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Chris Powers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095081/blood-removal-influences-pacing-during-a-4-minute-cycling-time-trial
#1
Nathan G Lawler, Chris R Abbiss, Aaron Raman, Timothy J Fairchild, Garth L Maker, Robert D Trengove, Jeremiah J Peiffer
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of manipulating aerobic contribution following whole blood removal on pacing patterns, performance and energy contribution during self-paced middle distance cycling. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (33 ± 8 y) completed an incremental cycling test followed 20 min later by a 4-min self-paced cycling time trial (4MMP) on six separate occasions over 42 d. The initial two sessions acted as a familiarisation and baseline testing after which 470 mL of blood was removed with the remaining sessions performed 24 h, 7 d, 21 d and 42 d following blood removal...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072761/immediate-chest-x-ray-for-patients-at-risk-of-lung-cancer-presenting-in-primary-care-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#2
Richard D Neal, Allan Barham, Emily Bongard, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Jim Fitzgibbon, Gareth Griffiths, Willie Hamilton, Kerenza Hood, Annmarie Nelson, David Parker, Cath Porter, Hayley Prout, Kirsty Roberts, Trevor Rogers, Emma Thomas-Jones, Angela Tod, Seow Tien Yeo, Chris N Hurt
BACKGROUND: Achieving earlier stage diagnosis is one option for improving lung cancer outcomes in the United Kingdom. Patients with lung cancer typically present with symptoms to general practitioners several times before referral or investigation. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods feasibility individually randomised controlled trial (the ELCID trial) to assess the feasibility and inform the design of a definitive, fully powered, UK-wide, Phase III trial of lowering the threshold for urgent investigation of suspected lung cancer...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067910/exploring-the-genetic-architecture-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-association-at-adcy7
#3
Yang Luo, Katrina M de Lange, Luke Jostins, Loukas Moutsianas, Joshua Randall, Nicholas A Kennedy, Christopher A Lamb, Shane McCarthy, Tariq Ahmad, Cathryn Edwards, Eva Goncalves Serra, Ailsa Hart, Chris Hawkey, John C Mansfield, Craig Mowat, William G Newman, Sam Nichols, Martin Pollard, Jack Satsangi, Alison Simmons, Mark Tremelling, Holm Uhlig, David C Wilson, James C Lee, Natalie J Prescott, Charlie W Lees, Christopher G Mathew, Miles Parkes, Jeffrey C Barrett, Carl A Anderson
To further resolve the genetic architecture of the inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, we sequenced the whole genomes of 4,280 patients at low coverage and compared them to 3,652 previously sequenced population controls across 73.5 million variants. We then imputed from these sequences into new and existing genome-wide association study cohorts and tested for association at ∼12 million variants in a total of 16,432 cases and 18,843 controls. We discovered a 0.6% frequency missense variant in ADCY7 that doubles the risk of ulcerative colitis...
January 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059191/high-peak-power-cavity-dumping-semiconductor-lasers
#4
Joshua Myers, Chris Kokoczka, Gary Cook, Robert Bedford
We report on the development of a nanosecond pulsed kW-class optically pumped InGaAs semiconductor laser emitting around 1020 nm, which is suitable for applications such as incoherent laser radar, nonlinear optics, and materials processing. Using an intracavity Pockels cell to cavity-dump VECSELs, we are able to access large pulse energies by storing energy in the optical cavity rather than in the gain medium. We demonstrate peak powers >1  kW and 3 μJ pulses, show the pulse length is equivalent to the photon round-trip time, and show that the wavelength can be tuned within the gain bandwidth of the semiconductor gain...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053326/scanning-the-horizon-towards-transparent-and-reproducible-neuroimaging-research
#5
Russell A Poldrack, Chris I Baker, Joke Durnez, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Paul M Matthews, Marcus R Munafò, Thomas E Nichols, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Edward Vul, Tal Yarkoni
Functional neuroimaging techniques have transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour and are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions that are drawn from some human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or not generalizable. Problems such as low statistical power, flexibility in data analysis, software errors and a lack of direct replication apply to many fields, but perhaps particularly to functional MRI...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049849/cd4-t-cell-cytokines-synergize-to-induce-proliferation-of-malignant-and-nonmalignant-innate-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#6
Yvonne M C Kooy-Winkelaar, Dagmar Bouwer, George M C Janssen, Allan Thompson, Martijn H Brugman, Frederike Schmitz, Arnoud H de Ru, Tom van Gils, Gerd Bouma, Jon J van Rood, Peter A van Veelen, M Luisa Mearin, Chris J Mulder, Frits Koning, Jeroen van Bergen
Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin(-)IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin(-)IELs develop into a lymphoma for which no effective treatment is available. Current evidence indicates that the survival and expansion of these malignant Lin(-)IELs is driven by epithelial cell-derived IL-15...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024155/a-method-for-identifying-genetic-heterogeneity-within-phenotypically-defined-disease-subgroups
#7
James Liley, John A Todd, Chris Wallace
Many common diseases show wide phenotypic variation. We present a statistical method for determining whether phenotypically defined subgroups of disease cases represent different genetic architectures, in which disease-associated variants have different effect sizes in two subgroups. Our method models the genome-wide distributions of genetic association statistics with mixture Gaussians. We apply a global test without requiring explicit identification of disease-associated variants, thus maximizing power in comparison to standard variant-by-variant subgroup analysis...
December 26, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997583/rapid-generation-of-marker-free-p-falciparum-fluorescent-reporter-lines-using-modified-crispr-cas9-constructs-and-selection-protocol
#8
Catherin Marin Mogollon, Fiona J A van Pul, Takashi Imai, Jai Ramesar, Séverine Chevalley-Maurel, Guido M de Roo, Sabrina A J Veld, Hans Kroeze, Blandine M D Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome editing technique employed in a wide variety of organisms including recently the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Here we report on further improvements to the CRISPR/Cas9 transfection constructs and selection protocol to more rapidly modify the P. falciparum genome and to introduce transgenes into the parasite genome without the inclusion of drug-selectable marker genes. This method was used to stably integrate the gene encoding GFP into the P. falciparum genome under the control of promoters of three different Plasmodium genes (calmodulin, gapdh and hsp70)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994115/child-maltreatment-and-adult-living-standards-at-50-years
#9
Snehal M Pinto Pereira, Leah Li, Chris Power
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) has established effects on mental health. Less is known about its influence on adult economic circumstances. We aimed to establish associations of child maltreatment with such outcomes and explore potential pathways. METHODS: We used 1958 British birth cohort data (N = 8076) to examine associations of child neglect and abuse with adult (50 years) long-term sickness absence, not in employment, education or training (NEET), lacking assets, income-related support, poor qualifications, financial insecurity, manual social class, and social mobility...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983822/measuring-biotic-ligand-model-blm-parameters-in-vitro-copper-and-silver-binding-to-rainbow-trout-gill-cells-as-cultured-epithelia-or-in-suspension
#10
D Scott Smith, Christopher A Cooper, Chris M Wood
Biotic ligand models (BLMs) for metals are useful for risk assessment. The modeling of metal complexation by the biotic ligand has received little attention relative to the modeling of organic and inorganic complexation of metals in solution. We used ion selective electrodes (ISEs) to directly characterize copper and silver binding to rainbow trout gill cells, either as cultured reconstructed epithelia, or dispersed in suspension. Preparations were composed of pavement cells (PVCs) alone or mixtures of PVCs (≈85%) and mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs, ≈15%)...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957533/characterizing-population-eeg-dynamics-throughout-adulthood
#11
Ali Hashemi, Lou J Pino, Graeme Moffat, Karen J Mathewson, Chris Aimone, Patrick J Bennett, Louis A Schmidt, Allison B Sekuler
For decades, electroencephalography (EEG) has been a useful tool for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying human psychological processes. However, the amount of time needed to gather EEG data means that most laboratory studies use relatively small sample sizes. Using the Muse, a portable and wireless four-channel EEG headband, we obtained EEG recordings from 6029 subjects 18-88 years in age while they completed a category exemplar task followed by a meditation exercise. Here, we report age-related changes in EEG power at a fine chronological scale for δ, θ, α, and β bands, as well as peak α frequency and α asymmetry measures for both frontal and temporoparietal sites...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940061/hemodialyzer-reuse-and-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#12
Chris Edens, Jacklyn Wong, Meghan Lyman, Kyle Rizzo, Duc Nguyen, Michela Blain, Sam Horwich-Scholefield, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Erin Epson, Jon Rosenberg, Priti R Patel
BACKGROUND: Clusters of bloodstream infections caused by Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are uncommon, but have been previously identified in hemodialysis centers that reprocessed dialyzers for reuse on patients. We investigated an outbreak of bloodstream infections caused by B cepacia and S maltophilia among hemodialysis patients in clinics of a dialysis organization. STUDY DESIGN: Outbreak investigation, including matched case-control study...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939089/the-resolve-trial-for-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#13
Matthew K Bagg, Markus Hübscher, Martin Rabey, Benedict M Wand, Edel O'Hagan, G Lorimer Moseley, Tasha R Stanton, Chris G Maher, Stephen Goodall, Sopany Saing, Neil E O'Connell, Hannu Luomajoki, James H McAuley
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of disability, and results in significant personal hardship. Most available treatments, when tested in high-quality randomised, controlled trials, achieve only modest improvements in pain, at best. Recently, treatments that target central nervous system function have been developed and tested in small studies. Combining treatments that target central nervous system function with traditional treatments directed towards functioning of the back is a promising approach that has yet to be tested in adequately powered, prospectively registered, clinical trials...
January 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934696/high-throughput-allele-specific-expression-across-250-environmental-conditions
#14
Gregory A Moyerbrailean, Allison L Richards, Daniel Kurtz, Cynthia A Kalita, Gordon O Davis, Chris T Harvey, Adnan Alazizi, Donovan Watza, Yoram Sorokin, Nancy Hauff, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoquan Wen, Roger Pique-Regi, Francesca Luca
Gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions determine common disease risk factors and biomedically relevant complex traits. However, quantifying how the environment modulates genetic effects on human quantitative phenotypes presents unique challenges. Environmental covariates are complex and difficult to measure and control at the organismal level, as found in GWAS and epidemiological studies. An alternative approach focuses on the cellular environment using in vitro treatments as a proxy for the organismal environment...
December 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932852/evolutionary-connectionism-algorithmic-principles-underlying-the-evolution-of-biological-organisation-in-evo-devo-evo-eco-and-evolutionary-transitions
#15
Richard A Watson, Rob Mills, C L Buckley, Kostas Kouvaris, Adam Jackson, Simon T Powers, Chris Cox, Simon Tudge, Adam Davies, Loizos Kounios, Daniel Power
The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930676/stochastic-simulation-service-bridging-the-gap-between-the-computational-expert-and-the-biologist
#16
Brian Drawert, Andreas Hellander, Ben Bales, Debjani Banerjee, Giovanni Bellesia, Bernie J Daigle, Geoffrey Douglas, Mengyuan Gu, Anand Gupta, Stefan Hellander, Chris Horuk, Dibyendu Nath, Aviral Takkar, Sheng Wu, Per Lötstedt, Chandra Krintz, Linda R Petzold
We present StochSS: Stochastic Simulation as a Service, an integrated development environment for modeling and simulation of both deterministic and discrete stochastic biochemical systems in up to three dimensions. An easy to use graphical user interface enables researchers to quickly develop and simulate a biological model on a desktop or laptop, which can then be expanded to incorporate increasing levels of complexity. StochSS features state-of-the-art simulation engines. As the demand for computational power increases, StochSS can seamlessly scale computing resources in the cloud...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918669/the-within-season-distribution-of-external-training-and-racing-workload-in-professional-male-road-cyclist
#17
Alan J Metcalfe, Paolo Menaspà, Vincent Villerius, Marc Quod, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Andrew D Govus, Chris R Abbiss
PURPOSE: To describe the within-season external workloads of professional male road cyclists for optimal training prescription. METHODS: Training and racing of four international competitive professional male cyclists (age 24 ± 2 y, body mass 77.6 ± 1.5 kg) were monitored for 12 months prior to the world team time trial championships. Three within-season phases leading up to the team time trial world championships on 20(th) Sept 2015 were defined as phase one (Oct - Jan), phase two (Feb - May) and phase three (June - Sept)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917177/progress-on-optimizing-miscanthus-biomass-production-for-the-european-bioeconomy-results-of-the-eu-fp7-project-optimisc
#18
Iris Lewandowski, John Clifton-Brown, Luisa M Trindade, Gerard C van der Linden, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Karl Müller-Sämann, Alexander Anisimov, C-L Chen, Oene Dolstra, Iain S Donnison, Kerrie Farrar, Simon Fonteyne, Graham Harding, Astley Hastings, Laurie M Huxley, Yasir Iqbal, Nikolay Khokhlov, Andreas Kiesel, Peter Lootens, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Hilde Muylle, Chris Nunn, Mensure Özgüven, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan Tarakanov, Tim van der Weijde, Moritz Wagner, Qingguo Xi, Olena Kalinina
This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915432/social-learning-in-a-longitudinal-integrated-clinical-placement
#19
Chris Roberts, Michele Daly, Fabian Held, David Lyle
Recent research has demonstrated that longitudinal integrated placements (LICs) are an alternative mode of clinical education to traditional placements. Extended student engagement in community settings provide the advantages of educational continuity as well as increased service provision in underserved areas. Developing and maintaining LICs require a differing approach to student learning than that for traditional placements. There has been little theoretically informed empirical research that has offered explanations of which are the important factors that promote student learning in LICs and the relationships between those factors...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898810/genomic-selection-for-processing-and-end-use-quality-traits-in-the-cimmyt-spring-bread-wheat-breeding-program
#20
Sarah D Battenfield, Carlos Guzmán, R Chris Gaynor, Ravi P Singh, Roberto J Peña, Susanne Dreisigacker, Allan K Fritz, Jesse A Poland
Wheat ( L.) cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520) tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico...
July 2016: Plant Genome
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