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Junctional Rhythm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294644/electrocardiogram-changes-and-atrial-arrhythmias-in-individuals-carrying-sodium-channel-scn5a-d1275n-mutation
#1
Sari U M Vanninen, Kjell Nikus, Katriina Aalto-Setälä
INTRODUCTION: The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular depolarization as well as cardiac conduction. Patients with cardiac electrical abnormalities have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardio-embolic stroke. Optimal management of cardiac disease includes the understanding of association between the causative mutations and the clinical phenotype. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is an easy and inexpensive tool for finding risk patients...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262258/safer-and-escape-junctional-rhythm-a-singular-trigger-for-pacemaker-mediated-tachycardia
#2
Pasquale Crea, Teresa Crea, Giuseppe Picciolo, Francesco Luzza
A 70-year-old man, who previously received a dual chamber pacemaker for paroxysmal AV block (Sorin Symphony DR 2550), was noted on telemetry to have multiple episodes of rapid ventricular pacing at approximately 120bpm. Evaluation of the telemetry strips revealed that all of the rapid ventricular pacing episodes were initiated by brief runs of escape junctional rhythm. Programmed bradycardia parameters were AAI SafeR with lower rate limit of 50bpm.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261081/asymmetry-factors-shaping-regular-and-irregular-bursting-rhythms-in-central-pattern-generators
#3
Irene Elices, Pablo Varona
Central Pattern Generator (CPG) circuits are neural networks that generate rhythmic motor patterns. These circuits are typically built of half-center oscillator subcircuits with reciprocally inhibitory connections. Another common property in many CPGs is the remarkable rich spiking-bursting dynamics of their constituent cells, which balance robustness and flexibility to generate their joint coordinated rhythms. In this paper, we use conductance-based models and realistic connection topologies inspired by the crustacean pyloric CPG to address the study of asymmetry factors shaping CPG bursting rhythms...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258363/theta-rhythm-makes-the-world-go-round-dissociative-effects-of-tms-theta-versus-alpha-entrainment-of-right-ptpj-on-embodied-perspective-transformations
#4
Gerard Gooding-Williams, Hongfang Wang, Klaus Kessler
Being able to imagine another person's experience and perspective of the world is a crucial human ability and recent reports suggest that humans "embody" another's viewpoint by mentally rotating their own body representation into the other's orientation. Our recent Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data further confirmed this notion of embodied perspective transformations and pinpointed the right posterior temporo-parietal junction (pTPJ) as the crucial hub in a distributed network oscillating at theta frequency (3-7 Hz)...
March 3, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256386/-reliability-study-on-the-interpretation-of-electrocardiograms-by-general-practitioners-and-trainees
#5
F J Alonso Moreno, R Orueta Sánchez, A Segura Fragoso, A I Rabadán Velasco, L Luna Del Pozo, A Villarín Castro, M Baquero Alonso, L Rodríguez Padial
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECG) by general practitioners and those in training by making a comparison with the interpretation made by the cardiologist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted that included general practitioners working in the Toledo Health Area, physicians during their training in Family and Community Medicine, and cardiologists in their first 3 years of specialist training (R1-R3)...
February 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245529/synchrony-and-so-much-more-diverse-roles-for-electrical-synapses-in-neural-circuits
#6
REVIEW
Barry W Connors
Electrical synapses are gap junctions between neurons that are ubiquitous across brain regions and species. The biophysical properties of most electrical synapses are relatively simple-transcellular channels allow nearly ohmic, bidirectional flow of ionic current. Yet these connections can play remarkably diverse roles when placed into different neural circuit contexts. Here I review recent findings illustrating how electrical synapses may excite or inhibit, synchronize or desynchronize, augment or diminish rhythms, phase-shift, detect coincidences, enhance signals relative to noise, adapt, and interact with nonlinear membrane and transmitter-release mechanisms...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213312/multiple-myocardial-abscesses-secondary-to-late-stent-infection
#7
Ayman Elbadawi, Marwan Saad, Islam Y Elgendy, Aneeqa Zafar, Ming-Yan Chow
A 53-year-old woman presented to our hospital with dizziness and low-grade fever. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention to the obtuse marginal artery with a drug-eluting stent 20 months prior to this presentation. Physical examination was remarkable for bradycardia. Electrocardiogram showed a junctional rhythm with heart rate of 35 bpm. Blood and urine cultures were negative. Despite successful urgent pacemaker placement, she had cardiac arrest the following day with unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempt...
February 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184977/lateral-atrial-tunnel-fontan-operation-predisposes-to-the-junctional-rhythm
#8
Katarzyna Januszewska, Anna Schuh, Anja Lehner, Robert Dalla-Pozza, Edward Malec
The goal of the study was to compare the early postoperative course after fenestrated lateral atrial tunnel (LT) and non-fenestrated extracardiac conduit (EC) Fontan operation (FO) in a single center where both techniques were parallelly used. Between 2004 and 2012, 56(32.7%) children underwent LT and 113(66.1%) EC FO. The mean age was 3.7 ± 2.9 years and mean weight was 14.6 ± 7.3 kg. The most common malformation was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (50.9%). The general approach was to perform LT in children after hemi-Fontan operation and EC in patients after Glenn anastomosis...
February 10, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#9
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel B Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n = 12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n = 9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle at baseline and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS and RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (ATs), and directionality of propagation were measured. Myocardial fiber orientation was determined using diffusion tensor imaging and histology...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997060/comparison-of-left-atrial-bipolar-voltage-and-scar-using-multielectrode-fast-automated-mapping-versus-point-by-point-contact-electroanatomic-mapping-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-repeat-ablation
#10
Jackson J Liang, Melissa A Elafros, Daniele Muser, Rajeev K Pathak, Pasquale Santangeli, Gregory E Supple, Robert D Schaller, David S Frankel, Sanjay Dixit
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar voltage criteria to delineate left atrial (LA) scar have been derived using point-by-point (PBP) contact electroanatomical mapping. It remains unclear how PBP-derived LA scar correlates with multielectrode fast automated mapping (ME-FAM) derived scar. We aimed to correlate scar and bipolar voltages from LA maps created using PBP versus ME-FAM. METHODS AND RESULTS: In consecutive patients undergoing repeat AF ablation, 2 separate LA maps were created using PBP and ME-FAM during sinus rhythm before ablation...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989256/junctional-tachycardia-in-a-child-with-non-rheumatic-fever-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#11
Neha Bansal, Peter P Karpawich, Chenni S Sriram
Accelerated junctional rhythm has been reported in children in the setting of acute rheumatic fever; however, we describe a hitherto unreported case of isolated junctional tachycardia in a child with streptococcal pharyngitis, not meeting revised Jones criteria for rheumatic fever. A previously healthy, 9-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with complaints of sore throat, low-grade fever, and intermittent chest pain. She was found to have a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test. The initial electrocardiogram showed junctional tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation in addition to prolonged and aberrant atrioventricular conduction...
December 19, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965318/mapping-and-ablation-of-anteroseptal-atrial-tachycardia-in-patients-with-congenitally-corrected-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-implication-of-pulmonary-sinus-cusps
#12
Xiao-Gang Guo, Zili Liao, Qi Sun, Xu Liu, Gong-Bu Zhou, Jian-du Yang, Bin Luo, Feifan Ouyang, Jian Ma, Shu Zhang
AIMS: We sought to investigate focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified three cases of focal ATs with ccTGA from 2007 to 2015. The clinical findings, electrocardiography, electrophysiological features, and ablation were reported. All three cases had {S,L,L}-type ccTGA. The AT P waves shared the following features: narrow in width, positive in leads I and aVL, and negative/positive in lead V1...
December 13, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904846/complete-congenital-heart-block-in-a-neonate-with-a-complex-congenital-heart-defect-in-africa
#13
Clovis Nkoke, Edvine Yonta Wawo, Liliane Kuate Mfeukeu, Larissa Makamte, Sandrine Dikosso Edie, Flore Esiene Balana
Congenital heart block (CHB) is rare disorder that has a higher mortality when associated with structural congenital heart defects. Very few cases have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We present a case of complete CHB associated with a complex congenital heart defect in a neonate in Cameroon. A 1-month-old neonate in Cameroon was referred for the evaluation of bradycardia. The obstetrical ultrasound done during pregnancy revealed fetal bradycardia without further evaluation. Clinical examination showed well a developed neonate with bradycardia at 62 beats/minute, and mild cyanosis with oxygen saturation at 93% at room air...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872501/synchronization-of-heterogeneous-oscillators-under-network-modifications-perturbation-and-optimization-of-the-synchrony-alignment-function
#14
Dane Taylor, Per Sebastian Skardal, Jie Sun
Synchronization is central to many complex systems in engineering physics (e.g., the power-grid, Josephson junction circuits, and electro-chemical oscillators) and biology (e.g., neuronal, circadian, and cardiac rhythms). Despite these widespread applications-for which proper functionality depends sensitively on the extent of synchronization-there remains a lack of understanding for how systems can best evolve and adapt to enhance or inhibit synchronization. We study how network modifications affect the synchronization properties of network-coupled dynamical systems that have heterogeneous node dynamics (e...
2016: SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826129/genotypic-and-phenotypic-predictors-of-complete-heart-block-and-recovery-of-conduction-after-surgical-repair-of-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Laura E Murray, Andrew H Smith, English C Flack, Kim Crum, Jill Owen, Prince J Kannankeril
BACKGROUND: Complete heart block (CHB) is a major complication that occurs after congenital heart surgery. We hypothesized that genetic and clinical factors are associated with the development of postoperative CHB and recovery of atrioventricular (AV) conduction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of CHB and recovery after congenital heart surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution from September 2007 through June 2015 were prospectively enrolled in a parent study of postoperative arrhythmias...
March 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810937/deficiency-of-cpeb2-confined-choline-acetyltransferase-expression-in-the-dorsal-motor-nucleus-of-vagus-causes-hyperactivated-parasympathetic-signaling-associated-bronchoconstriction
#16
Yen-Ting Lai, Chun-Kuei Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Ya-Jen Chang, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Yi-Shuian Huang
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799555/cardiac-electrical-defects-in-progeroid-mice-and-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-patients-with-nuclear-lamina-alterations
#17
José Rivera-Torres, Conrado J Calvo, Anna Llach, Gabriela Guzmán-Martínez, Ricardo Caballero, Cristina González-Gómez, Luis J Jiménez-Borreguero, Juan A Guadix, Fernando G Osorio, Carlos López-Otín, Adela Herraiz-Martínez, Nuria Cabello, Alex Vallmitjana, Raul Benítez, Leslie B Gordon, José Jalife, José M Pérez-Pomares, Juan Tamargo, Eva Delpón, Leif Hove-Madsen, David Filgueiras-Rama, Vicente Andrés
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24(-/-) mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24(-/-) mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789000/sinus-node-injury-during-adjunctive-superior-vena-cava-isolation-in-a-patient-with-triggered-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Andrés F Miranda-Arboleda, Jeffrey Munro, Komandoor Srivathsan
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained heart arrhythmia. Premature beats arising from foci other than pulmonary veins have been related to its pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 64-year-old female underwent superior vena cava (SVC) isolation after triggers were identified originating from the SVC following pulmonary vein isolation; immediately after SVC isolation, she developed junctional rhythm with symptomatic hypotension requiring emergent management...
May 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766317/myocardial-architecture-and-patient-variability-in-clinical-patterns-of-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725543/infective-endocarditis-with-intermittent-atrioventricular-block-and-pseudoaneurysm-of-the-mitral-aortic-intervalvular-fibrosa-in-a-patient-with-severe-aortic-stenosis
#20
Hideyuki Hasebe, Akira Takanohashi, Kazuaki Shirota, Hajime Nakamura
Atrioventricular (AV) block and pseudoaneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (P-MAIVF) are rare complications of infective endocarditis (IE). A 72-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis was hospitalized due to IE. After admission, intermittent AV block and P-MAIVF were noted. Interestingly, an accelerated junctional rhythm was observed during the process of AV block resolution. Elective surgery, which included patch closure of the fistula and replacement of the aortic valve, was successfully performed...
2016: Internal Medicine
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