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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049426/are-surgical-residents-prepared-to-care-for-transgender-patients
#1
Shane D Morrison, Jesse R Smith, Samuel P Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048763/cubane-cross-coupling-and-cubane-porphyrin-arrays
#2
Stefan Bernhard, Gemma Locke, Shane Plunkett, Alina Meindl, Keith Flanagan, Mathias O Senge
The (im)possible Cube - Herein an improved methodology for aryl-cubane cross-coupling is reported. The peculiarities of the cubane core and its behavior during cross-coupling conditions are analyzed, while the versatility of this adapted Baran cross-coupling methodology is demonstrated by the synthesis of various aryl-cubane systems, among them coupling products of cubanes and porphyrins. Furthermore arm extension of alkynyl-cubanes via Sonogashira reactions is demonstrated, showcasing the first proof of the stability of the cubane core in the presence of palladium-catalysts...
October 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046921/pioglitazone-reduces-cold-induced-brown-fat-glucose-uptake-despite-induction-of-browning-in-cultured-human-adipocytes-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-humans
#3
Rebecca K C Loh, Melissa F Formosa, Nina Eikelis, David A Bertovic, Mitchell J Anderson, Shane A Barwood, Shane Nanayakkara, Neale D Cohen, Andre La Gerche, Anne T Reutens, Kenneth S Yap, Thomas W Barber, Gavin W Lambert, Martin H Cherk, Stephen J Duffy, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrew L Carey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is a possible therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure and glucose and lipid clearance to ameliorate obesity and associated comorbidities. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of glucose-lowering drugs increase BAT browning in preclinical experimental models but whether these actions extend to humans in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipocyte browning and adaptive thermogenesis in humans...
October 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046383/preservation-of-uropygial-gland-lipids-in-a-48-million-year-old-bird
#4
Shane O'Reilly, Roger Summons, Gerald Mayr, Jakob Vinther
Although various kinds of organic molecules are known to occur in fossils and rocks, most soft tissue preservation in animals is attributed to melanin or porphyrins. Lipids are particularly stable over time-as diagenetically altered 'geolipids' or as major molecular constituents of kerogen or fossil 'geopolymers'-and may be expected to be preserved in certain vertebrate tissues. Here we analysed lipid residues from the uropygial gland of an early Eocene bird using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045651/clinical-decision-support-alert-malfunctions-analysis-and-empirically-derived-taxonomy
#5
Adam Wright, Angela Ai, Joan Ash, Jane F Wiesen, Thu-Trang T Hickman, Skye Aaron, Dustin McEvoy, Shane Borkowsky, Pavithra I Dissanayake, Peter Embi, William Galanter, Jeremy Harper, Steve Z Kassakian, Rachel Ramoni, Richard Schreiber, Anwar Sirajuddin, David W Bates, Dean F Sittig
Objective: To develop an empirically derived taxonomy of clinical decision support (CDS) alert malfunctions. Materials and Methods: We identified CDS alert malfunctions using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods: (1) site visits with interviews of chief medical informatics officers, CDS developers, clinical leaders, and CDS end users; (2) surveys of chief medical informatics officers; (3) analysis of CDS firing rates; and (4) analysis of CDS overrides. We used a multi-round, manual, iterative card sort to develop a multi-axial, empirically derived taxonomy of CDS malfunctions...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045389/molecular-basis-of-usp7-inhibition-by-selective-small-molecule-inhibitors
#6
Andrew P Turnbull, Stephanos Ioannidis, Wojciech W Krajewski, Adan Pinto-Fernandez, Claire Heride, Agnes C L Martin, Louise M Tonkin, Elizabeth C Townsend, Shane M Buker, David R Lancia, Justin A Caravella, Angela V Toms, Thomas M Charlton, Johanna Lahdenranta, Erik Wilker, Bruce C Follows, Nicola J Evans, Lucy Stead, Cristina Alli, Vladislav V Zarayskiy, Adam C Talbot, Alexandre J Buckmelter, Minghua Wang, Crystal L McKinnon, Fabienne Saab, Joanna F McGouran, Hannah Century, Malte Gersch, Marc S Pittman, C Gary Marshall, Tony M Raynham, Mary Simcox, Lorna M D Stewart, Sheila B McLoughlin, Jaime A Escobedo, Kenneth W Bair, Christopher J Dinsmore, Tim R Hammonds, Sunkyu Kim, Sylvie Urbé, Michael J Clague, Benedikt M Kessler, David Komander
Ubiquitination controls the stability of most cellular proteins, and its deregulation contributes to human diseases including cancer. Deubiquitinases remove ubiquitin from proteins, and their inhibition can induce the degradation of selected proteins, potentially including otherwise 'undruggable' targets. For example, the inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) results in the degradation of the oncogenic E3 ligase MDM2, and leads to re-activation of the tumour suppressor p53 in various cancers. Here we report that two compounds, FT671 and FT827, inhibit USP7 with high affinity and specificity in vitro and within human cells...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044767/-why-anatomy-is-neglected-or-mistaught
#7
EDITORIAL
R Shane Tubbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044705/subchondral-trabecular-rod-loss-and-plate-thickening-in-the-development-of-osteoarthritis
#8
Yan Chen, Yizhong Hu, Y Eric Yu, Xingjian Zhang, Tezita Watts, Bin Zhou, Ji Wang, Ting Wang, Weiwei Zhao, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Frankie K L Leung, Xu Cao, William W Lu, William Macaulay, Kyle K Nishiyama, Elizabeth Shane, X Edward Guo
Developing effective treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent and disabling disease, has remained a challenge, primarily due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and late diagnosis. In the subchondral bone, rapid bone loss following traumatic injuries and bone sclerosis at the advanced stage of OA are well-recognized hallmarks of the disease. Recent studies have further demonstrated the crucial contribution of subchondral bone in the development of OA. However, the microstructural basis of these bone changes has not been examined thoroughly, and the paradox of how abnormal resorption can eventually lead to bone sclerosis remains unanswered...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043526/chemoradiation-therapy-for-unresected-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#9
Anna Torgeson, Shane Lloyd, Dustin Boothe, George Cannon, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Jonathan Whisenant, Mark Lewis, Robin Kim, Courtney Scaife, Randa Tao
BACKGROUND: Unresected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (uEHCC) remains a deadly disease. Guidelines for uEHCC recommend either chemotherapy alone (CT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to compare outcomes for patients treated with CT and those who underwent CRT. METHODS: Patients with initially diagnosed non-metastatic uEHCC from 2004 to 2014 were identified. Using Chi square analysis, patients who underwent CT were compared with those who received CRT...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043103/unusual-muscle-of-the-anterior-neck-cadaveric-findings-with-surgical-applications
#10
Joe Iwanaga, Yoko Tabira, Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Koichi Watanabe, Jingo Kusukawa, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
The omohyoid muscle typically has an inferior belly originating from the superior border of the scapula, and then passes deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle where its superior belly passes almost vertically upward next to the lateral border of sternohyoid to attach to the inferior border of the body of the hyoid bone lateral to the insertion of sternohyoid. Herein, we report an unusual variant of the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles. As the omohyoid muscle is commonly used as a surgical landmark during neck dissections, knowledge of its variations such as the one described in the current report is important to surgeons...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042462/infrequent-provision-of-palliative-care-to-patients-with-dialysis-requiring-aki
#11
Kelly Chong, Samuel A Silver, Jin Long, Yuanchao Zheng, V Shane Pankratz, Mark L Unruh, Glenn M Chertow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of palliative care in AKI is not well described. We sought to better understand palliative care practice patterns for hospitalized patients with AKI requiring dialysis in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using the 2012 National Inpatient Sample, we identified patients with AKI and palliative care encounters using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#12
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041643/spiral-scanning-x-ray-fluorescence-computed-tomography
#13
Martin D de Jonge, Andrew M Kingston, Nader Afshar, Jan Garrevoet, Robin Kirkham, Gary Ruben, Glenn R Myers, Shane J Latham, Daryl L Howard, David J Paterson, Christopher G Ryan, Gawain McColl
Scanning X-ray fluorescence tomography was once considered impractical due to prohibitive measurement time requirements but is now common for investigating metal distributions within small systems. A recent look-ahead to the possibilities of 4(th)-generation synchrotron light sources [J. Synchrotron. Radiat. 21, 1031 (2014)] raised the possibility of a spiral-scanning measurement scheme where motion overheads are almost completely eliminated. Here we demonstrate the spiral scanning measurement and use Fourier ring correlation analysis to interrogate sources of resolution degradation...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040465/the-fut2-secretor-variant-p-trp154ter-influences-serum-vitamin-b12-concentration-via-holo-haptocorrin-but-not-holo-transcobalamin-and-is-associated-with-haptocorrin-glycosylation
#14
Aneliya Velkova, Jennifer E L Diaz, Faith Pangilinan, Anne M Molloy, James L Mills, Barry Shane, Erica Sanchez, Conal Cunningham, Helen McNulty, Cheryl D Cropp, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Alexander F Wilson, Lawrence C Brody
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older individuals. Circulating vitamin B12 concentration can be used to diagnose deficiency but this test has substantial false positive and false negative rates. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in which we resolved total serum vitamin B12 into the fractions bound to transcobalamin and haptocorrin: two carrier proteins with very different biological properties. We replicated reported associations between total circulating vitamin B12 concentrations and a common null variant in FUT2...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039679/effect-of-nanostructured-domains-in-self-assembled-block-copolymer-films-on-sequential-infiltration-synthesis
#15
Qing Peng, Yu-Chih Tseng, Yun Long, Anil U Mane, Shane DiDona, Seth B Darling, Jeffrey W Elam
There are broad interests in synthesizing nanomaterials through selective and localized synthesis in the nanodomains of self-assembled block copolymers (BCPs). Mechanistic insights underlying these synthesis methods, however, are limited. In this work, we investigate the material growth behavior in sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of TiO2 within self-assembled polystyrene-block-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films and the two corresponding pure homopolymer films (PS and PMMA) by using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)...
October 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039672/stereoselective-epimerizations-of-glycosyl-thiols
#16
Lisa M Doyle, Shane O'Sullivan, Claudia Di Salvo, Michelle McKinney, Patrick McArdle, Paul V Murphy
Glycosyl thiols are widely used in stereoselective S-glycoside synthesis. Their epimerization from 1,2-trans to 1,2-cis thiols (e.g., equatorial to axial epimerization in thioglucopyranose) was attained using TiCl4, while SnCl4 promoted their axial-to-equatorial epimerization. The method included application for stereoselective β-d-manno- and β-l-rhamnopyranosyl thiol formation. Complex formation explains the equatorial preference when using SnCl4, whereas TiCl4 can shift the equilibrium toward the 1,2-cis thiol via 1,3-oxathiolane formation...
October 17, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038862/examining-spatial-patterns-of-selection-and-use-for-an-altered-predator-guild
#17
Matthew A Mumma, Joseph D Holbrook, Nathaniel D Rayl, Christopher J Zieminski, Todd K Fuller, John F Organ, Shane P Mahoney, Lisette P Waits
Anthropogenic disturbances have altered species' distributions potentially impacting interspecific interactions. Interference competition is when one species denies a competing species access to a resource. One mechanism of interference competition is aggression, which can result in altered space-use of a subordinate species due to the threat of harm, otherwise known as a 'landscape of fear'. Alternatively, subordinates might outcompete dominant species in resource-poor environments via a superior ability to extract resources...
October 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038298/subversion-of-nk-cell-and-tnf-alpha-immune-surveillance-drives-tumor-recurrence
#18
Timothy Kottke, Laura Evgin, Kevin G Shim, Diana Rommelfanger, Nicolas Boisgerault, Shane Zaidi, Rosa Maria Diaz, Jill Thompson, Elizabeth Ilett, Matt Coffey, Peter Selby, Hardev Pandha, Kevin Harrington, Alan Melcher, Richard Vile
Understanding how incompletely cleared primary tumors transition from minimal residual disease (MRD) into treatment resistant, immune-invisible recurrences has major clinical significance. We show here that this transition is mediated through the subversion of two key elements of innate immune surveillance. In the first, the role of TNFalpha changes from an antitumor effector against primary tumors into a growth promoter for MRD. Second, whereas primary tumors induced a natural killer (NK)-mediated cytokine response characterized by low IL6 and elevated IFNgamma, PD-L1hi MRD cells promoted the secretion of IL6 but minimal IFNgamma, inhibiting both NK cell and T-cell surveillance...
October 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038220/context-memory-formation-requires-activity-dependent-protein-degradation-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Patrick K Cullen, Nicole C Ferrara, Shane E Pullins, Fred J Helmstetter
Numerous studies have indicated that the consolidation of contextual fear memories supported by an aversive outcome like footshock requires de novo protein synthesis as well as protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Context memory formed in the absence of an aversive stimulus by simple exposure to a novel environment requires de novo protein synthesis in both the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus. However, the role of UPS-mediated protein degradation in the consolidation of context memory in the absence of a strong aversive stimulus has not been investigated...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037911/assessing-daylight-low-light-photodynamic-therapy-efficacy-using-biomarkers-of-photophysical-biochemical-and-biological-damage-metrics-in-situ
#20
Ana Luiza Ribeiro de Souza, Ethan LaRochelle, Kayla Marra, Jason Gunn, Scott C Davis, Kimberley S Samkoe, M Shane Chapman, Edward V Maytin, Tayyaba Hasan, Brian W Pogue
BACKGROUND: Sunlight can activate photodynamic therapy (PDT), and this is a proven strategy to reduce pain caused by the conventional PDT treatment, but assessment of this and other alternative low dose rate light sources, and their efficacy, has not been studied in an objective, controlled pre-clinical setting. This study used three objective assays to assess the efficacy of different PDT treatment regimens, using PpIX fluorescence as a photophysical measure, STAT3 cross-linking as a photochemical measure, and keratinocyte damage as a photobiological measure...
October 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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