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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528086/cellulosic-ethanol-status-and-innovation
#1
REVIEW
Lee R Lynd, Xiaoyu Liang, Mary J Biddy, Andrew Allee, Hao Cai, Thomas Foust, Michael E Himmel, Mark S Laser, Michael Wang, Charles E Wyman
Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today's technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler)...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#2
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526796/sulfide-induced-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-supports-anammox-in-an-open-water-unit-process-wetland
#3
Zackary L Jones, Justin T Jasper, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
Open-water unit process wetlands host a benthic diatomaceous and bacterial assemblage capable of nitrate removal from treated municipal wastewater with unexpected contributions from anammox processes. In exploring mechanistic drivers of anammox, 16S rRNA gene sequencing profiles of the biomat revealed significant microbial community shifts along the flow path and with depth. Notably there was an increasing abundance of sulfate reducers (Desulfococcus and other Deltaproteobacteria) and anammox microorganisms (Brocadiaceae) with depth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503342/phenotypic-detection-and-antibiogram-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-proteus-species-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-india
#4
N Pal, S Hooja, R Sharma, R K Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: Proteus species cause a variety of community- and hospital-acquired illnesses. Synthesis of β-lactamases is the predominant mechanism for resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Among the β-lactamases, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases are the most common. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases in Proteus species among various clinical isolates at a tertiary care hospital, India...
September 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485772/patienter-kan-bidra-till-s%C3%A3-krare-v%C3%A3-rd-%C3%A2-men-patientmedverkan-i-patients%C3%A3-kerhetsarbetet-kr%C3%A3-ver-nya-attityder-hos-v%C3%A3-rdarbetare-och-forskare
#5
Magna Andreen Sachs, Karin Pukk Härenstam
Patient involvement in patient safety  The prospect of patients contributing to safer care with their unique knowledge and experiences demands a profound change in roles and attitudes among healthcare staff and researchers. The path forward involves designing ways of coproduction in healthcare quality and safety improvement as well as in research.
May 5, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477175/plipastatin-and-surfactin-coproduction-by-bacillus-subtilis-pb2-l-and-their-effects-on-microorganisms
#6
Ling Gao, Jinzhi Han, Hongxia Liu, Xiaoxu Qu, Zhaoxin Lu, Xiaomei Bie
To convert the lipopeptide non-producer strain Bacillus subtilis pB2 into a plipastatin and surfactin coproducer, a gene expression cassette composed of a constitutive promoter (P43), functional gene sfp, and pleiotropic regulatory gene degQ was integrated into the chromosomal amyE locus of strain B. subtilis pB2 by homologous recombination, which generated a plipastatin and surfactin co-producer. Thirteen plipastatins and fifteen surfactins were identified in lipopeptide extracts using analytical techniques, and their effects on microorganisms were described by microscopic, cytoskeleton analysis and flow-cytometry, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474214/shell-extracts-of-the-edible-mussel-and-oyster-induce-an-enhancement-of-the-catabolic-pathway-of-human-skin-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#7
Thomas Latire, Florence Legendre, Mouloud Bouyoucef, Frédéric Marin, Franck Carreiras, Muriel Rigot-Jolivet, Jean-Marc Lebel, Philippe Galéra, Antoine Serpentini
Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the effects of matrix macromolecular components extracted from the shells of two edible molluscs of economic interest, i.e., the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The potential biological activities of these organic molecules were analysed on human dermal fibroblasts in primary culture...
May 4, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467058/a-synthetic-alternative-to-canonical-one-carbon-metabolism
#8
Madeleine Bouzon, Alain Perret, Olivier Loreau, Valérie Delmas, Nadia Perchat, Jean Weissenbach, Frédéric Taran, Philippe Marlière
One-carbon metabolism is an ubiquitous metabolic pathway that encompasses the reactions transferring formyl-, hydroxymethyl- and methyl-groups bound to tetrahydrofolate for the synthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate, methionine and dehydropantoate, the precursor of coenzyme A. An alternative cyclic pathway was designed that substitutes 4-hydroxy-2-oxobutanoic acid (HOB), a compound absent from known metabolism, for the amino acids serine and glycine as one-carbon donors. It involves two novel reactions, the transamination of l-homoserine and the transfer of a one-carbon unit from HOB to tetrahydrofolate releasing pyruvate as coproduct...
May 3, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466903/disproportionation-of-hypophosphite-and-phosphite
#9
Dapeng Liu, Xiang Li, Ling Wei, Tingting Zhang, Anjie Wang, Chenguang Liu, Roel Prins
The disproportionation of NaH2PO2, NaH2PO3, Na2HPO3 and their mixtures was studied by TG-DSC, XRD and (31)P NMR. NaH2PO2 reacted in three steps to yield PH3, Na5P3O10 and H2 by disproportionation and oxidation with water released in condensation reactions. In the first step at 310 °C NaH2PO2 reacted to yield PH3, Na2H2P2O5, Na2HPO3, Na4P2O7 and H2. H2 rather than H2O was the coproduct of the disproportionation, because H2O oxidized hypophosphite and phosphite at elevated temperatures, in agreement with DFT results that show that the reaction of H3PO3 with H2O is exothermic...
May 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464536/mechanistic-investigations-of-synthesis-of-size-tunable-ni-nanoparticles-by-reduction-of-simple-ni-ii-diamide-precursors
#10
Nicolas Mézailles, Koyel Bhattacharyya, Pierre Lecante, Christian Pradel
We present herein a detailed study of the conversion of a nickel(II) diamide precursor to size-tunable, monodisperse nickel nanoparticles (NPs). The thermal decomposition of nickel(II) dioleylamide, synthesized either independently or in situ, results in the formation of Ni NPs without coproduction of water. Mechanistic studies were conducted on the stability and reduction pathway of the Ni(II) precursor, and on consequent particle formation. Varying the ratio of TOP to nickel permits size tunability, resulting in nanoparticles ranging in size from 4 nm to 11 nm in diameter...
May 2, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455274/protocol-of-a-pilot-study-of-technology-enabled-coproduction-in-pediatric-chronic-illness-care
#11
Heather C Kaplan, Sunny Narendra Thakkar, Lisa Burns, Barbara Chini, Dana Mh Dykes, Gary L McPhail, Erin Moore, Shehzad Ahmed Saeed, Ian Eslick, Peter A Margolis, Lisa Opipari-Arrigan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric chronic illness care models are traditionally organized around acute episodes of care and may not meet the needs of patients and their families. Interventions that extend the patient-clinician interaction beyond the health care visit, allow for asynchronous and bidirectional feedback loops that span visits and daily life, and facilitate seamless sharing of information are needed to support a care delivery system that is more collaborative, continuous, and data-driven...
April 28, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450015/a-comparative-study-of-anthocyanin-distribution-in-purple-and-blue-corn-coproducts-from-three-conventional-fractionation-processes
#12
Qian Li, Pavel Somavat, Vijay Singh, Laura Chatham, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
The aim was to compare the distribution of ANCs in purple and blue corn coproducts from three conventional corn fractionation processes and linking ANC partitioning in different coproducts to corn kernel phenotype. Total monomeric anthocyanin (TA) from purple corn extract was 4933.1±43.4mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent per kg dry corn, 10 times more than blue corn. In dry milled purple corn, maximum ANCs were present in the pericarp (45.9% of total ANCs) and in wet-milling they were concentrated in steeping water (79...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448939/environmental-impacts-of-producing-bioethanol-and-biobased-lactic-acid-from-standalone-and-integrated-biorefineries-using-a-consequential-and-an-attributional-life-cycle-assessment-approach
#13
Ranjan Parajuli, Marie Trydeman Knudsen, Morten Birkved, Sylvestre Njakou Djomo, Andrea Corona, Tommy Dalgaard
This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411365/analysis-of-glycosylated-flavonoids-extracted-from-sweet-cherry-stems-as-antibacterial-agents-against-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates
#14
Alfredo Aires, Carla Dias, Rosa Carvalho, Maria José Saavedra
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of flavonoids extracted from sweet-cherry stems which are often used by a traditional system of medicine to treat gastro-intestinal and urinary tract infections but lacking any consistent scientific evidence; moreover the information about the class of phenolics, their content and the potential bioactivity of such material is very scarce. Thus, in this context, we have set a research study in which we evaluated the profile and content of phenolics extracted from sweet-cherry stems through a conventional (70ºC and 20 min) and ultrasound assisted extraction (40 kHz, room temperature and 20 min)...
April 14, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380544/digestion-and-nitrogen-balance-using-swine-diets-containing-increasing-proportions-of-coproduct-ingredients-and-formulated-using-the-net-energy-system
#15
J A Acosta, R D Boyd, J F Patience
Rising feed expenditures demand that our industry pursues strategies to lower the cost of production. One option is the adoption of the NE system, although many producers are hesitant to proceed without proof that NE estimates are reliable. The objective of this experiment was to compare the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients and the N retention (NR) of diets formulated using the NE system with increasing quantities of coproduct ingredients. The 5 dietary treatments included a control corn-soybean meal diet (CTL); the CTL plus 6% each of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-18); the CONS-18 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-18); the CTL plus 12% each of corn DDGS, corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-36); and the CONS-36 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-36)...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380169/-responsible-research-and-development-translating-absences-from-nanotechnology-in-portugal
#16
Paulo F C Fonseca, Tiago Santos Pereira
This article analyzes how responsible innovation has been discussed and implemented in the context of one of the Portuguese government's main activities to foster nanotechnology. Through the actor-network theory and the sociology of absences, we investigate the process of coproduction at the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory to identify how concerns about responsible development have been implemented or ignored in the rules and practices. The institute emerged from a sociotechnical imagination that views it as an autonomous unit for producing technological innovations aimed exclusively at increasing competitiveness in a global market, which has been an obstacle to the materialization of robust responsible development practices...
January 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370071/effects-of-dehydration-methods-on-quality-characteristics-of-yellow-passion-fruit-co-products
#17
Neiton C Silva, Claudio R Duarte, Marcos As Barrozo
BACKGROUND: The production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or under-used, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) co-products and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pectin...
April 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340439/co-production-of-functional-xylooligosaccharides-and-fermentable-sugars-from-corncob-with-effective-acetic-acid-prehydrolysis
#18
Hongyu Zhang, Yong Xu, Shiyuan Yu
A novel and green approach for the coproduction of xylooligosaccharides (XOS), in terms of a series of oligosaccharide components from xylobiose to xylohexose, and fermentable sugars was developed using the prehydrolysis of acetic acid that was fully recyclable and environmentally friendly, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, acetic acid hydrolysis provided the highest XOS yield of 45.91% and the highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield. More than 91% conversion of cellulose was achieved in a batch-hydrolysis using only a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g cellulose and even a high solid loading of 20% without any special strategies...
June 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295383/recovery-of-pectic-hydrocolloids-and-phenolics-from-huanglongbing-related-dropped-citrus-fruit
#19
Randall G Cameron, Hoa K Chau, Arland T Hotchkiss, John A Manthey
BACKGROUND: Citrus preharvest fruit drop, caused by Huanglongbing infection, has increased dramatically concomitant with declining tree health and crop harvest size. This loss of harvestable fruit is damaging to both growers and juice processors. Recovering and converting this fruit to alternative value added products would benefit the citrus industry. Therefore, we have explored the potential for using this fruit as a feedstock in our newly developed pilot scale continuous steam explosion process...
March 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261897/coproduction-of-colicin-v-and-lactic-acid-bacteria-bacteriocins-in-lactococci-and-enterococci-strains-of-biotechnological-interest
#20
S Langa, J L Arqués, M Medina, J M Landete
AIMS: The aim of this study was the coproduction in a single strain of the Gram-negative bacteriocin colicin V with other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). METHODS AND RESULTS: Colicin V was expressed in Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains by replacing the colicin V leader peptide by the leader peptide and promoter of d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase from Lactobacillus reuteri CECT925 in pNZ8048 (pNZ:LR-colV). The antimicrobial activity of colicin V against the indicator organism Escherichia coli DH5α in transformed strains was checked by agar diffusion assay and SDS-PAGE analysis...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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