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Chris Powers

Hugh C Hendrie, Mengjie Zheng, Kathleen A Lane, Roberta Ambuehl, Christianna Purnell, Shanshan Li, Frederick W Unverzagt, Michael D Murray, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Chris M Callahan, Sujuan Gao
INTRODUCTION: Changes in glucose levels may represent a powerful metabolic indicator of dementia in African-Americans with diabetes. It is unclear whether these changes also occur in Caucasians. METHODS: A secondary data analysis using electronic medical records from 5228 African-Americans and Caucasians aged ≥65 years was carried out. Mixed effects models with repeated serum glucose measurements were used to compare changes in glucose levels between African-Americans and Caucasian patients with and without incident dementia...
April 17, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Susanne Müller, Suzanne Ackloo, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Marcus Bauser, Jeremy L Baryza, Julian Blagg, Jark Böttcher, Chas Bountra, Peter J Brown, Mark E Bunnage, Adrian J Carter, David Damerell, Volker Dötsch, David H Drewry, Aled M Edwards, James Edwards, Jon M Elkins, Christian Fischer, Stephen V Frye, Andreas Gollner, Charles E Grimshaw, Adriaan IJzerman, Thomas Hanke, Ingo V Hartung, Steve Hitchcock, Trevor Howe, Terry V Hughes, Stefan Laufer, Volkhart Mj Li, Spiros Liras, Brian D Marsden, Hisanori Matsui, John Mathias, Ronan C O'Hagan, Dafydd R Owen, Vineet Pande, Daniel Rauh, Saul H Rosenberg, Bryan L Roth, Natalie S Schneider, Cora Scholten, Kumar Singh Saikatendu, Anton Simeonov, Masayuki Takizawa, Chris Tse, Paul R Thompson, Daniel K Treiber, Amélia Yi Viana, Carrow I Wells, Timothy M Willson, William J Zuercher, Stefan Knapp, Anke Mueller-Fahrnow
Potent, selective and broadly characterized small molecule modulators of protein function (chemical probes) are powerful research reagents. The pharmaceutical industry has generated many high-quality chemical probes and several of these have been made available to academia. However, probe-associated data and control compounds, such as inactive structurally related molecules and their associated data, are generally not accessible. The lack of data and guidance makes it difficult for researchers to decide which chemical tools to choose...
April 20, 2018: ELife
Shena B Gazaway, Lori Anderson, Autumn Schumacher, Chris Alichnie
BACKGROUND: Nursing graduates acquire their nursing values by professional socialization. Mentoring is a crucial support mechanism for these novice nurses, yet little is known about the model C clinical nurse leader graduate and the effects of mentoring. AIM: This investigation examined how mentoring affected the development of professional nursing values in the model C clinical nurse leader graduate. METHODS: A longitudinal design was used to survey model C clinical nurse leader graduates before and after graduation to determine how different types of mentoring relationships influenced professional values...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Dongheun Kim, Nan Li, Chris J Sheehan, Jinkyoung Yoo
Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures have been expected to provide high energy and power densities for lithium ion battery anodes due to the large capacity of Si and the high electrical and ionic conductivities of Ge. Although the battery anode performances of Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures have been characterized, the degradation of Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we report the compositional and structural changes of the Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure over cycling of lithiation and delithiation at different charging rates...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Shishir Pandya, Joshua Wilbur, Jieun Kim, Ran Gao, Arvind Dasgupta, Chris Dames, Lane W Martin
The need for efficient energy utilization is driving research into ways to harvest ubiquitous waste heat. Here, we explore pyroelectric energy conversion from low-grade thermal sources that exploits strong field- and temperature-induced polarization susceptibilities in the relaxor ferroelectric 0.68Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3 )O3 -0.32PbTiO3 . Electric-field-driven enhancement of the pyroelectric response (as large as -550 μC m-2  K-1 ) and suppression of the dielectric response (by 72%) yield substantial figures of merit for pyroelectric energy conversion...
April 16, 2018: Nature Materials
Steve D M Brown, Chris C Holmes, Ann-Marie Mallon, Terrence F Meehan, Damian Smedley, Sara Wells
We are entering a new era of mouse phenomics, driven by large-scale and economical generation of mouse mutants coupled with increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive phenotyping. These studies are generating large, multidimensional gene-phenotype data sets, which are shedding new light on the mammalian genome landscape and revealing many hitherto unknown features of mammalian gene function. Moreover, these phenome resources provide a wealth of disease models and can be integrated with human genomics data as a powerful approach for the interpretation of human genetic variation and its relationship to disease...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Salvatore Torrisi, Gang Chen, Daniel Glen, Peter A Bandettini, Chris I Baker, Richard Reynolds, Jeffrey Yen-Ting Liu, Joseph Leshin, Nicholas Balderston, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The field of cognitive neuroscience is weighing evidence about whether to move from standard field strength to ultra-high field (UHF). The present study contributes to the evidence by comparing a cognitive neuroscience paradigm at 3 T (3T) and 7 T (7T). The goal was to test and demonstrate the practical effects of field strength on a standard GO/NOGO task using accessible preprocessing and analysis tools. Two independent matched healthy samples (N = 31 each) were analyzed at 3T and 7T. Results show gains at 7T in statistical strength, the detection of smaller effects and group-level power...
April 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Hannah M L Young, Daniel S March, Matthew P M Graham-Brown, Arwel W Jones, Ffion Curtis, Charlotte S Grantham, Darren R Churchward, Patrick Highton, Alice C Smith, Sally J Singh, Chris Bridle, James O Burton
Background: Intradialytic cycling (IDC), delivered during haemodialysis (HD), has the potential to improve many health issues. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the evidence on the effects of IDC on exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL), physical function and cardiovascular health. Methods: Twenty-four databases were searched alongside Internet and hand searching, and consultation with experts. Eligibility criteria were cluster randomized, randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IDC versus usual care in prevalent adult HD patients...
March 28, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Xavier J N M Smeets, David W da Costa, Paul Fockens, Chris J J Mulder, Robin Timmer, Wietske Kievit, Marieke Zegers, Marco J Bruno, Marc G H Besselink, Frank P Vleggaar, Rene W M van der Hulst, Alexander C Poen, Gerbrand D N Heine, Niels G Venneman, Jeroen J Kolkman, Lubbertus C Baak, Tessa E H Römkens, Sven M van Dijk, Nora D L Hallensleben, Wim van de Vrie, Tom C J Seerden, Adriaan C I T L Tan, Annet M C J Voorburg, Jan-Werner Poley, Ben J Witteman, Abha Bhalla, Muhammed Hadithi, Willem J Thijs, Matthijs P Schwartz, Jan Maarten Vrolijk, Robert C Verdonk, Foke van Delft, Yolande Keulemans, Harry van Goor, Joost P H Drenth, Erwin J M van Geenen
BACKGROUND: Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of ERCP and may run a severe course. Evidence suggests that vigorous periprocedural hydration can prevent PEP, but studies to date have significant methodological drawbacks. Importantly, evidence for its added value in patients already receiving prophylactic rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is lacking and the cost-effectiveness of the approach has not been investigated...
April 2, 2018: Trials
Michael Berks, Graham Dinsdale, Andrea Murray, Tonia Moore, Joanne Manning, Chris Taylor, Ariane L Herrick
OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing interest in nailfold capillaroscopy, objective measures of capillary structure and blood flow have been little studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that structural measurements, capillary flow, and a combined measure have the predictive power to separate patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) from those with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 50 patients with SSc, 12 with PRP, and 50 HC were imaged using a novel capillaroscopy system that generates high-quality nailfold images and provides fully-automated measurements of capillary structure and blood flow (capillary density, mean width, maximum width, shape score, derangement and mean flow velocity)...
March 29, 2018: Microvascular Research
Ellie Shingler, Luke A Robles, Rachel Perry, Chris Penfold, Andy R Ness, Steve Thomas, J Athene Lane, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol increase the risk of head and neck cancer and affect treatment outcomes. Interventions modifying these behaviors may improve posttreatment outcomes and survival. We systematically reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of smoking/alcohol interventions in head and neck cancer and oral dysplasia. METHODS: The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of smoking/alcohol interventions in people with head and neck cancer...
March 30, 2018: Head & Neck
Dmitry Iakovlev, Sijung Hu, Harnani Hassan, Vincent Dwyer, Roya Ashayer-Soltani, Chris Hunt, Jinsong Shen
Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is an emerging technology used to assess microcirculation and cardiovascular signs by collecting backscattered light from illuminated tissue using optical imaging sensors. The aim of this study was to study how effective smart garment fabrics could be capturing physiological signs in a non-contact mode. The present work demonstrates a feasible approach of, instead of using conventional high-power illumination sources, integrating a grid of surface-mounted light emitting diodes (LEDs) into cotton fabric to spotlight the region of interest (ROI)...
March 29, 2018: Biosensors
Robyn Singleton, Kate Winskell, Haley McLeod, Amy Gregg, Gaëlle Sabben, Chris Obong'o, Fatim Dia
The sexual abuse of power is a form of sexual coercion in which individuals - typically male - use their positions of authority to obtain sex. We analysed social representations of sexual abuse of power in a sample of 1,446 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 2005 and 2014. The narratives were prepared at five different points in time (2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014) by authors aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics of quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis and a narrative-based approach...
March 28, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Tom Haynes, Chris Bishop, Mark Antrobus, Jon Brazier
BACKGROUND: This is the first study to independently assess the concurrent validity and reliability of the My Jump 2 app for measuring drop jump performance. It is also the first to evaluate the app's ability to measure the reactive strength index (RSI). METHODS: Fourteen male sport science students (age: 29.5 ± 9.9 years) performed three drop jumps from 20 cm and 40 cm (totalling 84 jumps), assessed via a force platform and the My Jump 2 app. Reported metrics included reactive strength index, jump height, ground contact time, and mean power...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
W John Armitage, Helen L Winton, Mark N A Jones, Julie M Crewe, Chris A Rogers, Derek M Tole, Andrew D Dick
PURPOSE: To describe a study to determine the influence of HLA class II matching on allograft rejection of high-risk, full-thickness corneal transplants. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial (ISRCTN25094892) with a primary outcome measure of time to first clinically determined rejection episode. Tissue typing used DNA-based techniques. Corneas were allocated to patients with ≤2 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen mismatches by cohort minimisation to achieve 0, 1 or 2 HLA class II (HLA-DR) antigen mismatches...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Dong Liu, Matthew S Adams, E Clif Burdette, Chris J Diederich
BACKGROUND: Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) is prevalent in adult women, attributed to weakened endopelvic supporting tissues, and typically treated using drugs and invasive surgical procedures. The objective of this in silico study is to explore transurethral high intensity ultrasound for delivery of precise thermal therapy to the endopelvic tissues adjacent to the mid-urethra, to induce thermal remodelling as a potential minimally invasive treatment alternative. METHODS: 3D acoustic (Rayleigh-Sommerfeld) and biothermal (Pennes Bioheat) models of the ultrasound applicator and surrounding tissues were devised...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Anita Patel, Carolina Luna-Pinto, Rafael González Peña, Rosa Ivette Cuevas Ruiz, Héctor Rivera Arbolay, Mayra Toro, Carmen Deseda, Victor R De Jesus, Efrain Ribot, Jennifer-Quiñones Gonzalez, Gouthami Rao, Alfonsina De Leon Salazar, Marisela Ansbro, Brunilís B White, Margaret C Hardy, Joaudimir Castro Georgi, Rita Stinnett, Alexandra M Mercante, David Lowe, Haley Martin, Angela Starks, Beverly Metchock, Stephanie Johnston, Tracy Dalton, Olga Joglar, Cortney Stafford, Monica Youngblood, Katherine Klein, Stephen Lindstrom, LaShondra Berman, Renee Galloway, Ilana J Schafer, Henry Walke, Robyn Stoddard, Robin Connelly, Elaine McCaffery, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Stephen Soroka, Darin T Tranquillo, Anne Gaynor, Chris Mangal, Kelly Wroblewski, Atis Muehlenbachs, Reynolds M Salerno, Matthew Lozier, Brittany Sunshine, Craig Shapiro, Dale Rose, Renee Funk, Satish K Pillai, Eduardo O'Neill
Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, causing major damage to infrastructure and severely limiting access to potable water, electric power, transportation, and communications. Public services that were affected included operations of the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH), which provides critical laboratory testing and surveillance for diseases and other health hazards. PRDOH requested assistance from CDC for the restoration of laboratory infrastructure, surveillance capacity, and diagnostic testing for selected priority diseases, including influenza, rabies, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and tuberculosis...
March 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Chris Moore, Jenna Bulger, Matt Morgan, Timothy Driscoll, Alison Porter, Saiful Islam, Mike Smyth, Gavin Perkins, Bernadette Sewell, Timothy Rainer, Prabath Nanayakkara, Chukwudi Okolie, Susan Allen, Greg Fegan, Jan Davies, Theresa Foster, Nick Francis, Fang Gao Smith, Gemma Ellis, Tracy Shanahan, Robin Howe, Helen Snooks
Background: Sepsis is a common condition which kills between 36,000 and 64,000 people every year in the UK. Early recognition and management of sepsis has been shown to reduce mortality and improve the health and well-being of people with sepsis. Paramedics frequently come into contact with patients with sepsis and are well placed to provide early diagnosis and treatment.We aim to determine the feasibility of undertaking a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of paramedics obtaining blood cultures from and administering IV antibiotics to patients with sepsis, so we can make a decision about whether to proceed to a fully powered randomised controlled trial, which will answer questions regarding safety and effectiveness for patients and benefit to the National Health Service (NHS)...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Masoud Shirali, Sara A Knott, Ricardo Pong-Wong, Pau Navarro, Chris S Haley
We propose a novel approach to analyze genomic data that incorporates haplotype information for detecting rare variants within a regional heritability mapping framework. The performance of our approach was tested in a simulation study based on human genotypes. The phenotypes were simulated by generating regional variance using either SNP(s) or haplotype(s). Regional genomic relationship matrices, constructed with either a SNP-based or a haplotype-based estimator, were employed to estimate the regional variance...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason M Uslaner, Scott D Kuduk, Marion Wittmann, Henry S Lange, Steven V Fox, Chris Min, Natasa Pajkovic, Dawn Harris, Caroline Cilissen, Chantal Mahon, Kate Mostoller, Steve Warrington, Douglas C Beshore
The current standard of care for treating Alzheimer's disease is acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which nonselectively increase cholinergic signaling by indirectly enhancing activity of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. These drugs improve cognitive function in patients, but also produce unwanted side-effects that limit their efficacy. In an effort to selectively improve cognition and avoid the cholinergic side-effects associated with the standard of care, various efforts have been aimed at developing selective M1 muscarinic receptor activators...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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