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Slow Pathway Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722113/specialised-stomatal-humidity-responses-underpin-ecological-diversity-in-c3-bromeliads
#1
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
The Neotropical Bromeliaceae display an extraordinary level of ecological variety, with species differing widely in habit, photosynthetic pathway, and growth form. Divergences in stomatal structure and function, hitherto understudied in treatments of bromeliad evolutionary physiology, could have been critical to the generation of variety in ecophysiological strategies among the bromeliads. Since humidity is a key factor in bromeliad niches, we focussed on stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698388/delayed-cryptochrome-degradation-asymmetrically-alters-the-daily-rhythm-in-suprachiasmatic-clock-neuron-excitability
#2
Sven Wegner, Mino D C Belle, Alun T L Hughes, Casey O Diekman, Hugh D Piggins
Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons contain an intracellular molecular circadian clock and the Cryptochromes (CRY1/2), key transcriptional repressors of this molecular apparatus, are subject to post-translational modification through ubiquitination and targeting for proteosomal degradation by the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Loss-of-function point mutations in a component of this ligase complex, Fbxl3, delay CRY1/2 degradation, reduce circadian rhythm strength, and lengthen the circadian period by ∼2.5h...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678862/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cells-attached-to-a-surface-display-a-typical-proteome-early-as-20-minutes-of-incubation
#3
Marc Crouzet, Stéphane Claverol, Anne-Marie Lomenech, Caroline Le Sénéchal, Patricia Costaglioli, Christophe Barthe, Bertrand Garbay, Marc Bonneu, Sébastien Vilain
Biofilms are present in all environments and often result in negative effects due to properties of the biofilm lifestyle and especially antibiotics resistance. Biofilms are associated with chronic infections. Controlling bacterial attachment, the first step of biofilm formation, is crucial for fighting against biofilm and subsequently preventing the persistence of infection. Thus deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in attachment could allow discovering molecular targets from it would be possible to develop inhibitors against bacterial colonization and potentiate antibiotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670495/bitterness-in-sugar-o-glcnacylation-aggravates-pre-b-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia-through-glycolysis-via-the-pi3k-akt-c-myc-pathway
#4
Bing Zhang, Panpan Zhou, Xue Li, Qing Shi, Dong Li, Xiuli Ju
Abnormal cellular energetics has emerged as a hallmark of cancer cells. Deregulating aerobic glycolysis can alter multiple metabolic and signaling pathways in cancer cells, and trigger unlimited growth and proliferation. Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated levels of protein modification with β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) along with dysregulation of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and/or O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels may act as a nutrient sensor in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of O-GlcNAcylation and the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and glycolysis are largely unknown in pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (pre-B-ALL)...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641381/supraventricular-tachyarrhythmias-in-patients-with-a-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava
#5
Jongmin Hwang, Hyoung-Seob Park, Jun Kim, Jeong Su Kim, Jong Sung Park, Ki-Hun Kim, Myung Hwan Bae, Sang-Hee Lee, Young Soo Lee, Seongwook Han, Dae-Kyeong Kim, Tae-Joon Cha, Dong Gu Shin, Byung Chun Jung, Yoon-Nyun Kim
Aims: A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly. This venous anomaly can impact the evaluation and treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVA). The aim of this study was to assess the proportion and characteristics of PLSVC in adult SVA patients. Methods and results: From July 2002 to July 2012, clinical and procedural data from databases of 10 cardiac electrophysiology laboratories in the Yeungnam region of the Republic of Korea were reviewed...
June 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640638/enzyme-mediated-conversion-of-flavin-adenine-dinucleotide-fad-to-8-formyl-fad-in-formate-oxidase-results-in-a-modified-cofactor-with-enhanced-catalytic-properties
#6
John M Robbins, Michael G Souffrant, Donald Hamelberg, Giovanni Gadda, Andreas S Bommarius
Flavins, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are fundamental catalytic cofactors that are responsible for the redox functionality of a diverse set of proteins. Alternatively, modified flavin analogues are rarely found in nature as their incorporation typically results in inactivation of flavoproteins, thus leading to the disruption of important cellular pathways. Here, we report that the fungal flavoenzyme formate oxidase (FOX) catalyzes the slow conversion of noncovalently bound FAD to 8-formyl FAD and that this conversion results in a nearly 10-fold increase in formate oxidase activity...
July 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622913/targeting-urate-to-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-parkinson-disease
#7
REVIEW
Grace F Crotty, Alberto Ascherio, Michael A Schwarzschild
Oxidative stress has been implicated as a core contributor to the initiation and progression of multiple neurological diseases. Genetic and environmental factors can produce oxidative stress through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Although clinical trials of antioxidants have thus far failed to demonstrate slowed progression of PD, oxidative stress remains a compelling target. Rather than prompting abandonment of antioxidant strategies, these failures have raised the bar for justifying drug and dosing selections and for improving study designs to test for disease modification by antioxidants...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593442/remodeling-of-heterochromatin-structure-slows-neuropathological-progression-and-prolongs-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#8
Junghee Lee, Yu Jin Hwang, Yunha Kim, Min Young Lee, Seung Jae Hyeon, Soojin Lee, Dong Hyun Kim, Sung Jae Jang, Hyoenjoo Im, Sun-Joon Min, Hyunah Choo, Ae Nim Pae, Dong Jin Kim, Kyung Sang Cho, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Altered histone modifications and epigenetic mechanisms are closely associated with HD suggesting that transcriptional repression may play a pathogenic role. Epigenetic compounds have significant therapeutic effects in cellular and animal models of HD, but they have not been successful in clinical trials. Herein, we report that dSETDB1/ESET, a histone methyltransferase (HMT), is a mediator of mutant HTT-induced degeneration in a fly HD model...
June 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556588/effects-of-dna-methylation-on-progression-to-interstitial-fibrosis-and-tubular-atrophy-in-renal-allograft-biopsies-a-multi-omics-approach
#9
Sai Vineela Bontha, Daniel G Maluf, Kellie J Archer, Catherine I Dumur, Mikhail Dozmorov, Anne King, Enver Akalin, Thomas F Mueller, Lorenzo Gallon, Valeria R Mas
Progressive fibrosis of the interstitium is the dominant final pathway in renal destruction in native and transplanted kidneys. Over time, the continuum of molecular events following immunological and non-immunological insults lead to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) and culminate in kidney failure. We hypothesize that these insults trigger changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns which in turn could exacerbate injury and slow down the regeneration processes, leading to fibrosis development and graft dysfunction...
May 28, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450734/modulation-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-co-transcriptional-histone-methylations
#10
REVIEW
Hyeonju Woo, So Dam Ha, Sung Bae Lee, Stephen Buratowski, TaeSoo Kim
Co-transcriptional methylations of histone H3 at lysines 4 and 36, highly conserved methyl marks from yeast to humans, have profound roles in regulation of histone acetylation. These modifications function to recruit and/or activate distinct histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs). Whereas H3K4me3 increases acetylation at promoters via multiple HATs, H3K4me2 targets Set3 HDAC to deacetylate histones in 5' transcribed regions. In 3' regions of genes, H3K36me2/3 facilitates deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC and slows elongation...
April 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435892/dramatic-improvement-of-crispr-cas9-editing-in-candida-albicans-by-increased-single-guide-rna-expression
#11
Henry Ng, Neta Dean
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a versatile tool for genome editing in Candida albicans. Mounting evidence from other model systems suggests that the intracellular levels of single guide RNA (sgRNA) limit the efficiency of Cas9-dependent DNA cleavage. Here, we tested this idea and describe a new means of sgRNA delivery that improves previously described methods by ~10-fold. The efficiency of Cas9/sgRNA-dependent cleavage and repair of a single-copy yeast enhanced monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene was measured as a function of various parameters that are hypothesized to affect sgRNA accumulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional processing...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320505/fine-tuning-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-the-set2-rpd3s-pathway
#12
Bo Bae Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, TaeSoo Kim
RNA polymerase II-interacting the Set2 methyltransferase co-transcriptionally methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 within the body of genes. This modification facilitates histone deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC in 3' transcribed regions to suppress cryptic initiation and slow elongation. Although this pathway is important for global deacetylation, no strong effects have been seen on genome-wide transcription under optimized laboratory conditions. In contrast, this pathway slows the kinetics of mRNA induction when target genes are induced upon environmental changes...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320273/impact-of-changes-in-neurotrophic-supplementation-on-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#13
E A Rudnitskaya, N G Kolosova, N A Stefanova
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The development of neurodegeneration in AD is closely related to alterations in neurotrophic supplementation of the brain, which may be caused either by disorder of neurotrophin metabolism or by modification of its availability due to changes in the microenvironment of neurons. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this work, we used senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as a unique model of the sporadic form of AD to examine the relationship of development of AD signs and changes in neurotrophic supplementation of the cortex...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318819/slow-pathway-radiofrequency-ablation-using-magnetic-navigation-a-description-of-technique-and-retrospective-case-analysis
#14
Abhishek Bhaskaran, Maha Albarri, Neil Ross, Sara Al Raisi, Rahul Samantha, Leonette Roode, Fazlur Nadri, Jeanette Ng, Stuart Thomas, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor
BACKGROUND: The Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) catheter was shown to be stable in the presence of significant cardiac wall motion and delivered more effective lesions compared to manual control. This stability could potentially make AV junctional reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) ablation safer. The aim of this study is to describe the method of mapping and ablation of AVNRT with MNS and 3-D electro-anatomical mapping system (CARTO, Biosense Webster, Diamond bar, CA, USA) anatomical mapping, with a view to improve the safety of ablation...
February 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185025/constipation-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#15
Amol Sharma, Satish Rao
Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C)...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117577/one-pot-synthesis-of-mesoporous-ni-ti-al-ternary-oxides-highly-active-and-selective-catalysts-for-steam-reforming-of-ethanol
#16
Alexandre A S Gonçalves, Patrícia B Faustino, José M Assaf, Mietek Jaroniec
One-pot synthesis of nanostructured ternary oxides of Ni, Al, and Ti was designed and performed via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA). For the purpose of comparison, analogous oxides were also prepared by the impregnation method. The resulting materials were applied in two catalytic reactions: steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) for H2 production (subjected to prior activation with H2) and ethanol dehydration (ED; used without prior activation), to in situ analyze carbon accumulation by ethylene depletion when ethanol interacts with acidic sites present on the support...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054692/in-situ-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-of-ag-au-galvanic-replacement-reactions
#17
Eli A Sutter, Peter W Sutter
Galvanic replacement reactions are important as they transform nanoparticle templates into complex porous and hollow metal or alloy nanostructures with interesting properties for a variety of applications. Real-time liquid cell electron microscopy (LCEM) observations of the transformation of solid nanoparticles into hollow shell and cage bimetallic nanostructures are challenging because the high-energy electron beam strongly affects the galvanic process via species such as aqueous electrons and hydroxyl radicals generated through the radiolysis of water in the liquid cell...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054687/coligand-modifications-fine-tuned-the-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-two-triple-bridged-azido-cu-ii-chain-compounds-exhibiting-ferromagnetic-ordering-and-slow-relaxation
#18
Xiangyu Liu, Feifei Li, Xiaohui Ma, Peipei Cen, Shuchang Luo, Quan Shi, Shenru Ma, Yuewei Wu, Chengcheng Zhang, Zhao Xu, Weiming Song, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen
Employing two benzoate derivatives with different numbers of non-coordinated fluoro-substituents, 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-Hfba) and 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid (2,6-Hdfba), two new azido-copper coordination polymers, [Cu(2-fba)(N3)(CH3OH)]n (1) and [Cu(2,6-dfba)(N3)(CH3OH)]n (2), have been successfully isolated, and then structurally and magnetically investigated. Single crystal structure analysis demonstrates that the metal cations in the two resulting compounds are connected by the alternating triple-bridge of μ-1,1-azido, syn,syn-carboxylate and μ2-methanol, contributing to analogously linear 1D Cu(ii) chain-like motifs with slightly different intrachain and interchain geometric parameters...
January 5, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041936/the-regulation-of-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-remember-krebs
#19
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Ramos-Martinez
The changes in gene expression and posttranslational modifications of enzymes are comprised in the concept of "coarse control" of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. However, these changes are slow in its implementation. The defensive mechanism against oxidative stress requires a most rapid response, impossible to achieve with coarse regulation systems. Recently, it has been suggested that a quick acceleration mechanism of G6PD activity could be produced by the reduction of NADPH-inhibition of G6PD...
January 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852217/genome-wide-gene-expression-and-rna-half-life-measurements-allow-predictions-of-regulation-and-metabolic-behavior-in-methanosarcina-acetivorans
#20
Joseph R Peterson, ShengShee Thor, Lars Kohler, Petra R A Kohler, William W Metcalf, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
BACKGROUND: While a few studies on the variations in mRNA expression and half-lives measured under different growth conditions have been used to predict patterns of regulation in bacterial organisms, the extent to which this information can also play a role in defining metabolic phenotypes has yet to be examined systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive study for a model methanogen. RESULTS: We use expression and half-life data for the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans growing on fast- and slow-growth substrates to examine the regulation of its genes...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
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