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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813673/multipotent-basal-stem-cells-maintained-in-localized-proximal-niches-support-directed-long-ranging-epithelial-flows-in-human-prostates
#1
Mohammad Moad, Edouard Hannezo, Simon J Buczacki, Laura Wilson, Amira El-Sherif, David Sims, Robert Pickard, Nicholas A Wright, Stuart C Williamson, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor, Laura Greaves, Craig N Robson, Benjamin D Simons, Rakesh Heer
Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811926/postinjection-delirium-sedation-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-receiving-olanzapine-long-acting-injection-results-from-a-large-observational-study
#2
Kristin J Meyers, Himanshu P Upadhyaya, John L Landry, Rashna Chhabra-Khanna, Deborah M Falk, Balasubramanya Seetharama Rao, Meghan E Jones
BACKGROUND: Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported uncommonly during treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI), a sustained-release formulation of olanzapine. AIMS: The primary aim of the study was to estimate the incidence per injection and per patient of PDSS events in adult patients with schizophrenia who were receiving olanzapine LAI in real-world clinical practice. Secondary aims were to further characterise the clinical presentation of PDSS events, to identify potential risk factors associated with PDSS events and to characterise hospitalisations at baseline and post-baseline...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811628/a-complex-network-analysis-of-ethnic-conflicts-and-human-rights-violations
#3
Kiran Sharma, Gunjan Sehgal, Bindu Gupta, Geetika Sharma, Arnab Chatterjee, Anirban Chakraborti, Gautam Shroff
News reports in media contain records of a wide range of socio-economic and political events in time. Using a publicly available, large digital database of news records, and aggregating them over time, we study the network of ethnic conflicts and human rights violations. Complex network analyses of the events and the involved actors provide important insights on the engaging actors, groups, establishments and sometimes nations, pointing at their long range effect over space and time. We find power law decays in distributions of actor mentions, co-actor mentions and degrees and dominance of influential actors and groups...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803883/the-provision-of-emergency-contraception-in-kinshasa-s-private-sector-pharmacies-experiences-of-mystery-clients
#4
Julie H Hernandez, Mbadu Muanda Fidèle, Mélissa Garcia, Annie Glover
OBJECTIVES: Recent programmatic and research efforts on addressing gaps in health systems of low-income countries increasingly see task shifting, i.e. the provision of healthcare by non-medically trained personnel, as a possible solution to increase the availability of specific services and commodities. In Kinshasa, private-sector pharmacies are the primary and preferred provider of family planning (FP) methods, and thus constitute a potential resource for expanding access to specific contraceptives...
August 10, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800340/reducing-the-rate-of-misdiagnosis-in%C3%A2-patients-with-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-is-there-a-place-for-audiovisual-stimulation
#5
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Cannavò, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) mostly present with extremely challenging differential diagnosis. The advanced analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals induced by brain stimulation paradigms may provide an appropriate approach to differentiate patients with DoC, besides the clinical assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed with an objective of identifying residual brain network perturbations following an innovative, non-invasive audiovisual stimulation protocol, which could be related to behavioral responsiveness in patients with DoC...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793211/design-of-elastic-networks-with-evolutionary-optimized-long-range-communication-as-mechanical-models-of-allosteric-proteins
#6
Holger Flechsig
Allosteric effects often underlie the activity of proteins, and elucidating generic design aspects and functional principles unique to allosteric phenomena represent a major challenge. Here an approach consisting of the in silico design of synthetic structures, which, as the principal element of allostery, encode dynamical long-range coupling among two sites, is presented. The structures are represented by elastic networks, similar to coarse-grained models of real proteins. A strategy of evolutionary optimization was implemented to iteratively improve allosteric coupling...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792209/boron-enabling-exciting-metal-rich-structures-and-magnetic-properties
#7
Jan P Scheifers, Yuemei Zhang, Boniface P T Fokwa
Boron's unique chemical properties and its reactions with metals have yielded the large class of metal borides with compositions ranging from the most boron-rich YB66 (used as monochromator for synchrotron radiation) up to the most metal-rich Nd2Fe14B (the best permanent magnet to date). The excellent magnetic properties of the latter compound originate from its unique crystal structure to which the presence of boron is essential. In general, knowing the crystal structure of any given extended solid is the prerequisite to understanding its physical properties and eventually predicting new synthetic targets with desirable properties...
August 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790301/an-early-mechanical-coupling-of-planktonic-bacteria-in-dilute-suspensions
#8
Simon Sretenovic, Biljana Stojković, Iztok Dogsa, Rok Kostanjšek, Igor Poberaj, David Stopar
It is generally accepted that planktonic bacteria in dilute suspensions are not mechanically coupled and do not show correlated motion. The mechanical coupling of cells is a trait that develops upon transition into a biofilm, a microbial community of self-aggregated bacterial cells. Here we employ optical tweezers to show that bacteria in dilute suspensions are mechanically coupled and show long-range correlated motion. The strength of the coupling increases with the growth of liquid bacterial culture. The matrix responsible for the mechanical coupling is composed of cell debris and extracellular polymer material...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783358/long-range-ordering-of-blunt-ended-dna-tiles-on-supported-lipid-bilayers
#9
Nicole Avakyan, Justin Conway, Hanadi F Sleiman
Long-range ordering of DNA crossover tiles with blunt ends on lipid bilayers is investigated using atomic force microscopy. "Blunt-ended" tiles do not have single-stranded complementary ends, and thus instead of assembling via base-pairing, they can interact by π-stacking of their duplex ends. This work demonstrates that the balance of base π-stacking interactions between the ends of DNA duplexes, cholesterol-mediated DNA anchoring and electrostatic DNA binding to supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) presents an opportunity to build dynamic materials with long-range order on a soft support...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783184/geobacter-sulfurreducens-pili-support-ohmic-electronic-conduction-in-aqueous-solution
#10
Nicole L Ing, Tyler D Nusca, Allon I Hochbaum
The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model biological catalyst in microbial electrochemical devices. G. sulfurreducens forms electrically conductive, electrode-associated biofilms, but the biological structures mediating electrical conduction from cells to the electrodes are a matter of debate. Bacteria in these communities produce a network of fiber-like Type IV pili, which have been proposed to act either as inherent, protein-based electronic conductors, or as electronically inert scaffolds for cytochromes mediating long-range charge transport...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782681/a-bayesian-spatial-model-for-neuroimaging-data-based-on-biologically-informed-basis-functions
#11
Ismael Huertas, Marianne Oldehinkel, Erik S B van Oort, David Garcia-Solis, Pablo Mir, Christian F Beckmann, Andre F Marquand
The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data is characterized as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771589/structural-and-mutational-analyses-of-the-leptospira-interrogans-virulence-related-heme-oxygenase-provide-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism
#12
Anabel Soldano, Sebastián Klinke, Lisandro H Otero, Mario Rivera, Daniela L Catalano-Dupuy, Eduardo A Ceccarelli
Heme oxygenase from Leptospira interrogans is an important virulence factor. During catalysis, redox equivalents are provided to this enzyme by the plastidic-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase also found in L. interrogans. This process may have evolved to aid this bacterial pathogen to obtain heme-iron from their host and enable successful colonization. Herein we report the crystal structure of the heme oxygenase-heme complex at 1.73 Å resolution. The structure reveals several distinctive features related to its function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767646/a-model-of-human-motor-sequence-learning-explains-facilitation-and-interference-effects-based-on-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#13
Quan Wang, Constantin A Rothkopf, Jochen Triesch
The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763382/economic-valuation-of-selected-illnesses-in-environmental-public-health-tracking
#14
Ying Zhou, Tursynbek Nurmagambetov, Matthew McCord, Wan-Hsiang Hsu
BACKGROUND: In benefit-cost analysis of public health programs, health outcomes need to be assigned monetary values so that different health endpoints can be compared and improvement in health can be compared with cost of the program. There are 2 major approaches for estimating economic value of illnesses: willingness to pay (WTP) and cost of illness (COI). In this study, we compared these 2 approaches and summarized valuation estimates for 3 health endpoints included in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network-asthma, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and lead poisoning...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763014/two-hop-adaptive-vector-based-quality-forwarding-for-void-hole-avoidance-in-underwater-wsns
#15
Nadeem Javaid, Farwa Ahmed, Zahid Wadud, Nabil Alrajeh, Mohamad Souheil Alabed, Manzoor Ilahi
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) facilitate a wide range of aquatic applications in various domains. However, the harsh underwater environment poses challenges like low bandwidth, long propagation delay, high bit error rate, high deployment cost, irregular topological structure, etc. Node mobility and the uneven distribution of sensor nodes create void holes in UWSNs. Void hole creation has become a critical issue in UWSNs, as it severely affects the network performance. Avoiding void hole creation benefits better coverage over an area, less energy consumption in the network and high throughput...
August 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762142/intracortical-stiffness-of-mid-diaphysis-femur-bovine-bone-lacunar-canalicular-based-homogenization-numerical-solutions-and-microhardness-measurements
#16
Ilige S Hage, Ramsey F Hamade
Microscale lacunar-canalicular (L-C) porosity is a major contributor to intracortical bone stiffness variability. In this work, such variability is investigated experimentally using micro hardness indentation tests and numerically using a homogenization scheme. Cross sectional rings of cortical bones are cut from the middle tubular part of bovine femur long bone at mid-diaphysis. A series of light microscopy images are taken along a line emanating from the cross-section center starting from the ring's interior (endosteum) ring surface toward the ring's exterior (periosteum) ring surface...
September 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761555/affective-pictures-processing-is-reflected-by-an-increased-long-distance-eeg-connectivity
#17
Bahar Güntekin, Banu Femir, Bilge Turp Gölbaşı, Elif Tülay, Erol Başar
Analysis of affective picture processing by means of EEG has invaded the literature. The methodology of event-related EEG coherence is one of the essential methods used to analyze functional connectivity. The aims of the present study are to find out the long range EEG connectivity changes in perception of different affective pictures and analyze gender differences in these long range connected networks. EEGs of 28 healthy subjects (14 female) were recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed emotional pictures (IAPS, unpleasant, pleasant, neutral)...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760989/time-resolved-observation-of-protein-allosteric-communication
#18
Sebastian Buchenberg, Florian Sittel, Gerhard Stock
Allostery represents a fundamental mechanism of biological regulation that is mediated via long-range communication between distant protein sites. Although little is known about the underlying dynamical process, recent time-resolved infrared spectroscopy experiments on a photoswitchable PDZ domain (PDZ2S) have indicated that the allosteric transition occurs on multiple timescales. Here, using extensive nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, a time-dependent picture of the allosteric communication in PDZ2S is developed...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759060/mechanical-response-of-collagen-networks-to-nonuniform-microscale-loads
#19
Brian Burkel, Jacob Notbohm
As force is applied to fibrous proteins such as collagen or fibrin, the fibers respond by bending, stretching, or buckling, which together bring about a nonlinear relationship between force and displacement. The nonlinearity is typically understood in terms of strain stiffening in uniform extension or shear, but there remains a critical lack of data on how fibrous materials respond to other more complicated loadings. Here we study the mechanics of collagen networks in response to nonuniform loads applied on the local scale of the fibers...
July 31, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756348/measuring-alterations-in-oscillatory-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-with-resting-state-meg-state-of-the-art-and-methodological-challenges
#20
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Annalisa Pascarella, Thomas Thiery, Etienne Combrisson, Anne-Lise Saive, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Frédéric Haesebaert, Karim Jerbi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. METHOD: A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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