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Junctional Rhythm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784491/neonatal-and-pediatric-arrhythmias-clinical-and-electrocardiographic-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Fabrizio Drago, Irma Battipaglia, Corrado Di Mambro
Arrhythmias have acquired a specific identity in pediatric cardiology, but for pediatric cardiologists it has always been difficult to recognize and treat them. Changes in anatomy and physiology result in electrocardiogram features that differ from the normal adult pattern and vary according to the age of the child. Sinus arrhythmia, ectopic atrial rhythm, "wandering pacemaker," and junctional rhythm can be normal characteristics in children (15%-25% of healthy children can have these rhythms on the electrocardiogram)...
June 2018: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778339/lower-risk-of-postoperative-arrhythmias-in-congenital-heart-surgery-following-intraoperative-administration-of-magnesium
#2
Dingchao He, Nimisha Aggarwal, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Charles I Berul, Sridhar Hanumanthaiah, Jeffrey P Moak
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative arrhythmias are common in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. We evaluated whether intraoperative administration of magnesium was associated with a reduced occurrence of specific postoperative arrhythmias, as has been described previously, or had a broader effect on multiple arrhythmia types, and whether there existed a dose-effect of intraoperative magnesium. METHODS: We used a historical prospective observational cohort study...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#3
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759837/clinical-features-and-sites-of-ablation-for-patients-with-incessant-supraventricular-tachycardia-from-concealed-nodofascicular-and-nodoventricular-tachycardias
#4
Frederick T Han, Eric M Riles, Nitish Badhwar, Melvin M Scheinman
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the clinical features and sites of successful ablation for incessant nodofascicular (NF) and nodoventricular (NV) tachycardias. BACKGROUND: Incessant supraventricular tachycardias have been associated with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathies and have been previously attributed to permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardias, atrial tachycardias, and atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardias. Incessant concealed NF and NV tachycardias have not been described previously...
December 26, 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748463/protein%C3%A2-protein-interactions-with-connexin-43-regulation-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Paul L Sorgen, Andrew J Trease, Gaelle Spagnol, Mario Delmar, Morten S Nielsen
Connexins are integral membrane building blocks that form gap junctions, enabling direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low-molecular-mass metabolites between adjacent cells. In the heart, gap junctions mediate the propagation of cardiac action potentials and the maintenance of a regular beating rhythm. A number of connexin interacting proteins have been described and are known gap junction regulators either through direct effects (e.g., kinases) or the formation of larger multifunctional complexes (e.g., cytoskeleton scaffold proteins)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722649/network-oscillation-rules-imposed-by-species-specific-electrical-coupling
#6
Stefanos Stagkourakis, Carolina Thörn Pérez, Arash Hellysaz, Rachida Ammari, Christian Broberger
Electrical junctions are widespread within the mammalian CNS. Yet, their role in organizing neuronal ensemble activity remains incompletely understood. Here, in a functionally well-characterized system - neuroendocrine tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons - we demonstrate a striking species difference in network behavior: rat TIDA cells discharge in highly stereotyped, robust, synchronized slow oscillations, whereas mouse oscillations are faster, flexible and show substantial cell-to-cell variability...
May 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709577/endocardial-ablation-of-ventricular-ectopic-beats-arising-from-the-basal-infero-septal-process-of-the-left-ventricle
#7
Anthony Li, Zia Zuberi, Jason S Bradfield, John K Zarif, David E Ward, Robert H Anderson, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Magdi M Saba
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic VE shows predilection to sites within the left ventricular base such as the outflow tract/aortic sinuses, LV summit and adjacent to the aorto-mitral continuity. We characterize VE arising from the inferior septum of the LV base that were successfully managed by LV endocardial ablation from the infero-septal recess of the LV. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, electrocardiographic, electrophysiological findings and anatomical features associated with ventricular ectopy (VE) arising from the basal infero-septal process of the left ventricle (ISP-LV) ablated using an LV endocardial approach via the infero-septal recess of the left ventricle...
April 27, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677032/landiolol-hydrochloride-rapidly-controls-junctional-ectopic-tachycardia-after-pediatric-heart-surgery
#8
Fumiya Yoneyama, Chiho Tokunaga, Hideyuki Kato, Tomomi Nakajima, Bryan J Mathis, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Yuji Hiramatsu
OBJECTIVES: Junctional ectopic tachycardia is a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia with atrioventricular dissociation that causes life-threatening postsurgical conditions in pediatric heart patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of landiolol hydrochloride for managing junctional ectopic tachycardia. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective study. SETTING: PICU at the university hospital. PATIENTS: Of 561 pediatric patients who underwent open-heart surgery between 2006 and 2017, 10 patients developed sustained junctional ectopic tachycardia and were selected for landiolol treatment...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558214/preliminary-assessment-of-a-novel-14-day-electrocardiographic-adhesive-patch-monitor-in-dogs
#9
Jonathan Lichtenberger, Kathryn M Meurs, Etienne Côté
Cardiac arrhythmias often are transient and might not be detected using conventional electrocardiographic (ECG) techniques. The adhesive patch monitor (APM) is a single-lead, lightweight, up to 14-day continuous ambulatory ECG monitor. This study aimed to prospectively assess its usability in four boxer dogs considered either to be healthy or to have arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Optimal recording was obtained by placing the APM on the left side of the animal's thorax, at the fifth intercostal space, slightly dorsal to the costochondral junction, and oriented either vertically or parallel to the long axis of the heart...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540683/the-choroid-plexus-is-an-important-circadian-clock-component
#10
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526461/a-circadian-clock-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-regulates-xenobiotic-efflux
#11
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390251/a-confused-ecg-with-multiple-rhythms-caused-by-atrial-premature-contractions-a-case-report
#12
Yang Hongliang, Yu Ming, Zhao Qini, Si Daoyuan, Tong Yaliang, Wang Ying, He Yuquan
INTRODUCTION: Atrial premature contractions (APCs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The APCs may influence heart conduction system and induce other arrhythmia. The disorder of atrioventricular conduction is related to electrophysiological phenomena, difficult to understand and diagnose. CASE REPORT: We presented a 15-year-old male patient whose baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) was confused with multiple rhythms. Electrophysiological study results showed sinus rhythm with nonconducted APCs in bigeminal rhythm...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386573/circadian-coordination-of-atp-release-in-the-urothelium-via-connexin43-hemichannels
#13
Atsushi Sengiku, Masakatsu Ueda, Jin Kono, Takeshi Sano, Nobuyuki Nishikawa, Sumihiro Kunisue, Kojiro Tsujihana, Louis S Liou, Akihiro Kanematsu, Shigeki Shimba, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura, Osamu Ogawa, Hiromitsu Negoro
Day-night changes in the storage capacity of the urinary bladder are indispensable for sound sleep. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a major gap junction protein, forms hemichannels as a pathway of ATP in other cell types, and the urinary bladder utilizes ATP as a mechanotransduction signals to modulate its capacity. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian clock of the urothelium regulates diurnal ATP release through Cx43 hemichannels. Cx43 was expressed in human and mouse urothelium, and clock genes oscillated in the mouse urothelium accompanied by daily cycles in the expression of Cx43 and extracellular ATP release into the bladder lumen...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383633/a-fatal-case-of-amlodipine-toxicity-following-iatrogenic-hypercalcemia
#14
Narges-Sadat Zahed, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani
Using calcium salts in management of amlodipine overdose is challenging. A 25-year-old male with known history of adult polycystic kidney disease presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and intact neurological status after ingestion of 450 mg of amlodipine. Immediately, normal saline infusion and norepinephrine were initiated. Two grams of calcium gluconate was injected, followed by intravenous infusion of 1.16 mg/kg/h. The patient was put on insulin-glucose protocol to maintain euglycemia and hyperinsulinemia...
January 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365070/encoding-of-auditory-temporal-gestalt-in-the-human-brain
#15
Michael P Notter, Michael Hanke, Micah M Murray, Eveline Geiser
The perception of an acoustic rhythm is invariant to the absolute temporal intervals constituting a sound sequence. It is unknown where in the brain temporal Gestalt, the percept emerging from the relative temporal proximity between acoustic events, is encoded. Two different relative temporal patterns, each induced by three experimental conditions with different absolute temporal patterns as sensory basis, were presented to participants. A linear support vector machine classifier was trained to differentiate activation patterns in functional magnetic resonance imaging data to the 2 different percepts...
January 20, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360035/excitatory-motor-neurons-are-local-oscillators-for-backward-locomotion
#16
Shangbang Gao, Sihui Asuka Guan, Anthony D Fouad, Jun Meng, Taizo Kawano, Yung-Chi Huang, Yi Li, Salvador Alcaire, Wesley Hung, Yangning Lu, Yingchuan Billy Qi, Yishi Jin, Mark Alkema, Christopher Fang-Yen, Mei Zhen
Cell- or network-driven oscillators underlie motor rhythmicity. The identity of C. elegans oscillators remains unknown. Through cell ablation, electrophysiology, and calcium imaging, we show: (1) forward and backward locomotion is driven by different oscillators; (2) the cholinergic and excitatory A-class motor neurons exhibit intrinsic and oscillatory activity that is sufficient to drive backward locomotion in the absence of premotor interneurons; (3) the UNC-2 P/Q/N high-voltage-activated calcium current underlies A motor neuron's oscillation; (4) descending premotor interneurons AVA, via an evolutionarily conserved, mixed gap junction and chemical synapse configuration, exert state-dependent inhibition and potentiation of A motor neuron's intrinsic activity to regulate backward locomotion...
January 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357505/chemoreflex-mediated-arrhythmia-during-apnea-at-5-050-m-in-low-but-not-high-altitude-natives
#17
Stephen A Busch, Hannah Davies, Sean van Diepen, Lydia L Simpson, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Mike Stembridge, Philip N Ainslie, Christopher K Willie, Ryan Hoiland, Jonathan P Moore, Craig D Steinback
Peripheral chemoreflex mediated increases in both parasympathetic and sympathetic drive under chronic hypoxia may evoke bradyarrhythmias during apneic periods. We determined whether 1) voluntary apnea unmasks arrhythmia at low (344 m) and high (5,050 m) altitude, 2) high-altitude natives (Nepalese Sherpa) exhibit similar cardiovagal responses at altitude, and 3) bradyarrhythmias at altitude are partially chemoreflex mediated. Participants were grouped as Lowlanders ( n = 14; age = 27 ± 6 yr) and Nepalese Sherpa ( n = 8; age = 32 ± 11 yr)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299677/compression-of-a-giant-pseudomeningocele-causing-transient-anoxic-seizures-a-case-report
#18
Alhafidz Hamdan, A Saxena, G Rao, M Ivanov
Transient anoxic seizure upon application of pressure on a giant pseudomeningocele has never been reported in the literature; such abrupt changes in intracranial pressure due to large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) translocation, if left untreated may lead to permanent cerebral hypoxic injury and death. Here we describe a case of a 26-year-old woman who had undergone lumbar disc surgery in another unit few months ago and developed a large lump around her back. Any pressure on the lump resulted in headaches and at times episodes of seizures...
March 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251799/atrioventricular-junction-ablation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-treated-with-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-positive-impact-on-ventricular-arrhythmias-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-therapies-and-hospitalizations
#19
Maurizio Gasparini, Axel Kloppe, Maurizio Lunati, Frédéric Anselme, Maurizio Landolina, Jose Bautista Martinez-Ferrer, Alessandro Proclemer, Giovanni Morani, Mauro Biffi, Renato Ricci, Roberto Rordorf, Lorenza Mangoni, Laura Manotta, Andrea Grammatico, Francisco Leyva, Giuseppe Boriani
AIMS: We sought to determine whether atrioventricular junction ablation (AVJA) in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) has a positive impact on ICD shocks and hospitalizations compared with rate-slowing drugs. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a pooled analysis of data from 179 international centres participating in two randomized trials and one prospective observational research...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234357/neonatal-arrhythmias-diagnosis-treatment-and-clinical-outcome
#20
REVIEW
Ji-Eun Ban
Arrhythmias in the neonatal period are not uncommon, and may occur in neonates with a normal heart or in those with structural heart disease. Neonatal arrhythmias are classified as either benign or nonbenign. Benign arrhythmias include sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial contraction, premature ventricular contraction, and junctional rhythm; these arrhythmias have no clinical significance and do not need therapy. Supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, and genetic arrhythmia such as congenital long-QT syndrome are classified as nonbenign arrhythmias...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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