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Fang-Fang Li, Jason Lau, Stuart Licht
The electrolytic coproduction of CO and H2 is achieved from air, water, and a single beam of sunlight rather than from fossil fuels. H2 and CO cosynthesis is driven by a single concentrator photovoltaic to simultaneously drive molten hydroxide and molten carbonate electrolyses. The carbon neutral process captures carbon without the need for the preconcentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Steven D Karlen, Chengcheng Zhang, Matthew L Peck, Rebecca A Smith, Dharshana Padmakshan, Kate E Helmich, Heather C A Free, Seonghee Lee, Bronwen G Smith, Fachuang Lu, John C Sedbrook, Richard Sibout, John H Grabber, Troy M Runge, Kirankumar S Mysore, Philip J Harris, Laura E Bartley, John Ralph
Angiosperms represent most of the terrestrial plants and are the primary research focus for the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels and coproducts. Lignin limits our access to fibers and represents a large fraction of the chemical energy stored in plant cell walls. Recently, the incorporation of monolignol ferulates into lignin polymers was accomplished via the engineering of an exotic transferase into commercially relevant poplar. We report that various angiosperm species might have convergently evolved to natively produce lignins that incorporate monolignol ferulate conjugates...
October 2016: Science Advances
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjquality.u210329.w4679.].
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Jun Wang, Xi Liu, Xu-Dong Wang, Tao Dong, Xing-Yu Zhao, Dan Zhu, Yi-Yuan Mei, Guo-Hua Wu
Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Caoxing Huang, Ben Jeuck, Jing Du, Qiang Yong, Hou-Min Chang, Hasan Jameel, Richard Phillips
Many biorefineries have not been commercialized due to poor economic returns from final products. In this work, a novel process has been developed to coproduce valuable sugars, xylo-oligosaccharides, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. The modified process includes a mild autohydrolysis pretreatment, which enables for the recovery of the xylo-oligosaccharides in auto-hydrolysate. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the residue is sulfomethylated to produce lignosulfonates. Recycling the sulfomethylation residues increased both the glucan recovery and lignosulfonate production...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jonathan C Hill, Sujin Kang, Elena Benedetto, Helen Myers, Steven Blackburn, Stephanie Smith, Kate M Dunn, Elaine Hay, Jonathan Rees, David Beard, Sion Glyn-Jones, Karen Barker, Benjamin Ellis, Ray Fitzpatrick, Andrew Price
OBJECTIVES: Current musculoskeletal outcome tools are fragmented across different healthcare settings and conditions. Our objectives were to develop and validate a single musculoskeletal outcome measure for use throughout the pathway and patients with different musculoskeletal conditions: the Arthritis Research UK Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ). SETTING: A consensus workshop with stakeholders from across the musculoskeletal community, workshops and individual interviews with a broad mix of musculoskeletal patients identified and prioritised outcomes for MSK-HQ inclusion...
2016: BMJ Open
Elizabeth Sutton, Mary Dixon-Woods, Carolyn Tarrant
OBJECTIVES: Quality improvement projects to address transitions of care across care boundaries are increasingly common but meet with mixed success for reasons that are poorly understood. We aimed to characterise challenges in a project to improve transitions for older people between hospital and care homes. DESIGN: Independent process evaluation, using ethnographic observations and interviews, of a quality improvement project. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An English hospital and two residential care homes for older people...
2016: BMJ Open
Baojing Gu, Liangcong Fan, Zechun Ying, Qingshan Xu, Weidong Luo, Ying Ge, Steffanie Scott, Jie Chang
Technological innovation is one of the potential engines to mitigate environmental pollution. However, the implementation of new technologies sometimes fails owing to socioeconomic constraints from different stakeholders. Thus, it is essential to analyze constraints of environmental technologies in order to build a pathway for their implementation. In this study, taking three technologies on rural sewage treatment in Hangzhou, China as a case study, i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WTP), constructed wetland (CW), and biogas system, we analyzed how socioeconomic constraints affect the technological choices...
July 23, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
G J McGeechan, D Woodall, L Anderson, L Wilson, G O'Neill, D Newbury-Birch
Research highlights that asset-based community development where local residents become equal partners in service development may help promote health and well-being. This paper outlines baseline results of a coproduction evaluation of an asset-based approach to improving health and well-being within a small community through promoting tobacco control. Local residents were recruited and trained as community researchers to deliver a smoking prevalence survey within their local community and became local health champions, promoting health and well-being...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Florian W Krainer, Michaela A Gerstmann, Barbara Darnhofer, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger, Anton Glieder
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a high-demand enzyme for applications in diagnostics, bioremediation, biocatalysis and medicine. Current HRP preparations are isolated from horseradish roots as mixtures of biochemically diverse isoenzymes. Thus, there is a strong need for a recombinant production process enabling a steady supply with enzyme preparations of consistent high quality. However, most current recombinant production systems are limited at titers in the low mg/L range. In this study, we used the well-known yeast Pichia pastoris as host for recombinant HRP production...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Gregory W O'Neil, John R Williams, Julia Wilson-Peltier, Gerhard Knothe, Christopher M Reddy
The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
M A Levin, K J Burrington, R W Hartel
Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underused. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to 1 WPPC supplier. The objective of this research was to fully characterize a range of WPPC. Four WPPC samples and 1 DLP sample were analyzed for chemical composition and functionality...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Sumit Verma, Byoungsu Kim, Huei-Ru Molly Jhong, Sichao Ma, Paul J A Kenis
We introduce a gross-margin model to evaluate the technoeconomic feasibility of producing different C1 -C2 chemicals such as carbon monoxide, formic acid, methanol, methane, ethanol, and ethylene through the electroreduction of CO2 . Key performance benchmarks including the maximum operating cell potential (Vmax ), minimum operating current density (jmin ), Faradaic efficiency (FE), and catalyst durability (tcatdur ) are derived. The Vmax values obtained for the different chemicals indicate that CO and HCOOH are the most economically viable products...
August 9, 2016: ChemSusChem
M A Levin, K J Burrington, R W Hartel
Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Kathleen Moreo, Laurence Greene, Tamar Sapir
In the U.S., suboptimal care quality for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reflected by high rates of emergency department visits and hospital readmissions, as well as excessive costs. Moreover, a substantial proportion of COPD patients do not receive guideline-directed therapies. In quality improvement (QI) programs, these types of health care problems are commonly addressed through interventions that primarily or exclusively support physicians in aligning their practices with guidelines and clinical quality measures...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Sabi Redwood, Emer Brangan, Verity Leach, Jeremy Horwood, Jenny L Donovan
BACKGROUND: Economic considerations and the requirement to ensure the quality, safety and integration of research with health and social care provision have given rise to local developments of collaborative organisational forms and strategies to span the translational gaps. One such model - the Health Integration Team (HIT) model in Bristol in the United Kingdom (UK) - brings together National Health Service (NHS) organisations, universities, local authorities, patients and the public to facilitate the systematic application of evidence to promote integration across healthcare pathways...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mohsen Farzaneh, Zhi-Qi Shi, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Liang-Bin Hu, Alireza Ghassempour
In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A...
June 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Khalid E M Sedeek, Edward Whittle, Daniela Guthörl, Ueli Grossniklaus, John Shanklin, Philipp M Schlüter
Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [1]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [2-4]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [2-7], especially their sex pheromones [8-11]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius [11-13]...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paola Costanzo, Luca Cariati, Doriana Desiderio, Roberta Sgammato, Anna Lamberti, Rosaria Arcone, Raffaele Salerno, Monica Nardi, Mariorosario Masullo, Manuela Oliverio
An ecofriendly synthetic pathway for the synthesis of donepezil precursors is described. Alternative energy sources were used for the total synthesis in order to improve yields, regioselectively, and rate of each synthetic step and to reduce the coproduction of waste at the same time. For all products, characterized by an improved structural rigidity respect to donepezil, the inhibitor activity on AChE, the selectivity vs BuChE, the side-activity on BACE-1, and the effect on SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells viability were tested...
May 12, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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