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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811556/evolutionary-mechanisms-of-runaway-chromosome-number-change-in-agrodiaetus-butterflies
#1
Alisa O Vershinina, Vladimir A Lukhtanov
Despite predictions of the classic, hybrid-sterility model of chromosomal speciation, some organisms demonstrate high rate of karyotype evolution. This rate is especially impressive in Agrodiaetus butterflies that rapidly evolved the greatest chromosome number diversity known in animal kingdom within a single subgenus. Here we analyzed karyotype evolution in Agrodiaetus using phylogenetic comparative methods. We found that chromosome numbers possess a strong phylogenetic signal. This disproves the chromosome megaevolution model that proposes multiple chromosome rearrangements to accumulate independently in each of closely related species...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811305/red-blood-cells-in-thrombosis
#2
James R Byrnes, Alisa S Wolberg
Red blood cells (RBCs) have historically been considered passive bystanders in thrombosis. However, clinical and epidemiological studies have associated quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in RBCs, including altered hematocrit, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, and malaria, with both arterial and venous thrombosis. A growing body of mechanistic studies suggests RBCs can promote thrombus formation and enhance thrombus stability. These findings suggest RBCs may contribute to thrombosis pathophysiology and reveal potential strategies for therapeutically targeting RBCs to reduce thrombosis...
August 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797497/reaching-hepatitis-c-virus-elimination-targets-requires-health-system-interventions-to-enhance-the-care-cascade
#3
Nick Scott, Joseph S Doyle, David P Wilson, Amanda Wade, Jess Howell, Alisa Pedrana, Alexander Thompson, Margaret E Hellard
BACKGROUND: Modelling suggests that achieving the World Health Organization's elimination targets for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is possible by scaling up use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. However, poor linkage to health services and retention in care presents a major barrier, in particular among people who inject drugs (PWID). We identify and assess the cost-effectiveness of additional health system interventions required to achieve HCV elimination targets in Australia, a setting where all people living with HCV have access to DAA therapy...
August 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793219/stiff-substrates-increase-inflammation-induced-endothelial-monolayer-tension-and-permeability
#4
Rebecca Lownes Urbano, Christina Furia, Sarah Basehore, Alisa Morss Clyne
Arterial stiffness and inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis, and each have individually been shown to increase endothelial monolayer tension and permeability. The objective of this study was to determine if substrate stiffness enhanced endothelial monolayer tension and permeability in response to inflammatory cytokines. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured at confluence on polyacrylamide gels of varying stiffness and treated with either tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or thrombin. Monolayer tension was measured through vinculin localization at the cell membrane, traction force microscopy, and phosphorylated myosin light chain quantity and actin fiber colocalization...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791722/blood-pressure-and-the-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-using-multistate-marginal-structural-models-in-the-cric-study
#5
Alisa J Stephens-Shields, Andrew J Spieker, Amanda Anderson, Paul Drawz, Michael Fischer, Stephen M Sozio, Harold Feldman, Marshall Joffe, Wei Yang, Tom Greene
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), clinical interest often centers on determining treatments and exposures that are causally related to renal progression. Analyses of longitudinal clinical data in this population are often complicated by clinical competing events, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death, and time-dependent confounding, where patient factors that are predictive of later exposures and outcomes are affected by past exposures. We developed multistate marginal structural models (MS-MSMs) to assess the effect of time-varying systolic blood pressure on disease progression in subjects with CKD...
August 9, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777199/alterations-in-spanish-language-interpretation-during-pediatric-critical-care-family-meetings
#6
Carolyn S Sinow, Irene Corso, Javier Lorenzo, Kiley A Lawrence, David C Magnus, Alisa C Van Cleave
OBJECTIVES: To characterize alterations in Spanish language medical interpretation during pediatric critical care family meetings. DESIGN: Descriptive, observational study using verbatim transcripts of nine PICU family meetings conducted with in-person, hospital-employed interpreters. SETTING: A single, university-based, tertiary children's hospital. SUBJECTS: Medical staff, family members, ancillary staff, and interpreters...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770658/a-dynamical-model-of-the-transport-of-asbestos-fibres-in-the-human-body
#7
Alisa DeStefano, Clyde F Martin, Dorothy I Wallace
We present a model for the transport of a single type of asbestos fibre through the human body. The model captures the transport modes that pertain particularly to the lungs and the mesothelium. Numerical solutions of the system follow observed movement in the body. We compare the accumulation of fibres in the lungs versus the mesothelium, and then we give analysis and results for various cases of exposure level and exposure time. Models, such as the one developed here, can give clues as to how asbestos fibres impact the body, and where to look for major impact...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768684/parent-provider-miscommunications-in-hospitalized-children
#8
Alisa Khan, Stephannie L Furtak, Patrice Melvin, Jayne E Rogers, Mark A Schuster, Christopher P Landrigan
BACKGROUND: Miscommunications lead to medical errors and suboptimal hospital experience. Parent-provider miscommunications are understudied. OBJECTIVES: (1) Examine characteristics of parent-provider miscommunications about hospitalized children, (2) describe associations among parent-provider miscommunications, parent-reported errors, and hospital experience, and (3) compare parent and attending physician reports of parent-provider miscommunications. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 471 parents of 0- to 17-year-old medical inpatients in a pediatric hospital between May 1, 2013 and October 1, 2014...
August 2, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766241/risky-trade-individual-and-neighborhood-level-socio-demographics-associated-with-transactional-sex-among-urban-african-american-msm
#9
Robin Stevens, Larry Icard, John B Jemmott, Ann O'Leary, Scott Rutledge, Janet Hsu, Alisa Stephens-Shields
There is a clear, persistent association between poverty and HIV risk and HIV infection. Low educational attainment, neighborhood disadvantage, and residential instability are ways in which poverty is instrumentally experienced in urban America. We investigated the role of lived poverty at both the individual and neighborhood levels in transactional sex behavior among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in urban neighborhoods. Using population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, we identified individual-level and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with exchanging sex for drugs and/or money...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764778/centella-asiatica-modulates-cancer-cachexia-associated-inflammatory-cytokines-and-cell-death-in-leukaemic-thp-1-cells-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmc-s
#10
Dhaneshree Bestinee Naidoo, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon, Alisa Phulukdaree, Kanive Parashiva Guruprasad, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Vikash Sewram
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour potential. We investigated the modulation of antioxidants, cytokines and cell death by C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (CLE) in leukaemic THP-1 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's). METHODS: Cytotoxcity of CLE was determined at 24 and 72 h (h). Oxidant scavenging activity of CLE was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay...
August 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749540/declining-prevalence-of-undiagnosed-hiv-in-melbourne-results-from-community-based-bio-behavioural-studies-of-gay-and-bisexual-men
#11
Mark Stoové, Jason Asselin, Alisa Pedrana, Toby Lea, Margaret Hellard, David Wilson, Garrett Prestage, John de Wit, Martin Holt
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Melbourne. METHODS: Undiagnosed HIV was compared between GBM recruited anonymously in 2008 in gay venues only and GBM anonymously or confidentially (results delivery) recruited in 2014 at gay venues and a community festival. Surveys were completed and oral fluid specimens collected for HIV testing; positive tests among GBM reporting being HIV-negative or unknown/untested were classified as undiagnosed...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743033/analysis-of-the-genetic-structure-of-the-malay-population-ancestry-informative-marker-snps-in-the-malay-of-peninsular-malaysia
#12
Padillah Yahya, Sarina Sulong, Azian Harun, Hatin Wan Isa, Nur-Shafawati Ab Rajab, Pongsakorn Wangkumhang, Alisa Wilantho, Chumpol Ngamphiw, Sissades Tongsima, Zilfalil Alwi
Malay, the main ethnic group in Peninsular Malaysia, is represented by various sub-ethnic groups such as Melayu Banjar, Melayu Bugis, Melayu Champa, Melayu Java, Melayu Kedah Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang and Melayu Patani. Using data retrieved from the MyHVP (Malaysian Human Variome Project) database, a total of 135 individuals from these sub-ethnic groups were profiled using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Xba 50-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify SNPs that were ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for Malays of Peninsular Malaysia...
July 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738444/protein-coating-of-dna-nanostructures-for-enhanced-stability-and-immunocompatibility
#13
Henni Auvinen, Hongbo Zhang, Nonappa, Alisa Kopilow, Elina H Niemelä, Sami Nummelin, Alexandra Correia, Hélder A Santos, Veikko Linko, Mauri A Kostiainen
Fully addressable DNA nanostructures, especially DNA origami, possess huge potential to serve as inherently biocompatible and versatile molecular platforms. However, their use as delivery vehicles in therapeutics is compromised by their low stability and poor transfection rates. This study shows that DNA origami can be coated by precisely defined one-to-one protein-dendron conjugates to tackle the aforementioned issues. The dendron part of the conjugate serves as a cationic binding domain that attaches to the negatively charged DNA origami surface via electrostatic interactions...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731529/association-between-systemic-antibiotic-and-corticosteroid-use-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-quality-of-life
#14
Alisa Yamasaki, Lloyd P Hoehle, Katie M Phillips, Allen L Feng, Adam P Campbell, David S Caradonna, Stacey T Gray, Ahmad R Sedaghat
OBJECTIVE: We sought to establish the significance of querying chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients about their past CRS-related oral antibiotic and corticosteroid usage by determining the association between these metrics and patients' quality of life (QoL). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 157 patients with CRS were prospectively recruited. CRS-specific QoL was measured using the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22)...
July 21, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730144/molecular-characterization-of-the-human-stomach-microbiota-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#15
Guoqin Yu, Javier Torres, Nan Hu, Rafael Medrano-Guzman, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Michael S Humphrys, Lemin Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Ti Ding, Jacques Ravel, Philip R Taylor, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725659/explant-methodology-for-analyzing-neuroblast-migration
#16
Kirsty J Dixon, Alisa Turbic, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
The subventricular zone (SVZ) in the mammalian forebrain contains stem/progenitor cells that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood. SVZ-derived explant cultures provide a convenient method to assess factors regulating the intermediary stage of neural stem/progenitor cell migration. Here, we describe the isolation of SVZ-derived RMS explants from the neonatal mouse brain, and the conditions required to culture and evaluate their migration.
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725182/canonical-and-novel-non-canonical-cholinergic-agonists-inhibit-atp-induced-release-of-monocytic-interleukin-1%C3%AE-via-different-combinations-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-7-%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-10
#17
Anna Zakrzewicz, Katrin Richter, Alisa Agné, Sigrid Wilker, Kathrin Siebers, Bijan Fink, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Mike Althaus, Winfried Padberg, Arik J Hone, J Michael McIntosh, Veronika Grau
Recently, we discovered a cholinergic mechanism that inhibits the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by human monocytes via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) composed of α7, α9 and/or α10 subunits. Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine (PC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as novel nicotinic agonists that elicit metabotropic activity at monocytic nAChR. Interestingly, PC does not provoke ion channel responses at conventional nAChRs composed of subunits α9 and α10...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720803/contingent-sounds-change-the-mental-representation-of-one-s-finger-length
#18
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Maria Vakali, Merle T Fairhurst, Alisa Mandrigin, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Ophelia Deroy
Mental body-representations are highly plastic and can be modified after brief exposure to unexpected sensory feedback. While the role of vision, touch and proprioception in shaping body-representations has been highlighted by many studies, the auditory influences on mental body-representations remain poorly understood. Changes in body-representations by the manipulation of natural sounds produced when one's body impacts on surfaces have recently been evidenced. But will these changes also occur with non-naturalistic sounds, which provide no information about the impact produced by or on the body? Drawing on the well-documented capacity of dynamic changes in pitch to elicit impressions of motion along the vertical plane and of changes in object size, we asked participants to pull on their right index fingertip with their left hand while they were presented with brief sounds of rising, falling or constant pitches, and in the absence of visual information of their hands...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712357/medicare-accountable-care-organizations-and-antidepressant-use-by-patients-with-depression
#19
Alisa B Busch, Haiden A Huskamp, Amanda R Kreider, J Michael McWilliams
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether Medicare accountable care organization (ACO) programs were associated with early changes in antidepressant use or adherence among beneficiaries with depression. METHODS: A difference-in-difference design was used to compare claims from Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (2009-2013) and ACO patients with those from local control groups. Outcome measures were total antidepressant days supplied, filling one or more antidepressant prescriptions, and proportion of days covered (PDC) by supply among antidepressant users (adherence)...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700631/is-the-level-of-knowledge-a-predictor-of-rational-antibiotic-use-in-serbia
#20
Olga J Horvat, Ana D Tomas, Milica M Paut Kusturica, Alisa V Savkov, Dragica U Bukumirić, Zdenko S Tomić, Ana J Sabo
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics of the general population. METHODS: The study sample consisted of adult subjects who consulted general practitioners at health centers in Serbia and agreed to complete the questionnaire. A total of 668 questionnaires were distributed; 500 respondents completed the entire questionnaire (response rate 74.85%). RESULTS: The average age was 51...
2017: PloS One
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