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Behavioral activation system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926793/information-seeking-when-problem-solving-perspectives-of-public-health-professionals
#1
Kristine Newman, Maureen Dobbins, Jennifer Yost, Donna Ciliska
OBJECTIVES: Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings...
December 7, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926667/sexual-behaviors-and-hiv-status-a-population-based-study-among-older-adults-in-rural-south-africa
#2
Molly S Rosenberg, Francesc X Gómez-Olivé, Julia K Rohr, Brian C Houle, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan G Wagner, Joshua A Salomon, Kathleen Kahn, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen M Tollman, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVE: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926452/control-feedback-as-the-motivational-force-behind-habitual-behavior
#3
O Nafcha, E T Higgins, B Eitam
Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926445/rewarding-feedback-promotes-motor-skill-consolidation-via-striatal-activity
#4
M Widmer, N Ziegler, J Held, A Luft, K Lutz
Knowledge of performance can activate the striatum, a key region of the reward system and highly relevant for motivated behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, striatal activity linked to knowledge of performance was measured during the training of a repetitive arc-tracking task. Knowledge of performance was given after a random selection of trials or after good performance. The third group received knowledge of performance after good performance plus a monetary reward. Skill learning was measured from pre- to post- (acquisition) and from post- to 24h posttraining (consolidation)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924712/cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanohorns-in-different-human-cells-of-the-respiratory-system
#5
Franziska Schramm, Martina Lange, Pia Hoppmann, Astrid Heutelbeck
One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924624/dielectric-like-behavior-of-graphene-in-au-plasmon-resonator
#6
Junku Liu, Qunqing Li, Mo Chen, Mengxin Ren, Lihui Zhang, Lin Xiao, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan
Graphene has proven to be a promising conductive layer in fabricating optical plasmon resonators on insulator substrate using electron beam lithography and has the potential to construct electrically controlled active plasmon resonators. In this study, we investigate the effect of graphene on plasmon resonance using graphene and Au plasmon resonator system as a model at visible and near-infrared wavelength. Our experiment data show that the presence of graphene does not weaken and annihilate the plasmon resonance peaks, instead it predominantly makes the peaks redshift, which is similar to the behavior of depositing SiO2 film on Au plasmon resonators...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924238/work-pressure-and-safety-behaviors-among-health-workers-in-ghana-the-moderating-role-of-management-commitment-to-safety
#7
Kwesi Amponsah-Tawaih, Michael Appiah Adu
BACKGROUND: safety and healthy working environment has received numerous research attention over the years. Majority of these researches seem to have been conducted in the construction industry, with little attention in the health sector. Nonetheless, there are couple of studies conducted in Africa that suggest pressure in hospitals. Therefore the aim of the study was to examine how pressure influence safety behavior in the hospitals. With reference to the relevance of safety behavior in primary health care delivery, there was the need for the study...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923845/numerical-and-spatial-patterning-of-yeast-meiotic-dna-breaks-by-tel1
#8
Neeman Mohibullah, Scott Keeney
The Spo11-generated double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are dangerous lesions that can disrupt genome integrity, so meiotic cells regulate their number, timing, and distribution. Mechanisms of this regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we use Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes, a byproduct of DSB formation, to reveal aspects of the contribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage-responsive kinase Tel1 (ortholog of mammalian ATM). A tel1Δ mutant has globally increased amounts of Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes and altered Spo11-oligonucleotide lengths, consistent with conserved roles for Tel1 in control of DSB number and processing...
December 6, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923741/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-contributes-to-long-term-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-injected-with-lipopolysaccharide
#9
Wei Zhu, Feng-Sheng Cao, Jun Feng, Hua-Weng Chen, Jie-Ru Wan, Qing Lu, Jian Wang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923718/using-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-understand-ingestive-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Stephen C Woods, Aaron A May, Min Liu, Patrick Tso, Denovan P Begg
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a window into the workings of the brain and blood-brain barrier (BBB). Molecules that enter into the central nervous system (CNS) by passive diffusion or receptor-mediated transport through the choroid plexus often appear in the CSF prior to acting within the brain. Other molecules enter the CNS by passing through the BBB into the brain's interstitial fluid prior to appearing in the CSF. This pattern is also often observed for molecules synthesized by neurons or glia within the CNS...
December 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923717/characterization-of-exploratory-activity-and-learning-ability-of-healthy-and-schizophrenia-like-rats-in-a-square-corridor-system-ambitus
#11
G Horvath, P Liszli, G Kekesi, A Büki, G Benedek
The rodent tasks with food rewards are useful methods to evaluate memory functions, including hole-board and corridor tests. The AMBITUS system (a square corridor with several food rewards), as a combination of these tests, was developed for the investigation of a variety of parameters associated with exploration and cognitive performance in rodents. Experiments were performed to characterize these behaviors in healthy rats and a new "schizophrenia-like" rat substrain with impaired learning ability to reveal the reliability in tests related to these functions...
December 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923683/role-of-a-tachykinin-related-peptide-and-its-receptor-in-modulating-the-olfactory-sensitivity-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#12
Shun-Hua Gui, Hong-Bo Jiang, Li Xu, Yu-Xia Pei, Xiao-Qiang Liu, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Insect tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), an ortholog of tachykinin in vertebrates, has been linked with regulation of diverse physiological processes, such as olfactory perception, locomotion, aggression, lipid metabolism and myotropic activity. In this study, we investigated the function of TRP (BdTRP) and its receptor (BdTRPR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. BdTRPR is a typical G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR), and it could be activated by the putative BdTRP mature peptides with the effective concentrations (EC50) at the nanomolar range when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells...
December 3, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923328/modeling-stroma-induced-drug-resistance-in-a-tissue-engineered-tumor-model-of-ewing-sarcoma
#13
Marco Santoro, Brian A Menegaz, Salah-Eddine Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Eric R Molina, Danielle Wu, Waldemar Priebe, Joseph A Ludwig, Antonios G Mikos
Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models are gaining traction in the research community given their capacity to mimic aspects of the tumor microenvironment absent in monolayer systems. In particular, the ability to spatiotemporally control cell placement within ex vivo 3D systems has enabled the study of tumor-stroma interactions. Furthermore, by regulating biomechanical stimuli, one can reveal how biophysical cues affect stromal cell phenotype and how their phenotype impacts tumor drug sensitivity. Both tumor architecture and shear force have profound effects on Ewing sarcoma (ES) cell behavior and are known to elicit ligand-mediated activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), thereby mediating resistance of ES cells to IGF-1R inhibitors...
December 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922594/cacna1c-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-depression-related-behaviors-via-redd1
#14
Zeeba D Kabir, Anni S Lee, Caitlin E Burgdorf, Delaney Fischer, Aditi M Rajadhyaksha, Ethan Mok, Bryant Rizzo, Richard C Rice, Kamalpreet Singh, Kristie T Ota, Danielle M Gerhard, Kathryn C Schierberl, Michael Glass, Ronald S Duman, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The CACNA1C gene that encodes the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) Cav1.2 subunit has emerged as a candidate risk gene for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, all marked with depression-related symptoms. Although cacna1c heterozygous (HET) mice have been previously reported to exhibit an antidepressant-like phenotype, the molecular and circuit-level dysfunction remains unknown. Here we report that viral vector-mediated deletion of cacna1c in the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice recapitulates the antidepressant-like effect observed in cacna1c HET mice using the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swim test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST)...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#15
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#16
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920558/monitoring-the-effects-of-doxorubicin-on-3d-spheroid-tumor-cells-in-real-time
#17
NamHuk Baek, Ok Won Seo, MinSung Kim, John Hulme, Seong Soo A An
Recently, increasing numbers of cell culture experiments with 3D spheroids presented better correlating results in vivo than traditional 2D cell culture systems. 3D spheroids could offer a simple and highly reproducible model that would exhibit many characteristics of natural tissue, such as the production of extracellular matrix. In this paper numerous cell lines were screened and selected depending on their ability to form and maintain a spherical shape. The effects of increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (DXR) on the integrity and viability of the selected spheroids were then measured at regular intervals and in real-time...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#18
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919376/usability-evaluation-of-the-smart-application-for-youth-with-mtbi
#19
Judith W Dexheimer, Brad G Kurowski, Shilo H Anders, Nicole McClanahan, Shari L Wade, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of evidence-based treatments available to address the significant morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). To address this gap, we designed a novel user-friendly, web-based application. We describe the preliminary evaluation of feasibility and usability of the application to promote recovery following mTBI in youth, the Self-Monitoring Activity-Restriction and Relaxation Treatment (SMART). SMART incorporates real-time recommendations for individualized symptom management and activity restriction along with training in cognitive-behavioral coping strategies...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919018/trigeminal-nervous-system-sensitization-by-infraorbital-nerve-injury-enhances-responses-in-a-migraine-model
#20
Midori Toyama, Chiho Kudo, Chikako Mukai, Mika Inoue, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Hiroshi Hanamoto, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Hitoshi Niwa
BACKGROUND: Although the peripheral and central sensitizations of trigeminal nervous system may be one of the important factors of migraine, the precise mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the influence of the sensitization of the second division of the trigeminal nerve (V2) by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION) on migraine headache, using the capsaicin-induced migraine model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: (a) sham surgery and topical-dural vehicle application (Sham + Vehicle) group, (b) CCI-ION and topical-dural vehicle application (CCI-ION + Vehicle) group, (c) sham surgery and topical-dural capsaicin application (Sham + Capsaicin) group, (d) CCI-ION and topical-dural capsaicin application (CCI-ION + Capsaicin) group...
November 9, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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