YY1 is overexpressed in multiple cancer types and that increased YY1 levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes in many cancers. However the role of YY1 in the promotion or suppression of tumor growth remains controversial and its regulatory effects may be tumor cell type dependent at least in experimental systems...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322068/measuring-temporal-stability-of-positron-emission-tomography-standardized-uptake-value-bias-using-long-lived-sources-in-a-multicenter-network
#12
Darrin Byrd, Rebecca Christopfel, Grae Arabasz, Ciprian Catana, Joel Karp, Martin A Lodge, Charles Laymon, Eduardo G Moros, Mikalai Budzevich, Sadek Nehmeh, Joshua Scheuermann, John Sunderland, Jun Zhang, Paul Kinahan
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a quantitative imaging modality, but the computation of standardized uptake values (SUVs) requires several instruments to be correctly calibrated. Variability in the calibration process may lead to unreliable quantitation. Sealed source kits containing traceable amounts of [Formula: see text] were used to measure signal stability for 19 PET scanners at nine hospitals in the National Cancer Institute's Quantitative Imaging Network. Repeated measurements of the sources were performed on PET scanners and in dose calibrators...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321683/dual-function-of-thalamic-low-vigilance-state-oscillations-rhythm-regulation-and-plasticity
#13
REVIEW
Vincenzo Crunelli, Magor L Lőrincz, William M Connelly, François David, Stuart W Hughes, Régis C Lambert, Nathalie Leresche, Adam C Errington
During inattentive wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, the neocortex and thalamus cooperatively engage in rhythmic activities that are exquisitely reflected in the electroencephalogram as distinctive rhythms spanning a range of frequencies from <1 Hz slow waves to 13 Hz alpha waves. In the thalamus, these diverse activities emerge through the interaction of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and local and long-range synaptic inputs. One crucial feature, however, unifies thalamic oscillations of different frequencies: repetitive burst firing driven by voltage-dependent Ca2+ spikes...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321575/a-complex-network-approach-for-the-estimation-of-the-energy-demand-of-electric-mobility
#14
Mario Mureddu, Angelo Facchini, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Alfonso Damiano
We study how renewable energy impacts regional infrastructures considering the full deployment of electric mobility at that scale. We use the Sardinia Island in Italy as a paradigmatic case study of a semi-closed system both by energy and mobility point of view. Human mobility patterns are estimated by means of census data listing the mobility dynamics of about 700,000 vehicles, the energy demand is estimated by modeling the charging behavior of electric vehicle owners. Here we show that current renewable energy production of Sardinia is able to sustain the commuter mobility even in the theoretical case of a full switch from internal combustion vehicles to electric ones...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#15
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320182/reconstruction-of-hmbc-correlation-networks-a-novel-nmr-based-contribution-to-metabolite-mixture-analysis
#16
Ali Bakiri, Jane Hubert, Romain Reynaud, Carole Lambert, Agathe Martinez, Jean-Hugues Renault, Jean-Marc Nuzillard
A new in silico method is introduced for the dereplication of natural metabolite mixtures based on HMBC and HSQC spectra that inform about short-range and long-range H-C correlations occurring in the carbon skeleton of individual chemical entities. Starting from the HMBC spectrum of a metabolite mixture, an algorithm was developed in order to recover individualized HMBC footprints of the mixture constituents. The collected H-C correlations are represented by a network of NMR peaks connected each other when sharing either a 1H or 13C chemical shift value...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314461/solution-of-the-puzzle-of-smectic-q-the-phase-structure-and-the-origin-of-spontaneous-chirality
#17
Huan-Jun Lu, Xiang-Bing Zeng, Goran Ungar, Christian Dressel, Carsten Tschierske
The so-called Smectic-Q phase (SmQ) liquid crystal phase has been discovered in 1983 in rod-like molecules, but its structure remain unclear in spite of numer-ous attempts to solve it. Here we report what we believe to be the solution: a unique bicontinuous phase that is non-cubic and is made up of orthogonal twist-ed columns with planar 4-way junctions. While previously SmQ had only been seen in chiral compounds, here we show that this chiral phase forms also in achiral materials through spontaneous symmetry breaking...
January 4, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311335/melanopsin-and-l-cone-induced-pupil-constriction-is-inhibited-by-s-and-m-cones-in-humans
#18
Tom Woelders, Thomas Leenheers, Marijke C M Gordijn, Roelof A Hut, Domien G M Beersma, Emma J Wams
The human retina contains five photoreceptor types: rods; short (S)-, mid (M)-, and long (L)-wavelength-sensitive cones; and melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells. Recently, it has been shown that selective increments in M-cone activation are paradoxically perceived as brightness decrements, as opposed to L-cone increments. Here we show that similar effects are also observed in the pupillary light response, whereby M-cone or S-cone increments lead to pupil dilation whereas L-cone or melanopic illuminance increments resulted in pupil constriction...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303257/unbiased-molecular-dynamics-of-11-min-timescale-drug-unbinding-reveals-transition-state-stabilizing-interactions
#19
Samuel D Lotz, Alex Dickson
Ligand (un)binding kinetics is being recognized as a determinant of drug specificity and efficacy in an increasing number of systems. However, the calculation of kinetics and the simulation of drug unbinding is more difficult than computing thermodynamic quantities, such as binding free energies. Here we present the first full simulations of an unbinding process at pharmacologically relevant time scales (11 min), without the use of biasing forces, detailed prior knowledge, or specialized processors using the weighted ensemble based algorithm, WExplore...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302965/non-contact-heartbeat-and-respiration-monitoring-based-on-hollow-microstructure-self-powered-pressure-sensor
#20
Shuwen Chen, Nan Wu, Long Ma, Shizhe Lin, Fang Yuan, Zisheng Xu, Wenbo Li, Bo Wang, Jun Zhou
Advances in mobile networks and low-power electronics have driven smart mobile medical devices at a tremendous pace, evoking increased interest in household healthcare, especially for those with cardiovascular or respiratory disease. Thus, flexible, battery-free pressure sensors, with great potential for monitoring respiration and heartbeat in a smart way, are urgently demanded. However, traditional flexible battery-free pressure sensors for subtle physiological signals detecting, are mostly tightly adhered onto skin instead of working under the pressure of body weight in a non-contact mode, as the low sensitivity in high-pressure region can hardly meet the demands...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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