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Glucagonlike peptide 1

Jennifer Pichette, Nancy Fynn-Sackey, Jeffrey Gagnon
Recently, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and its metabolites, has emerged as a potential regulator of host metabolism. However, to date little is known on the precise mechanisms of how this regulation occurs. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is abundantly produced in the colon by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). H2S is a bioactive gas that plays regulatory roles in many systems, including metabolic hormone regulation. This gas metabolite is produced in close proximity to the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells in the gut epithelium...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Suzanne V Arnold, Silvio E Inzucchi, Fengming Tang, Darren K McGuire, Sanjeev N Mehta, Thomas M Maddox, Abhinav Goyal, Laurence S Sperling, Daniel Einhorn, Nathan D Wong, Kamlesh Khunti, Carolyn Sp Lam, Mikhail Kosiborod
Aims Recent trials (EMPA-REG OUTCOME and Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]) have shown improved cardiovascular (CV) mortality with specific currently available glucose-lowering medications (empagliflozin and liraglutide, respectively), but were limited to selected patient populations. We sought to evaluate the current use and potential real-world impact of empagliflozin (and other sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors [SGLT2is]) and liraglutide (and other glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonist [GLP-1 RAs]) among patients in the Diabetes Collaborative Registry (DCR)...
October 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Adrienne J Lindblad, Scott Garrison, G Michael Allan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Asaf Miller, Adam M Deane, Mark P Plummer, Caroline E Cousins, Lee-Anne S Chapple, Michael Horowitz, Marianne J Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exogenous glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) on small intestinal glucose absorption and blood glucose concentrations during critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomised trial in a mixed medical-surgical adult intensive care unit, with 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, who were suitable for receiving small intestinal nutrient. INTERVENTIONS: On consecutive days, in a randomised order, participants received intravenous GLP-1 (1...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Pablo F Mora, Eric L Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a well-established pro-inflammatory state with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) diseases. In recent years, the number of different classes of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes has increased substantially, and while glycemic control is the major focus of these medications, CV safety has become of interest. Two incretin-based therapies are currently available: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
January 2017: Endocrine Practice
Inge van der Kroon, Karolina Andralojc, Stefanie M A Willekens, Desirée Bos, Lieke Joosten, Otto C Boerman, Maarten Brom, Martin Gotthardt
UNLABELLED: Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetic patients. However, there is acute as well as chronic loss of islets after transplantation. A noninvasive imaging method that could monitor islet mass might help to improve transplantation outcomes. In this study, islets were visualized after transplantation in a rat model with a dedicated small-animal SPECT scanner by targeting the glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), specifically expressed on β-cells, with (111)In-labeled exendin-3...
May 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Bruce W Bode, Satish K Garg
OBJECTIVE: Review available data on adjunctive therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a special focus on newer antihyperglycemic agents. METHODS: Published data on hypoglycemia, obesity, mortality, and goal attainment in T1D were reviewed to determine unmet therapeutic needs. PubMed databases and abstracts from recent diabetes meetings were searched using the term "type 1 diabetes" and the available and investigational sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, and metformin...
February 2016: Endocrine Practice
Sei J Lee, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Caroline Barnhart, Keelan McClymont, Michael A Steinman
OBJECTIVE: Although nursing home (NH) residents make up a large and growing proportion of Americans with diabetes mellitus, little is known about how glucose-lowering medications are used in this population. We sought to examine glucose-lowering medication use in Veterans Affairs (VA) NH residents with diabetes between 2005 and 2011. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, using linked laboratory, pharmacy, administrative, and NH Minimum Dataset (MDS) 2...
October 1, 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Andreas Bauman, Ibai E Valverde, Christiane A Fischer, Sandra Vomstein, Thomas L Mindt
UNLABELLED: Clinical studies have demonstrated the potential of radiometallated exendin-4 derivatives for the imaging of glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor-overexpressing insulinomas. Recently investigated exendin-4 derivatives were radiolabeled with the SPECT isotopes 99mTc or 111In. Despite promising results, the low spatial resolution associated with SPECT and the occasional need to perform imaging several days after injection for the demarcation of insulinomas from the kidneys represent current limitations...
October 2015: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jean Claude Reubi, Beatrice Waser
UNLABELLED: A high proportion of gut and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) overexpresses somatostatin receptors, especially the sst2 subtype. It has also recently been observed that incretin receptors, namely glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) receptors, can be overexpressed in gut and bronchial NETs. However, because not all tumors can express these receptors in sufficient amounts, in vivo imaging with a single radioligand may not always be successful...
April 2015: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Theodora Nakouti, Apostolos K A Karagiannis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Evangelos Cholongitas
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and is more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Incretin-based antidiabetic agents (glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) are used in the treatment of T2DM but it is unclear whether they may also play a role in the management of NAFLD. We systematically reviewed the PubMed and Scopus database up to October 2014 and also hand-searched the references of the retrieved articles for studies evaluating the effects of these agents on NAFLD...
2015: Current Vascular Pharmacology
William M Steinberg, Michael A Nauck, Bernard Zinman, Gilbert H Daniels, Richard M Bergenstal, Johannes F E Mann, Lasse Steen Ravn, Alan C Moses, Mette Stockner, Florian M M Baeres, Steven P Marso, John B Buse
OBJECTIVES: This report from the LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) trial describes baseline lipase and amylase activity in type 2 diabetic subjects without acute pancreatitis symptoms before randomization to the glucagonlike peptide analog liraglutide or placebo. METHODS: The LEADER is an international randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide in 9340 type 2 diabetic patients at high cardiovascular risk...
November 2014: Pancreas
Richard Wyss, Alan R Ellis, M Alan Brookhart, Cynthia J Girman, Michele Jonsson Funk, Robert LoCasale, Til Stürmer
The covariate-balancing propensity score (CBPS) extends logistic regression to simultaneously optimize covariate balance and treatment prediction. Although the CBPS has been shown to perform well in certain settings, its performance has not been evaluated in settings specific to pharmacoepidemiology and large database research. In this study, we use both simulations and empirical data to compare the performance of the CBPS with logistic regression and boosted classification and regression trees. We simulated various degrees of model misspecification to evaluate the robustness of each propensity score (PS) estimation method...
September 15, 2014: American Journal of Epidemiology
Stefan Roepcke, Ruediger Nave, Jane Cyran, Nele Plock, Gezim Lahu, Axel Facius
OBJECTIVE: Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide-2 (GLP-2) that was recently approved by the US and European regulatory agencies FDA and EMA for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objectives of this work were, firstly, to develop a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model based on the available PK data of the entire clinical development program and, secondly, to utilize the model for the justification of the proposed dosing regimen. The exploratory analysis was based on a previously established structural PK model and focused primarily on the investigation of covariate effects...
December 2014: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Eleni Gourni, Beatrice Waser, Pascal Clerc, Daniel Fourmy, Jean Claude Reubi, Helmut R Maecke
UNLABELLED: A new family of peptide receptors, the incretin receptor family, overexpressed on many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is of great importance because it may enable the in vivo peptide-based receptor targeting of a category of NETs that does not express the somatostatin receptor. Impressive in vivo diagnostic data were published for glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor-targeting radiopeptides. Recently, promising in vitro data have appeared for the second member of the incretin family, the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor...
June 2014: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Christian Hölscher
The incretin hormones glucagonlike peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes and also act as growth factors. We have tested several long-acting incretin mimetics in the amyloid precursor protein (APP)(Swe)/presenilin 1 (PS1)(ΔE9) model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that liraglutide, lixisenatide, and D-Ala2-GIP cross the blood-brain barrier and prevent the impairment in memory formation and synaptic plasticity, increase synapse numbers, reduce amyloid plaque load and soluble amyloid-β levels, reduce oxidative stress and the chronic inflammation response in the brain, enhance the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells, and increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus...
February 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Thomas Foltynie, Iciar Aviles-Olmos
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing number of approaches to try and relieve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) that focus predominantly on strategies of dopaminergic replacement or deep brain stimulation. There remains, however, a major need to slow down or reverse the relentless progression of the disease to prevent the evolution of disabling motor and nonmotor features that continue to cause disability despite the existing symptomatic approaches. Data emerging from the laboratory suggest that agonists for the glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor may have biological properties relevant to PD pathogenesis and progression...
February 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Matthias Tacke, Nicole Ebner, Michael Boschmann, Annett Jarius, Miroslava Valentova, Susann Fülster, Anja Sandek, Lutz Schomburg, Stefan D Anker, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan von Haehling
OBJECTIVES: Muscle wasting is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and worsens functional status. Protein catabolism is characteristic of muscle wasting and contributes to resting energy expenditure (REE). Glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) is linked to REE in healthy individuals. We aimed to evaluate (1) whether REE is elevated in patients with HF with muscle wasting, and (2) whether basal GLP-1 levels are linked to REE in HF. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
November 2013: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
L Brunerová, M Anděl
The review article summarizes a very complex process of appetite regulation: the part focused on homeostatic regulation of food intake. The aim of homeostatic regulation is to achieve energy balance, stabile weight and optimal nutrient intake, in contrast to hedonic regulation of food intake, in which emotional and motivational factors are involved. Homeostatic regulation could be divided into shortterm and longterm regulation and comprises mainly gastrointestinal peptides, fat tissue hormones and central mechanisms localized in hypothalamus...
September 2013: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
J Fontana, Z Červinková, M Anděl
Effects of glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP1) on liver cells are very intensively studied. In the metabolism of saccharides GLP1 stimulates synthesis of glycogen and reduces glucose production -  thus acting like insulin. In the lipid metabolism it enhances fatty acid oxidation and lipid transport from hepatocytes while reducing de novo lipogenesis -  effects more similar to glucagon action. Some studies suggest beneficial effects of GLP1 on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of inflammatory mediators and dysfunction of biliary secretion...
July 2013: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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