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Recommendations for aortic valve replacement

Saif Al-Najafi, Frank Sanchez, Stamatios Lerakis
Transcatheter valve interventions have emerged as one of the most important developments in structural heart disease over the past 20 years. Initially, these interventions were directed at patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk; however, their applications have extended to involve other native valves' pathologies, degenerated prosthetic valves, as well as patients of lower surgical risk. In this article, we discuss the importance of cardiac imaging in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by exploring the current practices, guidelines, and recommendations with the supporting data...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yong-Jin Kim
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disease, affecting nearly 5% of elderly individuals. Because most common etiology of AS is degenerative valve disease, hypertension (HT) is not rare in patients with AS. It was reported that more than 30% of patients with AS had systemic hypertension. Therefore, management of hypertension is an important issue for these patients. There are several effects of combined AS and HT. First, HT increases hemodynamic load of left ventricle and peak systolic left ventricular wall stress...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Andreas Vötsch, Wolfgang Weihs, Martin Asslaber, Otto Dapunt
Until now, to our knowledge no case of bioprosthetic valvular thrombosis after implantation of the sutureless Sorin Perceval valve has been reported. Although sutureless aortic valve replacement has become a powerful tool in our daily practice, recent guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association do not give specific recommendations on postoperative anticoagulation therapy. We report the first case of valve dysfunction resulting from thrombosis 12 months after implantation with a possible link to postoperative cortisole therapy...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yong-Jin Kim
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disease, affecting nearly 5% of elderly individuals. Because most common etiology of AS is degenerative valve disease, hypertension (HT) is not rare in patients with AS. It was reported that more than 30% of patients with AS had systemic hypertension. Therefore, management of hypertension is an important issue for these patients. There are several effects of combined AS and HT. First, HT increases hemodynamic load of left ventricle and peak systolic left ventricular wall stress...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Khalil Ahmad, Christian Juhl Terkelsen, Kim Allan Terp, Ole Norling Mathiassen, Bjarne Linde Nørgaard, Henning Rud Andersen, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Erin A Woods, Margaret L Ackman, Michelle M Graham, Sheri L Koshman, Rosaleen M Boswell, Arden R Barry
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), defined as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, and warfarin, for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. The choice of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy in this population is ambiguous and complex, and prescribing patterns are not well documented. OBJECTIVE: To characterize local prescribing patterns for anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Brett Hiendlmayr, Joseph Nakda, Ossama Elsaid, Xuan Wang, Aidan Flynn
Aortic regurgitation is a frequently encountered condition, in which traditional measurements of severity have proven to be of limited value in identifying those who would be best served by aortic valve replacement. Novel methods of assessing severity are vital, particularly as an entirely new paradigm of aortic regurgitation has surfaced, with the advent of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and the adverse events that are being observed with varying degrees of aortic regurgitation. With that in mind, a comprehensive assessment of aortic regurgitation should now include indexed left ventricular systolic volumes and a comprehensive assessment of right ventricular function, in addition to the quantitative measures that are currently recommended...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yoshimasa Sakamoto, Michio Yoshitake, Yoko Matsumura, Hitomi Naruse, Ko Bando, Kazuhiro Hashimoto
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical (M) and bioprosthetic (B) valves as recommended by the Japanese guidelines. METHODS: From April 1995 to March 2014, 366 adult patients underwent AVR. Of these, 127 (35%) patients received M and 239 patients (65%) received B valves. A retrospective analysis of the entire and the selected 124 patients aged 60 to 70 years was carried out. RESULTS: In patients aged 60 to 70 years, the 15-year survival and freedom from reoperation were 88% ± 7% and 100% for the M group and 34% ± 25% (p <0...
September 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yu Horiuchi, Mika Izumo, Takayoshi Kusuhara, Motoi Yokozuka, Takeshi Taketani, Kengo Tanabe
This report describes an elderly severe aortic stenosis (AS) patient, who had a history of coronary artery bypass grafting and endovascular repair for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Type II endoleak with enlargement of AAA was diagnosed and ligation of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was recommended. Because aortic valve replacement (AVR) was high risk, we planned transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Considering risks of IMA ligation under dual antiplatelet therapy, increased blood pressure after TAVI, and general anesthesia, we performed combined TAVI and IMA ligation...
September 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
Hashrul N Rashid, Liam M McCormick, Robert P Gooley, Ian T Meredith
A 79-year-old man with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm and worsening dyspnoea. Echocardiography demonstrated critical aortic stenosis. Simultaneous endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was recommended due to high surgical risk. Procedural strategy was to perform balloon valvuloplasty (BAV), followed by EVAR then TAVR. The initial 25 mm Lotus valve adopted a barrel shape suggestive of an undersized valve and was thus replaced with a 27 mm valve...
August 30, 2016: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
Mattia Glauber, Simon C Moten, Eugenio Quaini, Marco Solinas, Thierry A Folliguet, Bart Meuris, Antonio Miceli, Peter J Oberwalder, Manfredo Rambaldini, Kevin H T Teoh, Gopal Bhatnagar, Michael A Borger, Denis Bouchard, Olivier Bouchot, Stephen C Clark, Otto E Dapunt, Matteo Ferrarini, Theodor J M Fischlein, Guenther Laufer, Carmelo Mignosa, Russell Millner, Philippe Noirhomme, Steffen Pfeiffer, Xavier Ruyra-Baliarda, Malakh Lal Shrestha, Rakesh M Suri, Giovanni Troise, Borut Gersak
OBJECTIVE: To define the benefit of sutureless and rapid deployment valves in current minimally invasive approaches in isolated aortic valve replacement. METHODS: A panel of 28 international experts with expertise in both minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and rapid deployment valves was constituted. After thorough literature review, the experts rated evidence-based recommendations in a modified Delphi approach. RESULTS: No guideline could be retrieved...
May 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Omar Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Eric Durand, Antonio J Muñoz-García, Luis Nombela-Franco, Asim Cheema, Joelle Kefer, Enrique Gutierrez, Luis M Benítez, Ignacio J Amat-Santos, Vicenç Serra, Helene Eltchaninoff, Sami M Alnasser, Jaime Elízaga, Antonio Dager, Bruno García Del Blanco, Maria Del Rosario Ortas-Nadal, Josep Ramon Marsal, Francisco Campelo-Parada, Ander Regueiro, Maria Del Trigo, Eric Dumont, Rishi Puri, Josep Rodés-Cabau
OBJECTIVES: The study sought to examine the risk of ischemic events and bleeding episodes associated with differing antithrombotic strategies in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend antiplatelet therapy (APT) post-TAVR to reduce the risk of stroke. However, data on the efficacy and safety of this recommendation in the setting of a concomitant indication for oral anticoagulation (due to atrial fibrillation [AF]) with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) are scarce...
August 22, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Kirstine L Sibilitz, Selina K Berg, Trine B Rasmussen, Signe Stelling Risom, Lau C Thygesen, Lars Tang, Tina B Hansen, Pernille Palm Johansen, Christian Gluud, Jane Lindschou, Jean Paul Schmid, Christian Hassager, Lars Køber, Rod S Taylor, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler
OBJECTIVE: The evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains sparse. Current recommendations are therefore based on patients with ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effects of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care after heart valve surgery. METHODS: The trial was an investigator-initiated, randomised superiority trial (The CopenHeartVR trial, VR; valve replacement or repair). We randomised 147 patients after heart valve surgery 1:1 to 12 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation consisting of physical exercise and monthly psycho-educational consultations (intervention) versus usual care without structured physical exercise or psycho-educational consultations (control)...
August 4, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Sveeta Badiani, Jet van Zalen, Thomas A Treibel, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, James C Moon, Guy Lloyd
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence. It is increasingly clear that it is also a disease of the left ventricle (LV) rather than purely the aortic valve. The transition from left ventricular hypertrophy to fibrosis results in the eventual adverse effects on systolic and diastolic function. Appropriate selection of patients for aortic valve intervention is crucial, and current guidelines recommend aortic valve replacement in severe AS with symptoms or in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50 %...
August 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Bernhard Meier
Evidence-based diagnosis, decision-making, and therapy appear a must these days. Generating and publishing evidence is a tedious job according to ever new and tightened research practice regulations. Rules will never prevent the typical human behaviour from showing the new thing to be shinier and the old thing dustier than they really are. The medical community is solicited to concoct a meal that is gullible for patients, authorities, and third-party payers out of the available evidence (after applying some conversion factors correcting the common bias of the researchers), anticipation of what will be the evidence tomorrow, common sense, and digested experience...
July 7, 2016: European Heart Journal
Jeffrey J Popma, Thomas G Gleason, Steven J Yakubov, J Kevin Harrison, John K Forrest, Brijeshwar Maini, Carlos E Ruiz, Duane S Pinto, Marco Costa, Jon Resar, John Conte, Juan Crestanello, Yanping Chang, Jae K Oh, Michael J Reardon, David H Adams
BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography is useful for determining the appropriate transcatheter heart valve (THV) size in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are suboptimal surgical candidates. The relationship between adherence to the recommended CoreValve sizing algorithm and clinical outcomes is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 1023 patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed high or extreme risk for surgery treated with the CoreValve THV...
July 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Guillaume Avinée, Eric Durand, Safwane Elhatimi, Fabrice Bauer, Bastien Glinel, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Guillaume Cellier, Guillaume Viart, Christophe Tron, Matthieu Godin, Pierre-Yves Litzler, Alain Cribier, Hélène Eltchaninoff
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended in patients with severe aortic stenosis that is either inoperable or at high-risk for surgical valve replacement. AIMS: To evaluate trends in the feasibility and safety of transfemoral TAVI over the past 4 years. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2013, all consecutive patients undergoing TAVI in our institution were included in a prospective registry. Population characteristics and 30-day and 1-year outcomes were analysed...
August 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Polydoros N Kampaktsis, Casper N Bang, S Chiu Wong, Nikolaos J Skubas, Harsimran Singh, Konstantinos Voudris, Amiran Baduashvili, Kalliopi Pastella, Rajesh V Swaminathan, Ryan K Kaple, Robert M Minutello, Dmitriy N Feldman, Luke Kim, Ingrid Hriljac, Fay Lin, Geoffrey S Bergman, Arash Salemi, Richard B Devereux
OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine whether baseline diastolic dysfunction (DD) is associated with increased mortality in patients who develop aortic insufficiency (AI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Significant post-TAVR AI is associated with increased mortality, likely secondary to adverse hemodynamics secondary to volume overload and decreased LV compliance from chronic pressure overload. However, the effect of baseline DD on outcomes of patients with post-TAVR AI has not been studied...
May 24, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Stuart J Head, Darren Mylotte, Michael J Mack, Nicolo Piazza, Nicolas M van Mieghem, Martin B Leon, A Pieter Kappetein, David R Holmes
In the United States, new surgical heart valves can be approved on the basis of objective performance criteria (OPC). In contrast, the US Food and Drug Administration traditionally requires stricter criteria for transcatheter heart valve (THV) approval, including randomized, clinical trials. Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of new-generation THVs based on single-arm studies has generated interest in alternative study approaches for THV device approval. This review evaluates whether THV device approval could follow a pathway analogous to that of surgical heart valves by incorporating OPC and provides several considerations and recommendations...
May 24, 2016: Circulation
Alexander C Egbe, Sushil A Luis, Ratnasari Padang, Carole A Warnes
BACKGROUND: A direct comparison of outcomes between moderate mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD) and isolated aortic stenosis (AS) or aortic regurgitation (AR) has not been performed, making evidence-based recommendations difficult in patients with MAVD. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine adverse event (AE) occurrence (the primary endpoint), defined as New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms, aortic valve replacement, or cardiac death, and to compare AE rates between MAVD and isolated AS or AR...
May 24, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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