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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443088/simultaneous-video-eeg-ecg-monitoring-to-identify-neurocardiac-dysfunction-in-mouse-models-of-epilepsy
#1
Vikas Mishra, Nicole M Gautier, Edward Glasscock
In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442800/characterization-of-articaine-loaded-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanocapsules-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-in-hydrogels-for-topical-formulations
#2
Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos Campos, Michelle Franz-Montan, Eneida de Paula, Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva, Cíntia Rodrigues Maruyama, Tatiane Pasquoto Stigliani, Renata de Lima, Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work describes the development of poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules (PCL-NC) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) aiming delivery for articaine (ATC), in order to improve its chemical stability in semi-solid preparations looking forward their use for skin delivery. The nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, and pH. Cellular viability was evaluated using the MTT test and the in vitro release kinetics was determined using a two-compartment model. The hydrogels with nanoparticle suspensions were characterized considering their rheological aspects and in vitro permeation across artificial membranes...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442745/-okra-abelmoschus-esculentus-plant-extract-assisted-combustion-synthesis-and-characterization-studies-of-spinel-znal%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nano-catalysts
#3
P Bhavani, A Manikandan, P Paulraj, A Dinesh, M Durka, S Arul Antony
Spinel ZnAl2O4 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple, economical and eco-friendly microwave irradiation (MIM) and conventional heating methods (CHM), using metal nitrates and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plant extract, which play a dual role of both oxidizing and reducing nature. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern results were confirmed that the samples have a single-phase cubic spinel structure with high crystalline nature of ZnAl2O4...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442555/direct-intertectal-inputs-are-an-integral-component-of-the-bilateral-sensorimotor-circuit-for-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#4
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Hollis T Cline
The circuit controlling visually-guided behavior in non-mammalian vertebrates, like Xenopus tadpoles, includes retinal projections to the contralateral optic tectum, where visual information is processed, and tectal motor outputs projecting ipsilaterally to hindbrain and spinal cord. Tadpoles have an intertectal commissure whose function is unknown, but it might transfer information between the tectal lobes. Differences in visual experience between the two eyes have profound effects on the development and function of visual circuits in animals with binocular vision, but the effects on animals with fully-crossed retinal projections are not clear...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442325/zic-family-proteins-in-emerging-biomedical-studies
#5
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441034/reduced-mu-power-in-response-to-unusual-actions-is-context-dependent-in-1-year-olds
#6
Miriam Langeloh, David Buttelmann, Daniel Matthes, Susanne Grassmann, Sabina Pauen, Stefanie Hoehl
During social interactions infants predict and evaluate other people's actions. Previous behavioral research found that infants' imitation of others' actions depends on these evaluations and is context-dependent: 1-year-olds predominantly imitated an unusual action (turning on a lamp with one's forehead) when the model's hands were free compared to when the model's hands were occupied or restrained. In the present study, we adapted this behavioral paradigm to a neurophysiological study measuring infants' brain activity while observing usual and unusual actions via electroencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441012/a-modified-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-predicts-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-better-than-executive-function-tests
#7
Matthias L Schroeter, Sarah Pawelke, Sandrine Bisenius, Jana Kynast, Katharina Schuemberg, Maryna Polyakova, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Adrian Danek, Klaus Fassbender, Holger Jahn, Frank Jessen, Johannes Kornhuber, Martin Lauer, Johannes Prudlo, Anja Schneider, Ingo Uttner, Angelika Thöne-Otto, Markus Otto, Janine Diehl-Schmid
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011) and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439750/differential-neural-reward-mechanisms-in-treatment-responsive-and-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#8
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439553/magnetic-characterization-of-direct-write-free-form-building-blocks-for-artificial-magnetic-3d-lattices
#9
Mohanad K I Al Mamoori, Lukas Keller, Jonathan Pieper, Sven Barth, Robert Winkler, Harald Plank, Jens Müller, Michael Huth
Three-dimensional (3D) nanomagnetism, where spin configurations extend into the vertical direction of a substrate plane allow for more complex, hierarchical systems and the design of novel magnetic effects. As an important step towards this goal, we have recently demonstrated the direct-write fabrication of freestanding ferromagnetic 3D nano-architectures of ferromagnetic CoFe in shapes of nano-tree and nano-cube structures by means of focused electron beam induced deposition. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the magnetic properties of these structures by local stray-field measurements using a high-resolution micro-Hall magnetometer...
February 12, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438801/specific-activity-features-in-the-forced-swim-test-brain-neurotrophins-and-development-of-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#10
Mikhail Stepanichev, Anna Manolova, Danil Peregud, Mikhail Onufriev, Sofia Freiman, Viktor Aniol, Yulia Moiseeva, Margarita Novikova, Natalia Lazareva, Natalia Gulyaeva
Selective vulnerability or resilience to mood disorders is related to individual differences or personality. In the present study forced swim test (FST) was used as a tool for division of male rats according to their immobility behavior. The animals were subjected to a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUS). Depressive-like behavior and modifications in brain neurotrophin system of were examined after CUS exposure. The low immobile (LI) and high immobile (HI) rats demonstrated elusive differences in expression of BDNF ExVI mRNA and TrkA mRNA which was higher in hippocampus and frontal cortex, respectively, of HI rats as compared to LI animals...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438716/cholinergic-tone-in-ventral-tegmental-area-functional-organization-and-behavioral-implications
#11
REVIEW
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
February 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437015/the-yin-and-yang-of-bk-channels-in-epilepsy
#12
Yudan Zhu, Shuzhang Zhang, Yijun Feng, Qian Xiao, Jiwei Cheng, Jie Tao
The large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, extensively distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), is considered as a vital player in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, with evidence implicating derangement of K+ as well as regulating action potential shape and duration. However, unlike other channels implicated in epilepsy whose function in neurons could clearly be labeled "excitatory" or "inhibitory", the unique physiological behavior of the BK channel allows it to both augment and decrease the excitability of neurons...
February 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436833/photochemically-powered-agcl-janus-micromotors-as-a-model-system-to-understand-ionic-self-diffusiophoresis
#13
Chao Zhou, Hepeng Zhang, Jinyao Tang, Wei Wang
Micromotors are an emerging class of micromachines that could find potential applications in biomedicine, environmental remediation and microscale self-assembly. Understanding their propulsion mechanisms holds the key to their future development. This is especially true for a popular category of micromotors that are driven by asymmetric surface photochemical reactions. Many of these micromotors release ionic species, and are propelled via a mechanism termed ionic self-diffusiophoresis. But exactly how it operates remains vague...
February 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436639/glycyrrhizin-affects-monocyte-migration-and-apoptosis-by-blocking-hmgb1-signaling
#14
Jia-Ying Tan, Feng Zhao, Shui-Xiang Deng, He-Chen Zhu, Ye Gong, Wei Wang
Monocytes serve an important role in systemic inflammation. High mobility group box‑1 protein (HMGB1) promotes recruitment and suppresses apoptosis in monocytes through the receptor for advanced glycation end products/ nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and toll‑like receptor 4/mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Glycyrrhizin (GL), an effective component of licorice, weakens the proinflammatory effect of HMGB1. The present study investigated the effect of GL on the migration and apoptosis of monocytes associated with HMGB1 signaling...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436492/allosterism-within-delta-opioid-kappa-opioid-receptor-heteromers-in-peripheral-sensory-neurons-regulation-of-kappa-opioid-agonist-efficacy
#15
Blaine Jacobs, Miryam M Pando, Elaine M Jennings, Teresa S Chavera, William P Clarke, Kelly A Berg
There is abundant evidence for formation of G protein coupled receptor heteromers in heterologous expression systems, however, little is known of the function of heteromers in native systems. Heteromers of delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR-KOR heteromers) have been identified in native systems. We previously reported that activation of DOR-KOR heteromers expressed by rat pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors) produces robust, peripherally-mediated antinociception. Moreover, DOR agonist potency and efficacy is regulated by KOR antagonists via allosteric interactions within the DOR-KOR heteromer in a ligand-dependent manner...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436069/tunable-tribotronic-dual-gate-logic-devices-based-on-2d%C3%A2-mos2-and-black-phosphorus
#16
Guoyun Gao, Bensong Wan, Xingqiang Liu, Qijun Sun, Xiaonian Yang, Longfei Wang, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
With the Moore's law hitting the bottleneck of scaling-down in size (below 10 nm), personalized and multifunctional electronics with an integration of 2D materials and self-powering technology emerge as a new direction of scientific research. Here, a tunable tribotronic dual-gate logic device based on a MoS2 field-effect transistor (FET), a black phosphorus FET and a sliding mode triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is reported. The triboelectric potential produced from the TENG can efficiently drive the transistors and logic devices without applying gate voltages...
February 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436067/identification-and-functional-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-metabolites-in-early-stage-endometrial-carcinoma
#17
Kun Shi, Qiong Wang, Yao Su, Xingcui Xuan, Yaqiong Liu, Weiwei Chen, Yuanmin Qian, Gendie E Lash
Diagnosis of endometrial cancer is primarily based on symptoms and imaging, with early-stage disease being difficult to diagnose. Therefore, development of potential diagnostic biomarkers is required. Metabolomics, a quantitative measurement of the dynamic metabolism in living systems, can be applied to determine metabolite profiles in different disease states. Here, serum metabolomics was performed in forty-six early stage endometrial cancer patients and forty-six healthy volunteers. In addition, the effect of identified metabolites on tumour cell behavior (invasion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy), was examined in endometrial cancer cell lines...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435270/roles-of-toll-like-receptors-from-inflammation-to-lung-cancer-progression
#18
Jinjing Gu, Yi Liu, Bin Xie, Pingping Ye, Jiefan Huang, Zhe Lu
Lung cancer is among the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and is characterized by a low survival rate compared with other cancers. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved in evolution and widely expressed on immune cells, where they serve an important role in the innate immune system by evoking inflammatory responses. Evasion of immune destruction is an important hallmark in the development of cancer. There is an established association between chronic inflammation and cancer, with TLRs serving important roles in the immune response against tumor cells...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434817/%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-inhibition-prevents-remifentanil-induced-post-operative-hyperalgesia-via-regulating-glur1-trafficking-and-ampa-receptor-function
#19
Aifen Liu, Xiaopeng Wang, Hui Wang, Guoyi Lv, Yize Li, Hongmei Li
The interaction of remifentanil with glutamate systems has an important role in remifentanil-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. A previous study by our group suggested that the trafficking and function of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunits contributes to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia by regulating the phosphorylation of GluR1 in dorsal horn neurons. The present study demonstrated that δ opioid receptor (DOR) inhibition prevented thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, which was induced by remifentanil infusion via attenuating GluR1 subunit trafficking and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function in dorsal horn neurons...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434559/perceptual-characterization-of-the-macronutrient-picture-system-maps-for-food-image-fmri
#20
Jill L King, S Nicole Fearnbach, Sreekrishna Ramakrishnapillai, Preetham Shankpal, Paula J Geiselman, Corby K Martin, Kori B Murray, Jason L Hicks, F Joseph McClernon, John W Apolzan, Owen T Carmichael
Food image fMRI paradigms are used widely for investigating the neural basis of ingestive behavior. However, these paradigms have not been validated in terms of ingestive behavior constructs, engagement of food-relevant neural systems, or test-retest reliability, making the generalizability of study findings unclear. Therefore, we validated the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS) (McClernon et al., 2013), which includes food images from the six categories represented in the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) (Geiselman et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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