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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222849/bone-marrow-transplantation-improves-motor-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-ataxia
#1
David Díaz, Marina Piquer-Gil, Javier Sánchez Recio, María Magdalena Martínez-Losa, José Ramón Alonso, Eduardo Weruaga, Manuel Álvarez-Dolado
Ataxias are locomotor disorders that can have an origin both neural and muscular, although both impairments are related. Unfortunately, ataxia has no cure and the current therapies are aimed at motor re-education or muscular reinforcement. Nevertheless, cell therapy is becoming a promising approach to deal with incurable neural diseases, including neuro-muscular ataxias. Here we have used a model of ataxia, the PCD mutant mouse, to study the effect of healthy (wild-type) bone marrow transplantation on the restoration of defective mobility...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222842/kinetic-characterisation-of-wild-type-and-mutant-human-thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase-defines-its-reaction-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#2
Christina Brandstaedter, Karin Fritz-Wolf, Stine Weder, Marina Fischer, Beate Hecker, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
In most cells the thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione systems are essentially involved in maintaining redox homeostasis. The selenoprotein thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a hybrid enzyme in which a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain is linked to a thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Notably, the protein is also capable of reducing glutathione disulfide (GSSG) thus representing an important link between the two redox systems. In this study, we recombinantly produced human TGR (hTGR wild type) by fusing its open reading frame with a bacterial SECIS element and co-expressing the construct in E...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#3
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221793/pannexin-1-channel-dysfunction-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-and-administration-of-mefloquine-in-mice
#4
Ming Ni, Jin-Gang He, Hai-Yun Zhou, Xiao-Jia Lu, Yuan-Lang Hu, Li Mao, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen, Zhuang-Li Hu
Mefloquine (MFQ) is widely used for the treatment of malaria clinically. Apart from antimalarial effect, psychiatric side effects such as depression and anxiety of MFQ have been reported. Interestingly, MFQ is also known as a broad-spectrum pannexin-1 (Panx1) inhibitor. Panx1 is a new gap junction channel expressed in the brain which mediates efflux of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Although exogenous ATP has been known to produce a potential antidepressant-like effect, little is known about the role of Panx1 in pathophysiology of depression, especially the depression induced by administration of MFQ...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221791/online-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-prefrontal-metabolites-in-gambling-disorder
#5
Maya Dickler, Christophe Lenglos, Emmanuelle Renauld, Francine Ferland, Richard A Edden, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau
Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent maladaptive gambling behaviors and is now considered among substance-related and addictive disorders. There is still unmet therapeutic need for these clinical populations, however recent advances indicate that interventions targeting the Glutamatergic/GABAergic system hold promise in reducing symptoms in substance-related and addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. There is some data indicating that transcranial direct current stimulation may hold clinical benefits in substance use disorders and modulate levels of brain metabolites including glutamate and GABA...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221372/surface-attached-hydrogel-coatings-via-c-h-insertion-crosslinking-for-biomedical-and-bioanalytical-applications-review
#6
Oswald Prucker, Thomas Brandstetter, Jürgen Rühe
A novel method for the generation of surface-attached hydrogel coatings and their use in biomedical applications is discussed. This short review concentrates on surface architectures that are prepared from prepolymers carrying reactive groups suitable for crosslinking via C,H insertion reactions [C,H insertion crosslinking (CHic)]. Upon photochemical or thermal activation these groups do not only induce the crosslinking of the system, but also connect the forming gel to the surface as long as the surface itself consists of an organic material...
December 8, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221089/determination-of-complex-hermitian-and-anti-hermitian-interaction-constants-from-a-coupled-photonic-system-via-coherent-control
#7
Z L Cao, H C Ong
By manipulating the relative amplitude and phase between two incoming lights, coherent control of photonic systems can be realized. Here, we show by temporal coupled mode theory and finite-difference time-domain simulation that a coupled system can be actively controlled to exhibit plenty of different spectral, angular, and excitation behaviors. Electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano spectral characteristics as well as strong beam steering have been observed. Remarkably, by selectively exciting the coupled modes, we have developed a new approach to determine the complex Hermitian and anti-Hermitian interaction constants...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220818/reuse-of-sustainable-materials-for-xylenol-orange-dye-and-copper-ii-ion-ammoniacal-removal
#8
M I Garrudo-Guirado, A Blanco-Flores, H P Toledo-Jaldin, V Sánchez-Mendieta, A R Vilchis-Néstor
Water pollution caused by heavy metals and organic compounds is an environmental problem with negative impact, making the restoration of water quality a priority. In this paper, the adsorption of xylenol orange dye (XO) on vitreous tuff mineral (VT) was studied. It was established that the adsorption capacity of VT was 45.17 mg/g. The removal was carried out by interactions between active sites on the surface of the material and the functional groups of the dye. The solid waste obtained from this process (VTXO) was reused as adsorbent material for Cu removal in the form of the complex Cu-NH3 because this process was done in an ammoniacal medium...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#9
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220402/bodily-motion-fluctuation-improves-reaching-success-rate-in-a-neurophysical-agent-via-geometric-stochastic-resonance
#10
Shogo Yonekura, Yasuo Kuniyoshi
Organisms generate a variety of noise types, including neural noise, sensory noise, and noise resulting from fluctuations associated with movement. Sensory and neural noises are known to induce stochastic resonance (SR), which improves information transfer to the subjects control systems, including the brain. As a consequence, sensory and neural noise provide behavioral benefits, such as stabilization of posture and enhancement of feeding efficiency. In contrast, the benefits of fluctuations in the movements of a biological system remain largely unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218323/sap97-binding-partner-cript-promotes-dendrite-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Lei Zhang, Angela Marie Jablonski, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Hua Ding, Steven Seeholzer, Ian Paterson Newton, Inke Nathke, Rachael Neve, JinBin Zhai, Yuan Shang, Mingjie Zhang, Robert Gordon Kalb
The dendritic tree is a key determinant of neuronal information processing. In the motor system, the dendritic tree of spinal cord neurons undergoes dramatic remodeling in an activity-dependent manner during early postnatal life. This leads to the proper segmental spinal cord connectivity that subserves normal locomotor behavior. One molecular system driving the establishment of dendrite architecture of mammalian motor neurons relies on AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) assembled with the GluA1 subunit, and this occurs in an NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-independent manner...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218003/eye-drops-for-activation-of-dreadds
#12
William T Keenan, Diego C Fernandez, Lukas J Shumway, Haiqing Zhao, Samer Hattar
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are an important tool for modulating and understanding neural circuits. Depending on the DREADD system used, DREADD-targeted neurons can be activated or repressed in vivo following a dose of the DREADD agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Because DREADD experiments often involve behavioral assays, the method of CNO delivery is important. Currently, the most common delivery method is intraperitoneal (IP) injection. IP injection is both a fast and reliable technique, but it is painful and stressful particularly when many injections are required...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217760/tumor-associated-fatigue-in-cancer-patients-develops-independently-of-interleukin-1-signaling
#13
Aaron J Grossberg, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Diana L Christian, Jessica M Molkentine, Daniel W Vermeer, Phillip S Gross, Paola D Vermeer, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer
Fatigue is the most common symptom of cancer at diagnosis, yet causes and effective treatments remain elusive. As tumors can be highly inflammatory, it is generally accepted that inflammation mediates cancer-related fatigue. However, evidence to support this assertion is mostly correlational. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that fatigue results from propagation of tumor-induced inflammation to the brain and activation of the central pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1). The heterotopic syngeneic murine head and neck cancer model (mEER) caused systemic inflammation and increased expression of Il1b in the brain while inducing fatigue-like behaviors characterized by decreased voluntary wheel running and exploratory activity...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217683/insulin-like-growth-factor-ii-targets-the-mtor-pathway-to-reverse-autism-like-phenotypes-in-mice
#14
Adam B Steinmetz, Sarah A Stern, Amy S Kohtz, Giannina Descalzi, Cristina M Alberini
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in social interaction and repetitive behavior, and is also associated with cognitive deficits. There is no current treatment that can ameliorate most of the ASD symptomatology; thus, identifying novel therapies is urgently needed. We used male BTBR T+Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) mice, a model that reproduces most of the core behavioral phenotypes of ASD, to test the effects of systemic administration of insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II), a polypeptide that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a cognitive enhancer...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217409/proteasome-phosphorylation-regulates-cocaine-induced-sensitization
#15
Frankie R Gonzales, Kristin K Howell, Lara E Dozier, Stephan G Anagnostaras, Gentry N Patrick
Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216549/kinetic-research-on-dechlorinating-dichlorobenzene-in-aqueous-system-by-nano-scale-nickel-iron-loaded-with-cmc-nfc-hydrogel
#16
Xiao-Fang Wan, Congbao Guo, Yu Liu, Xin-Sheng Chai, Youming Li, Guangxue Chen
In this study, we reported on the nano-scale nickel/iron particles loaded in carboxymethyl/nanofibrillated cellulose (CMC/NFC) hydrogel for the dechlorination of o-dichlorobenzene (DCB) in aqueous solution. The biodegradable hydrogel may provide an ideal supporting material for fastening the bimetallic nano-scale particles, which was examined and characterized by TEM, SEM-EDX, FT-IR and BET. The performance of the selected bimetallic particles was evaluated by conducting the dechlorination of DCB in the solution under different reaction conditions (e...
November 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216511/architecture-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-bacillus-biofilm-as-a-potential-enzyme-immobilization-factory
#17
C M Romero, P V Martorell, A Gómez López, C G Nieto Peñalver, S Chaves, M Mechetti
Biocatalysis for industrial application is based on the use of enzymes to perform complex transformations. However, these systems have some disadvantage related to the costs of the biocatalyst. In this work, an alternative strategy for producing green immobilized biocatalysts based on biofilm was developed.A study of the rheological behavior of the biofilm from Bacillus sp. Mcn4, as well as the determination of its composition, was carried out. The dynamic rheological measurements, viscosity (G") and elasticity (G') module, showed that the biofilm presents appreciable elastic components, which is a recognized property for enzymes immobilization...
November 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216450/endocannabinoid-actions-on-cortical-terminals-orchestrate-local-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#18
Yolanda Mateo, Kari A Johnson, Dan P Covey, Brady K Atwood, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Iness Gildish, Roger Cachope, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán, Marisela Morales, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216351/1-adrenoceptor-in-the-central-amygdala-is-required-for-unconditioned-stimulus-induced-drug-memory-reconsolidation
#19
Huiwen Zhu, Yiming Zhou, Zhiyuan Liu, Xi Chen, Yanqing Li, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Background: Drug memories become labile and reconsolidated after retrieval by presentation of environmental cues (conditioned stimulus, CS) or drugs (unconditioned stimulus, US). Whether CS- and US-retrieval trigger different memory reconsolidation processes is not clear. Methods: Protein synthesis inhibitor or β-AR antagonist was systemically administrated or intra-central amygdala (CeA) infused immediately after cocaine re-exposure in cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) or self-administration (SA) mice models...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#20
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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