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Slow Pathway Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641381/supraventricular-tachyarrhythmias-in-patients-with-a-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava
#1
Jongmin Hwang, Hyoung-Seob Park, Jun Kim, Jeong Su Kim, Jong Sung Park, Ki-Hun Kim, Myung Hwan Bae, Sang-Hee Lee, Young Soo Lee, Seongwook Han, Dae-Kyeong Kim, Tae-Joon Cha, Dong Gu Shin, Byung Chun Jung, Yoon-Nyun Kim
Aims: A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly. This venous anomaly can impact the evaluation and treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVA). The aim of this study was to assess the proportion and characteristics of PLSVC in adult SVA patients. Methods and results: From July 2002 to July 2012, clinical and procedural data from databases of 10 cardiac electrophysiology laboratories in the Yeungnam region of the Republic of Korea were reviewed...
June 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640638/enzyme-mediated-conversion-of-fad-to-8-formyl-fad-in-formate-oxidase-results-in-modified-cofactor-with-enhanced-catalytic-properties
#2
John M Robbins, Michael G Souffrant, Donald Hamelberg, Giovanni Gadda, Andreas S Bommarius
Flavins, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are fundamental catalytic cofactors responsible for the redox functionality of a diverse set of proteins. Alternatively, modified flavin analogues are rarely found in nature as their incorporation typically results in inactivation of flavoproteins, thus leading to the disruption of important cellular pathways. Here, we report that the fungal flavoenzyme formate oxidase (FOX) catalyzes the slow conversion of non-covalently bound FAD to 8-formyl FAD (8-fFAD), and that this conversion results in a nearly 10-fold increase in formate oxidase activity...
June 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622913/targeting-urate-to-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-parkinson-disease
#3
REVIEW
Grace F Crotty, Alberto Ascherio, Michael A Schwarzschild
Oxidative stress has been implicated as a core contributor to the initiation and progression of multiple neurological diseases. Genetic and environmental factors can produce oxidative stress through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Although clinical trials of antioxidants have thus far failed to demonstrate slowed progression of PD, oxidative stress remains a compelling target. Rather than prompting abandonment of antioxidant strategies, these failures have raised the bar for justifying drug and dosing selections and for improving study designs to test for disease modification by antioxidants...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593442/remodeling-of-heterochromatin-structure-slows-neuropathological-progression-and-prolongs-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Junghee Lee, Yu Jin Hwang, Yunha Kim, Min Young Lee, Seung Jae Hyeon, Soojin Lee, Dong Hyun Kim, Sung Jae Jang, Hyoenjoo Im, Sun-Joon Min, Hyunah Choo, Ae Nim Pae, Dong Jin Kim, Kyung Sang Cho, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Altered histone modifications and epigenetic mechanisms are closely associated with HD suggesting that transcriptional repression may play a pathogenic role. Epigenetic compounds have significant therapeutic effects in cellular and animal models of HD, but they have not been successful in clinical trials. Herein, we report that dSETDB1/ESET, a histone methyltransferase (HMT), is a mediator of mutant HTT-induced degeneration in a fly HD model...
June 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556588/effects-of-dna-methylation-on-progression-to-interstitial-fibrosis-and-tubular-atrophy-in-renal-allograft-biopsies-a-multi-omics-approach
#5
Sai Vineela Bontha, Daniel G Maluf, Kellie J Archer, Catherine I Dumur, Mikhail Dozmorov, Anne King, Enver Akalin, Thomas F Mueller, Lorenzo Gallon, Valeria R Mas
Progressive fibrosis of the interstitium is the dominant final pathway in renal destruction in native and transplanted kidneys. Over time, the continuum of molecular events following immunological and non-immunological insults lead to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) and culminate in kidney failure. We hypothesize that these insults trigger changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns which in turn could exacerbate injury and slow down the regeneration processes, leading to fibrosis development and graft dysfunction...
May 28, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450734/modulation-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-co-transcriptional-histone-methylations
#6
REVIEW
Hyeonju Woo, So Dam Ha, Sung Bae Lee, Stephen Buratowski, TaeSoo Kim
Co-transcriptional methylations of histone H3 at lysines 4 and 36, highly conserved methyl marks from yeast to humans, have profound roles in regulation of histone acetylation. These modifications function to recruit and/or activate distinct histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs). Whereas H3K4me3 increases acetylation at promoters via multiple HATs, H3K4me2 targets Set3 HDAC to deacetylate histones in 5' transcribed regions. In 3' regions of genes, H3K36me2/3 facilitates deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC and slows elongation...
April 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435892/dramatic-improvement-of-crispr-cas9-editing-in-candida-albicans-by-increased-single-guide-rna-expression
#7
Henry Ng, Neta Dean
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a versatile tool for genome editing in Candida albicans. Mounting evidence from other model systems suggests that the intracellular levels of single guide RNA (sgRNA) limit the efficiency of Cas9-dependent DNA cleavage. Here, we tested this idea and describe a new means of sgRNA delivery that improves previously described methods by ~10-fold. The efficiency of Cas9/sgRNA-dependent cleavage and repair of a single-copy yeast enhanced monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene was measured as a function of various parameters that are hypothesized to affect sgRNA accumulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional processing...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320505/fine-tuning-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-the-set2-rpd3s-pathway
#8
Bo Bae Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, TaeSoo Kim
RNA polymerase II-interacting the Set2 methyltransferase co-transcriptionally methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 within the body of genes. This modification facilitates histone deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC in 3' transcribed regions to suppress cryptic initiation and slow elongation. Although this pathway is important for global deacetylation, no strong effects have been seen on genome-wide transcription under optimized laboratory conditions. In contrast, this pathway slows the kinetics of mRNA induction when target genes are induced upon environmental changes...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320273/impact-of-changes-in-neurotrophic-supplementation-on-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#9
E A Rudnitskaya, N G Kolosova, N A Stefanova
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The development of neurodegeneration in AD is closely related to alterations in neurotrophic supplementation of the brain, which may be caused either by disorder of neurotrophin metabolism or by modification of its availability due to changes in the microenvironment of neurons. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this work, we used senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as a unique model of the sporadic form of AD to examine the relationship of development of AD signs and changes in neurotrophic supplementation of the cortex...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318819/slow-pathway-radiofrequency-ablation-using-magnetic-navigation-a-description-of-technique-and-retrospective-case-analysis
#10
Abhishek Bhaskaran, Maha Albarri, Neil Ross, Sara Al Raisi, Rahul Samantha, Leonette Roode, Fazlur Nadri, Jeanette Ng, Stuart Thomas, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor
BACKGROUND: The Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) catheter was shown to be stable in the presence of significant cardiac wall motion and delivered more effective lesions compared to manual control. This stability could potentially make AV junctional reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) ablation safer. The aim of this study is to describe the method of mapping and ablation of AVNRT with MNS and 3-D electro-anatomical mapping system (CARTO, Biosense Webster, Diamond bar, CA, USA) anatomical mapping, with a view to improve the safety of ablation...
February 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185025/constipation-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#11
Amol Sharma, Satish Rao
Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C)...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117577/one-pot-synthesis-of-mesoporous-ni-ti-al-ternary-oxides-highly-active-and-selective-catalysts-for-steam-reforming-of-ethanol
#12
Alexandre A S Gonçalves, Patrícia B Faustino, José M Assaf, Mietek Jaroniec
One-pot synthesis of nanostructured ternary oxides of Ni, Al, and Ti was designed and performed via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA). For the purpose of comparison, analogous oxides were also prepared by the impregnation method. The resulting materials were applied in two catalytic reactions: steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) for H2 production (subjected to prior activation with H2) and ethanol dehydration (ED; used without prior activation), to in situ analyze carbon accumulation by ethylene depletion when ethanol interacts with acidic sites present on the support...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054692/in-situ-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-of-ag-au-galvanic-replacement-reactions
#13
Eli A Sutter, Peter W Sutter
Galvanic replacement reactions are important as they transform nanoparticle templates into complex porous and hollow metal or alloy nanostructures with interesting properties for a variety of applications. Real-time liquid cell electron microscopy (LCEM) observations of the transformation of solid nanoparticles into hollow shell and cage bimetallic nanostructures are challenging because the high-energy electron beam strongly affects the galvanic process via species such as aqueous electrons and hydroxyl radicals generated through the radiolysis of water in the liquid cell...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054687/coligand-modifications-fine-tuned-the-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-two-triple-bridged-azido-cu-ii-chain-compounds-exhibiting-ferromagnetic-ordering-and-slow-relaxation
#14
Xiangyu Liu, Feifei Li, Xiaohui Ma, Peipei Cen, Shuchang Luo, Quan Shi, Shenru Ma, Yuewei Wu, Chengcheng Zhang, Zhao Xu, Weiming Song, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen
Employing two benzoate derivatives with different numbers of non-coordinated fluoro-substituents, 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-Hfba) and 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid (2,6-Hdfba), two new azido-copper coordination polymers, [Cu(2-fba)(N3)(CH3OH)]n (1) and [Cu(2,6-dfba)(N3)(CH3OH)]n (2), have been successfully isolated, and then structurally and magnetically investigated. Single crystal structure analysis demonstrates that the metal cations in the two resulting compounds are connected by the alternating triple-bridge of μ-1,1-azido, syn,syn-carboxylate and μ2-methanol, contributing to analogously linear 1D Cu(ii) chain-like motifs with slightly different intrachain and interchain geometric parameters...
January 5, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041936/the-regulation-of-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-remember-krebs
#15
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Ramos-Martinez
The changes in gene expression and posttranslational modifications of enzymes are comprised in the concept of "coarse control" of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. However, these changes are slow in its implementation. The defensive mechanism against oxidative stress requires a most rapid response, impossible to achieve with coarse regulation systems. Recently, it has been suggested that a quick acceleration mechanism of G6PD activity could be produced by the reduction of NADPH-inhibition of G6PD...
January 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852217/genome-wide-gene-expression-and-rna-half-life-measurements-allow-predictions-of-regulation-and-metabolic-behavior-in-methanosarcina-acetivorans
#16
Joseph R Peterson, ShengShee Thor, Lars Kohler, Petra R A Kohler, William W Metcalf, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
BACKGROUND: While a few studies on the variations in mRNA expression and half-lives measured under different growth conditions have been used to predict patterns of regulation in bacterial organisms, the extent to which this information can also play a role in defining metabolic phenotypes has yet to be examined systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive study for a model methanogen. RESULTS: We use expression and half-life data for the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans growing on fast- and slow-growth substrates to examine the regulation of its genes...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734212/nitrate-and-nitrogen-oxides-sources-health-effects-and-their-remediation
#17
REVIEW
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713036/insulin-resistance-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-new-target-for-disease-modification
#18
REVIEW
D Athauda, T Foltynie
There is growing evidence that patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease and share similar dysregulated pathways suggesting common underlying pathological mechanisms. Historically insulin was thought solely to be a peripherally acting hormone responsible for glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. However accumulating evidence indicates insulin can cross the blood-brain-barrier and influence a multitude of processes in the brain including regulating neuronal survival and growth, dopaminergic transmission, maintenance of synapses and pathways involved in cognition...
October 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658511/an-overview-on-the-role-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutics
#19
Hayate Javed, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Shreesh Ojha
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating and progressive movement disorder characterized by symptoms of muscles rigidity, tremor, postural instability and slow physical movements. Biochemically, PD is characterized by lack of dopamine production and its action due to loss of dopaminergic neurons and neuropathologically by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of presynaptic neuronal protein, α-synuclein (α-syn). It is believed that alteration in α-syn homeostasis leads to increased accumulation and aggregation of α-syn in Lewy body...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624889/targeting-protein-geranylgeranylation-slows-tumor-development-in-a-murine-model-of-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#20
Jacqueline E Reilly, Jeffrey D Neighbors, Raymond J Hohl
The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) plays a critical role in providing substrates and enzymes necessary for the post-translational modification and thus activation of a number of proteins involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Previous work by our lab found novel compound disodium [(6Z,11E,15E)-9-[bis(sodiooxy)phosphoryl]-17-hydroxy-2,6,12,16-tetramethyheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraen-9-yl]phosphonate (GGOHBP), which inhibits the IBP enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), reduced protein geranylgeranylation without altering protein farnesylation...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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