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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525313/a-tunable-three-dimensional-in-vitro-culture-model-of-growth-plate-cartilage-using-alginate-hydrogel-scaffolds
#1
Alek G Erickson, Taylor D Laughlin, Sarah M Romereim, Catherine N Sargus-Patino, Angela K Pannier, Andrew T Dudley
Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector...
May 18, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521139/global-representations-of-goal-directed-behavior-in-distinct-cell-types-of-mouse-neocortex
#2
William E Allen, Isaac V Kauvar, Michael Z Chen, Ethan B Richman, Samuel J Yang, Ken Chan, Viviana Gradinaru, Benjamin E Deverman, Liqun Luo, Karl Deisseroth
The successful planning and execution of adaptive behaviors in mammals may require long-range coordination of neural networks throughout cerebral cortex. The neuronal implementation of signals that could orchestrate cortex-wide activity remains unclear. Here, we develop and apply methods for cortex-wide Ca(2+) imaging in mice performing decision-making behavior and identify a global cortical representation of task engagement encoded in the activity dynamics of both single cells and superficial neuropil distributed across the majority of dorsal cortex...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#3
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516324/bacterial-intelligence-imitation-games-time-sharing-and-long-range-quantum-coherence
#4
REVIEW
Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal
Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated extensively, those of electrical signaling have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical signaling based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512170/deconstruction-of-interhospital-transfer-workflow-in-large-vessel-occlusion-real-world-data-in-the-thrombectomy-era
#5
Felix C Ng, Essie Low, Emily Andrew, Karen Smith, Bruce C V Campbell, Peter J Hand, Douglas E Crompton, Tissa Wijeratne, Helen M Dewey, Philip M Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Interhospital transfer is a critical component in the treatment of acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke transferred for mechanical thrombectomy. Real-world data for benchmarking and theoretical modeling are limited. We sought to characterize transfer workflow from primary stroke center (PSC) to comprehensive stroke center after the publication of positive thrombectomy trials. METHODS: Consecutive patients transferred from 3 high-volume PSCs to a single comprehensive stroke center between January 2015 and August 2016 were included in a retrospective study...
May 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507237/multiscale-ordinal-network-analysis-of-human-cardiac-dynamics
#6
M McCullough, M Small, H H C Iu, T Stemler
In this study, we propose a new information theoretic measure to quantify the complexity of biological systems based on time-series data. We demonstrate the potential of our method using two distinct applications to human cardiac dynamics. Firstly, we show that the method clearly discriminates between segments of electrocardiogram records characterized by normal sinus rhythm, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Secondly, we investigate the multiscale complexity of cardiac dynamics with respect to age in healthy individuals using interbeat interval time series and compare our findings with a previous study which established a link between age and fractal-like long-range correlations...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505559/-a-two-phased-study-health-care-professionals-perceptions-of-single-or-multi-use-of-intermittent-catheters
#7
D McClurg, J Coyle, A Long, K Moore, A Cottenden, C May, M Fader
AIMS: This two phase study aimed to explore health care professionals' teaching and prescribing practice related to intermittent catheterisation and to identify their perceptions about the possible implementation of a mixed (single and multi-use) package for intermittent catheterization. INTRODUCTION: Single-use intermittent catheters are the norm in the UK although multi-use is common in some other countries. A recent Cochrane review found no difference in complications, including urinary tract infection rates, between those using single or multi-use catheters...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504705/wounding-induces-dedifferentiation-of-epidermal-gata6-cells-and-acquisition-of-stem-cell-properties
#8
Giacomo Donati, Emanuel Rognoni, Toru Hiratsuka, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Esther Hoste, Gozde Kar, Melis Kayikci, Roslin Russell, Kai Kretzschmar, Klaas W Mulder, Sarah A Teichmann, Fiona M Watt
The epidermis is maintained by multiple stem cell populations whose progeny differentiate along diverse, and spatially distinct, lineages. Here we show that the transcription factor Gata6 controls the identity of the previously uncharacterized sebaceous duct (SD) lineage and identify the Gata6 downstream transcription factor network that specifies a lineage switch between sebocytes and SD cells. During wound healing differentiated Gata6(+) cells migrate from the SD into the interfollicular epidermis and dedifferentiate, acquiring the ability to undergo long-term self-renewal and differentiate into a much wider range of epidermal lineages than in undamaged tissue...
May 15, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502662/-what-not-detectors-help-the-brain-see-in-depth
#9
Nuno R Goncalves, Andrew E Welchman
Binocular stereopsis is one of the primary cues for three-dimensional (3D) vision in species ranging from insects to primates. Understanding how the brain extracts depth from two different retinal images represents a tractable challenge in sensory neuroscience that has so far evaded full explanation. Central to current thinking is the idea that the brain needs to identify matching features in the two retinal images (i.e., solving the "stereoscopic correspondence problem") so that the depth of objects in the world can be triangulated...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498669/a-multi-scale-model-for-electrokinetic-transport-in-networks-of-pores-part-i-model-derivation
#10
Shima Alizadeh, Ali Mani
We present an efficient and robust numerical model for simulation of electrokinetic phenomena in porous media and microstructure networks considering a wide range of applications including energy conversion, deionization, and microfluidic-based lab-on-a-chip systems. Coupling between fluid flow and ion transport in these networks is governed by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. These equations describe a wide range of phenomena that can interact in a complex fashion when coupled in networks involving multiple pores with variable properties...
May 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498144/the-impact-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-individual-based-model
#11
Parastu Kasaie, Jeff Pennington, Maunank S Shah, Stephen A Berry, Danielle German, Colin P Flynn, Chris Beyrer, David W Dowdy
OBJECTIVES: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. DESIGN: We developed an agent-based simulation of HIV transmission among MSM, accounting for demographics, sexual contact network, HIV disease stage, and use of antiretroviral therapy...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490438/deficiency-in-kinesin-1-recruitment-to-melanosomes-precludes-it-from-facilitating-their-centrifugal-transport
#12
Christopher L Robinson, Richard D Evans, Deborah A Briggs, Jose S Ramalho, Alistair N Hume
Microtubules and F-actin, and associated motor proteins, are considered to play complementary roles in long- and short-range organelle transport. However, there is growing appreciation that myosin/F-actin networks can drive long-range transport. In melanocytes myosin-Va and kinesin-1 have both been proposed as long-range centrifugal melanosome transporters. Here we investigated the role of kinesin-1 heavy chain (Kif5b) and its suggested targeting factor Rab1a in transport. Using confocal microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation we did not detect Kif5b or Rab1a on melanosomes...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489301/hyperelastic-tough-gels-through-macrocross-linking
#13
Shailesh K Goswami, Christopher John McAdam, Lyall R Hanton, Stephen C Moratti
The wet and soft nature of hydrogels makes them useful as a mimic for biological tissues, and in uses such as actuators and drug delivery vehicles. For many applications the mechanical performance of the gel is critical, but gels are notoriously weak and prone to fracture. Free radical polymerization is a very powerful technique allowing for fine spatial and temporal control of polymerization, but also allows for the use of a wide range of monomers and mixtures. In this work, it is demonstrated that extremely tough and extensible hydrogels can be readily produced through simple radical polymerization of acrylamide or acrylic acid with a poly(ethylene oxide) macrocross-linker...
May 10, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485137/the-dielectric-relaxation-of-hydration-water-in-native-collagen-fibrils
#14
Yael Kurzweil-Segev, Ivan Popov, Inna Solomonov, Irit Sagit, Yuri Feldman
The dielectric relaxation of hydrated collagen powders was studied over a wide temperature and frequency range. We revealed two mechanisms of dielectric relaxation in hydration water that are driven by the migration of ionic and orientation defects. At high water fractions in powders (h>0.2), the hydration shell around the collagen triple helixes presents a spatial H-bonded network consisting of structural water bridges and cleft water channels. These two water phases provide the long-range paths for proton-hopping and orientation defect migration...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483866/extreme-weather-and-climate-events-with-ecological-relevance-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Caroline C Ummenhofer, Gerald A Meehl
Robust evidence exists that certain extreme weather and climate events, especially daily temperature and precipitation extremes, have changed in regard to intensity and frequency over recent decades. These changes have been linked to human-induced climate change, while the degree to which climate change impacts an individual extreme climate event (ECE) is more difficult to quantify. Rapid progress in event attribution has recently been made through improved understanding of observed and simulated climate variability, methods for event attribution and advances in numerical modelling...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482573/polythiophene-supported-mno2-nanoparticles-as-nano-stabilizer-for-simultaneously-electrostatically-immobilization-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-and-hemoglobin-as-efficient-bio-nanocomposite-in-fabrication-of-dopamine-bi-enzyme-biosensor
#16
Yalda Shoja, Amir Abbas Rafati, Javad Ghodsi
A novel, highly selective and sensitive voltammetric bi-enzyme biosensor for sensing dopamine (DA), in presence of H2O2 which resulted as d-alanine enzymatic oxidation, was fabricated on the basis of simultaneously electrostatically immobilization of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and hemoglobin (Hb) on MnO2 nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) enriched poly thiophene (PTh). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), technique was applied for electropolymerization of thiophene on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and MnO2 NPs dispersed on PTh network by soaking PTh/GCE in potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479324/theta-oscillations-during-active-sleep-synchronize-the-developing-rubro-hippocampal-sensorimotor-network
#17
Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez, Jangjin Kim, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
Neuronal oscillations comprise a fundamental mechanism by which distant neural structures establish and express functional connectivity. Long-range functional connectivity between the hippocampus and other forebrain structures is enabled by theta oscillations. Here, we show for the first time that the infant rat red nucleus (RN)-a brainstem sensorimotor structure-exhibits theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations restricted primarily to periods of active (REM) sleep. At postnatal day 8 (P8), theta is expressed as brief bursts immediately following myoclonic twitches; by P12, theta oscillations are expressed continuously across bouts of active sleep...
May 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474926/magnetic-order-crossover-in-coupled-spin-ladders
#18
M Jeong, H Mayaffre, C Berthier, D Schmidiger, A Zheludev, M Horvatić
We report a novel crossover behavior in the long-range-ordered phase of a prototypical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder compound (C_{7}H_{10}N)_{2}CuBr_{4}. The staggered order was previously evidenced from a continuous and symmetric splitting of ^{14}N NMR spectral lines on lowering the temperature below T_{c}≃330  mK, with a saturation towards ≃150  mK. Unexpectedly, the split lines begin to further separate away below T^{*}∼100  mK, while the linewidth and the line shape remain completely invariable...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473234/structural-description-of-the-marketed-form-of-valsartan-a-crystalline-mesophase-characterized-by-nanocrystals-and-conformational-disorder
#19
Yannick Guinet, Laurent Paccou, Florence Danède, Patrick Derollez, Alain Hédoux
Valsartan is an antihypertensive drug, recognized to be marketed in an amorphous state, different from that obtained by quenching the liquid state below Tg. This is an unusual and very original situation, given that the amorphous state is unstable. Low-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out on the various solid-state forms of valsartan. It was found that the marketed form is not amorphous and can be described in terms of mesophase in which the long-range order of the stable crystal is limited on the lengthscale of tens nanometers, inducing a melting temperature lower than that of the stable crystalline state, inherent to the crystallite size...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466156/mirna-regulation-is-important-for-dna-damage-repair-and-recognition-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
Fabian Dominik Mairinger, Robert Werner, Elena Flom, Jan Schmeller, Sabrina Borchert, Michael Wessolly, Jeremias Wohlschlaeger, Thomas Hager, Thomas Mairinger, Jens Kollmeier, Daniel Christian Christoph, Kurt Werner Schmid, Robert Fred Henry Walter
Platin-containing regimes are currently considered as state-of-the-art therapies in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) but show dissatisfying response rates ranging from 6 to 16% only. Still, the reasons for the rather poor efficacy remain largely unknown. A clear stratification of patients based on new biomarkers seems to be a promising approach to enhance clinical management, which would be a long-needed improvement for MPM patients but does not seem likely soon unless new biomarkers can be validated. Twenty-four formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour specimens were subjected to a miRNA expression screening of 800 important miRNAs using digital quantification via the nCounter technique (NanoString)...
May 2, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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