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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691724/neuroimmunologic-and-neurotrophic-interactions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-relationship-to-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Kshama Ohja, Evelyne Gozal, Margaret Fahnestock, Lu Cai, Jun Cai, Jonathan H Freedman, Andy Switala, Ayman El-Baz, Gregory Neal Barnes
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are the most prevalent set of pediatric neurobiological disorders. The etiology of ASD has both genetic and environmental components including possible dysfunction of the immune system. The relationship of the immune system to aberrant neural circuitry output in the form of altered behaviors and communication characterized by ASD is unknown. Dysregulation of neurotrophins such as BDNF and their signaling pathways have been implicated in ASD. While abnormal cortical formation and autistic behaviors in mouse models of immune activation have been described, no one theory has been described to link activation of the immune system to specific brain signaling pathways aberrant in ASD...
April 24, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691545/newtonian-to-non-newtonian-fluid-transition-of-a-model-transient-network
#2
Giovanni Nava, Tie Yang, Valerio Vitali, Paolo Minzioni, Ilaria Cristiani, Francesca Bragheri, Roberto Osellame, Lucas Bethge, Sven Klussmann, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Rosanna Asselta, Tommaso Bellini
The viscosity of gel-forming fluids is notoriously complex and its study can benefit from new model systems that enable a detailed control of the network features. Here we use a novel and simple microfluidic-based active microrheology approach to study the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian behavior in a DNA hydrogel whose structure, connectivity, density of bonds, bond energy and kinetics are strongly temperature dependent and well known. In a temperature range of 15 °C, the system reversibly and continuously transforms from a Newtonian dispersion of low-valence nanocolloids into a strongly shear-thinning fluid, passing through a set of intermediate states where it behaves as a power-law fluid...
April 25, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691135/order-entry-protocols-are-an-amenable-target-for-workflow-automation
#3
James Tudor, Chad Klochko, Milind Patel, Daniel Siegal
PURPOSE: Order entry protocol selection of advanced imaging studies is labor-intensive, can disrupt workflow, and may displace staff from more valuable tasks. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the behaviors of radiologic technologists and radiologists when determining protocol to identify opportunities for workflow automation. METHODS: A data set of over 273,000 cross-sectional examination orders from four hospitals within our health system was created...
April 21, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690942/deterioration-of-functional-abilities-in-children-surviving-the-fontan-operation
#4
M Florencia Ricci, Billie-Jean Martin, Ari R Joffe, Irina A Dinu, Gwen Y Alton, Gonzalo G Guerra, Charlene M T Robertson
Functional abilities are needed for activities of daily living. In general, these skills expand with age. We hypothesised that, in contrast to what is normally expected, children surviving the Fontan may have deterioration of functional abilities, and that peri-Fontan stroke is associated with this deterioration. All children registered in the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program who survived a Fontan operation in the period 1999-2016 were eligible for inclusion. At the age of 2 years (pre-Fontan) and 4...
April 25, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689597/the-predictive-value-of-approach-and-avoidance-tendencies-on-the-onset-and-course-of-depression-and-anxiety-disorders
#5
Sascha Y Struijs, Femke Lamers, Mike Rinck, Karin Roelofs, Philip Spinhoven, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Trait and automatic approach-avoidance (AA) tendencies are central concepts in research on affective disorders. We longitudinally examined the associations of trait and automatic AA tendencies with the risk of onset and chronicity of anxiety and depressive disorders. METHODS: Participants were subdivided into those with (n = 766) versus without (n = 1,636) a current anxiety or depression diagnosis at baseline. Clinical diagnoses were reassessed after 2-year follow-up...
April 24, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689488/solution-combustion-synthesis-of-doped-tio-2-compounds-and-its-potential-antileishmanial-activity-mediated-by-photodynamic-therapy
#6
A A Lopera, A M A Velásquez, L C Clementino, S Robledo, A Montoya, L M de Freitas, V D N Bezzon, C R Fontana, C Garcia, M A S Graminha
Photodynamic therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, and compounds with photocatalytic behavior are promising candidates to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this parasitic disease. Titanium dioxide TiO2 is a semiconductor ceramic material that shows excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity under Ultraviolet irradiation. Due to the harmful effects of UV radiation, many efforts have been made in order to enhance both photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of TiO2 in the visible region of the spectrum by doping or through modifications in the route of synthesis...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689344/the-relationship-between-interleukin-6-and-functional-connectivity-in-methamphetamine-users
#7
Milky Kohno, Jennifer M Loftis, Marilyn Huckans, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Methamphetamine (MA) causes an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models and in humans. Resulting activation of microglia and neuro-inflammation could, via effects on reward networks, mediate behavioral characteristics of addiction. We examined the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and corticolimbic and striatolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Thirty adults diagnosed with MA dependence and 20 control subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and gave a blood sample for determination of plasma IL-6 levels...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689260/effects-of-monoamines-on-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-in-alcohol-dependent-and-non-dependent-female-mice
#9
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Marcelo F Lopez, John J Woodward
Changes in brain reward and control systems of frontal cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD). The OFC is extensively innervated by monoamines, and drugs that target monoamine receptors have been used to treat a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, including AUDs. Recent findings from this laboratory demonstrate that D2, α2-adrenergic and 5HT1A receptors all decrease the intrinsic excitability of lateral OFC (lOFC) neurons in naïve male mice and that this effect is lost in mice exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor...
April 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688710/hydration-dependent-dynamical-modes-in-xyloglucan-from-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-13c-nmr-relaxation-times-and-their-distributions
#10
Pan Chen, Camilla Terenzi, Istvan Furo, Lars A Berglund, Jakob Wohlert
Macromolecular dynamics in biological systems, which play a crucial role for biomolecular function and activity at ambient temperature, depend strongly on hydration. Yet, a generally accepted quantitative model of hydration-dependent phenomena based on local relaxation and diffusive dynamics of both polymer and its hydration water is still missing. In this work, atomistic-scale spatial distributions of motional modes are calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated xyloglucan (XG). These are shown to reproduce experimental hydration-dependent 13C NMR longitudinal relaxation times (T1) at room temperature, and relevant features of their broad distributions, which are indicative of locally heterogeneous polymer reorientational dynamics...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688293/frontoparietal-tracts-linked-to-lateralized-hand-preference-and-manual-specialization
#11
Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Ahmad Beyh, Giuseppe Zappalà, Anoushka Leslie, Andrew Simmons, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani
Humans show a preference for using the right hand over the left for tasks and activities of everyday life. While experimental work in non-human primates has identified the neural systems responsible for reaching and grasping, the neural basis of lateralized motor behavior in humans remains elusive. The advent of diffusion imaging tractography for studying connectional anatomy in the living human brain provides the possibility of understanding the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry, hand preference, and manual specialization...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#12
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688088/constant-light-during-lactation-programs-circadian-and-metabolic-systems
#13
Palma-Gómez Madahi, Osnaya Ivan, Balderas Adriana, Ortega Diana, Escobar Carolina
Exposure to light at night is a disruptive condition for the adult circadian system, leading to arrhythmicity in nocturnal rodents. Circadian disruption is a risk factor for developing physiological and behavioral alterations, including weight gain and metabolic disease. During early stages of development, the circadian system undergoes a critical period of adjustment, and it is especially vulnerable to altered lighting conditions that may program its function, leading to long-term effects. We hypothesized that during lactation a disrupted light-dark cycle due to light at night may disrupt the circadian system and in the long term induce metabolic disorders...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688082/evidence-of-a-diurnal-rhythm-in-implicit-reward-learning
#14
Alexis E Whitton, Malavika Mehta, Manon L Ironside, Greg Murray, Diego A Pizzagalli
Many aspects of hedonic behavior, including self-administration of natural and drug rewards, as well as human positive affect, follow a diurnal cycle that peaks during the species-specific active period. This variation has been linked to circadian modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, and is hypothesized to serve an adaptive function by driving an organism to engage with the environment during times where the opportunity for obtaining rewards is high. However, relatively little is known about whether more complex facets of hedonic behavior - in particular, reward learning - follow the same diurnal cycle...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687960/bidirectional-scaling-of-vocal-variability-by-an-avian-cortico-basal-ganglia-circuit
#15
Jonathan B Heston, Joseph Simon, Nancy F Day, Melissa J Coleman, Stephanie A White
Behavioral variability is thought to be critical for trial and error learning, but where such motor exploration is generated in the central nervous system is unclear. The zebra finch songbird species offers a highly appropriate model in which to address this question. The male song is amenable to detailed measurements of variability, while the brain contains an identified cortico-basal ganglia loop that underlies this behavior. We used pharmacogenetic interventions to separately interrogate cortical and basal ganglia nodes of zebra finch song control circuitry...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687649/neural-food-reward-processing-in-successful-and-unsuccessful-weight-maintenance
#16
Joe J Simon, Alexandra Becker, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss maintenance is one of the biggest challenges in behavioral weight loss programs. The present study aimed to examine metabolic influences on the mesolimbic reward system in people with successful and unsuccessful long-term weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Thirty-three women with obesity at least 6 months after the completion of a diet were recruited: seventeen women were able to maintain their weight loss, whereas sixteen showed weight regain...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687171/sexual-function-after-robot-assisted-prolapse-surgery-a-prospective-study
#17
Femke van Zanten, Cherèl Brem, Egbert Lenters, Ivo A M J Broeders, Steven E Schraffordt Koops
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Female pelvic organ prolapse (POP) can severely influence sexual function. Robot-assisted surgery is increasingly used to treat POP, but studies describing its effect on sexual function are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual function after robot-assisted POP surgery. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included all patients who underwent a robot-assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC) or supracervical hysterectomy with sacrocervicopexy (RSHS)...
April 23, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687164/central-noradrenergic-interactions-with-alcohol-and-regulation-of-alcohol-related-behaviors
#18
Elena M Vazey, Carolina R den Hartog, David E Moorman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results from disruption of a number of neural systems underlying motivation, emotion, and cognition. Patients with AUD exhibit not only elevated motivation for alcohol but heightened stress and anxiety, and disruptions in cognitive domains such as decision-making. One system at the intersection of these functions is the central norepinephrine (NE) system. This catecholaminergic neuromodulator, produced by several brainstem nuclei, plays profound roles in a wide range of behaviors and functions, including arousal, attention, and other aspects of cognition, motivation, emotional regulation, and control over basic physiological processes...
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687037/open-source-cost-effective-system-for-low-light-in-vivo-fiber-photometry
#19
Kathryn Simone, Tamás Füzesi, David Rosenegger, Jaideep Bains, Kartikeya Murari
Fiber photometry uses genetically encoded optical reporters to link specific cellular activity in stereotaxically targeted brain structures to specific behaviors. There are still a number of barriers that have hindered the widespread adoption of this approach. This includes cost, but also the high-levels of light required to excite the fluorophore, limiting commercial systems to the investigation of short-term transients in neuronal activity to avoid damage of tissue by light. Here, we present a cost-effective optoelectronic system for in vivo fiber photometry that achieves high-sensitivity to changes in fluorescence intensity, enabling detection of optical transients of a popular calcium reporter with excitation powers as low as 100 nW...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685365/identify-super-quality-markers-from-prototype-based-pharmacokinetic-markers-of-tangzhiqing-tablet-tzq-based-on-in-vitro-dissolution-permeation-and-in-vivo-absorption-correlations
#20
Ziqiang Li, Jia Liu, Yazhuo Li, Xi Du, Yanfen Li, Ruihua Wang, Chunxiao Lv, Xin He, Baohe Wang, Yuhong Huang, Deqin Zhang
BACKGROUND: A quality marker (Q-marker) is defined as an inherent chemical compound that is used for the quality control of a drug. Its biological activities are closely related to safety and therapeutic effects. Generally, a multiple-component herbal medicine may have many Q-markers. We therefore proposed a concept of "super Q-marker" satisfying both the criterion of Q-markers and PK-markers to be used in more effective quality control of herbal medicine. PURPOSE: The first aim was to find suitable prototype-based PK-markers from Tangzhiqing tablets (TZQ), a Chinese patent medicine...
April 4, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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