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Behavioral activation system

Åke Bernhard Vallbo
This historical review describes in the first section endeavors to develop a method to record the normal traffic of impulses in human nerves, designated microneurography. The method was developed in the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology of the Academic Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, starting in 1965. Microneurography involves the impalement of a peripheral nerve with a tungsten needle electrode. Electrode position is adjusted by hand until activity of interest is discriminated. A similar technique had not previously been tried in animal preparations; hence the large number of successful studies based on recording afferent activity in other mammals did not offer pertinent methodological guidance...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Haiqian Zhao, Ming Dong, Zhonghua Wang, Huaiyuan Wang, Hanbing Qi
Low H2 O2 utilization efficiency is the main problem when Fenton system was used to oxidize NO in flue gas. To understand the behavior of the free radicals during NO oxidation process in Fenton system is crucial to solving this problem. The oxidation capacity of ·OH and HO2 · on NO in Fenton system was compared and the useless consumption path of ·OH and HO2 · that caused the low utilization efficiency of H2 O2 were studied. A method to enhance the oxidation ability and H2 O2 utilization efficiency by adding reducing additives in Fenton system was proposed...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Andrej Duh, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Dean Korošak
Computational propaganda deploys social or political bots to try to shape, steer, and manipulate online public discussions and influence decisions. Collective behavior of populations of social bots has not been yet widely studied, although understanding of collective patterns arising from interactions between bots would aid social bot detection. In this study, we show that there are significant differences in collective behavior between population of bots and population of humans as detected from their Twitter activity...
June 2018: Big Data
Elena Kokkoni, Samuel W Logan, Tracy Stoner, Terri Peffley, James C Galloway
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of a new open-area body weight support system (BWSS) to act as both an "assistive" and a "rehabilitative" device within the home. INTERVENTION: A 5-year-old boy with spina bifida used the BWSS during self-selected activities for 10 weeks. Feasibility, behavioral, and clinical assessments provided a quantification of his activity in and out of the BWSS. OUTCOMES: On average, the child used the device on 2...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Rakiba Rohman, Rahul Kar
Polyphenolic antioxidants are an integral component of the present-day lifestyle due to growing environmental and pollution-related issues. Gallic acid (GA), a popular polyphenolic antioxidant, is widely distributed in different fruits and vegetables. It scavenges free radicals mostly through the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. The present work reports a fundamental understanding of the atom transfer involved in the antioxidant activity of GA in the presence of prototype oxyradicals. In this article, the behavior of GA in the presence of three prototype oxyradicals, based on the availability in biological systems, viz...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Alexandra N Steele, Rachelle M Belanger, Paul A Moore
Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Alaini Priebe, Megan Hunke, Raquel Tonello, Yogesh Sonawane, Temugin Berta, Amarnath Natarajan, Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Mahesh Pattabiraman, Surabhi Chandra
Purpose: Search for alternate pain medications has gained more importance in the past few years due to adverse effects associated with currently prescribed drugs including nervous system dysfunction with opioids, gastrointestinal discomfort with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cardiovascular anomalies with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Phytomedicine has been explored for the treatment of pain, as these have been used for generations in regional communities and tend to lack major side effects in general...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Emidio Beraldo Neto, Douglas O C Mariano, Lucas A Freitas, Ana L C Dorce, Adriana N Martins, Daniel C Pimenta, Fernanda C V Portaro, Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Valquiria A C Dorce, Ana L A Nencioni
Scorpion venoms are composed of several substances with different pharmacological activities. Neurotoxins exert their effects by targeting ion channels resulting in toxic effects to mammals, insects and crustaceans. Tb II-I, a fraction isolated from Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom, was investigated for its ability to induce neurological and immune-inflammatory effects. Two putative β-sodium channel toxins were identified in this fraction, Tb2 II and Tb 4, the latter having been completely sequenced by mass spectrometry...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Walter Koroshetz, Joshua Gordon, Amy Adams, Andrea Beckel-Mitchener, James Churchill, Gregory Farber, Michelle Freund, Jim Gnadt, Nina Hsu, Nicholas Langhals, Sarah Lisanby, Guoying Liu, Grace Peng, Khara Ramos, Michael Steinmetz, Edmund Talley, Samantha White
The BRAIN Initiative® arose from a grand challenge to "accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought." The BRAIN Initiative is a public-private effort focused on the development and use of powerful tools for acquiring fundamental insights about how information processing occurs in the central nervous system. As the Initiative enters its fifth year, NIH has supported over 500 principal investigators, who have answered the Initiative's challenge via hundreds of publications describing novel tools, methods, and discoveries that address the Initiative's seven scientific priorities...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jingjing Xu, Jun Zhou, Hanjue Dai, Fei Liu, Wenjing Li, Wenjuan Wang, Feng Guo
BACKGROUND: The carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a controversial role in different cancers, either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. To date, the exact function and underlying mechanism of CHIP in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet clear. Here we aimed to determine whether CHIP could affect the biological behaviors of CRC cells and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Stably transfected CHIP overexpression and depletion DLD-1 and HT-29 cells were established using Lipofectamine 2000...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Q Chen, Y P Ba, M H Zhou, S D Li, P W Zhang
Objective: To explore whether or not the IL-10 mediated by Bregs modulate the secreting T cells activation by the anti-CD23 antibody, to find a new target for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Method: The rat model of allergic rhinitis was established. Anti-CD23 antibody was used to observe the behavioral changes, passive skin allergen test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry serological indicators, systemic and nasal mucosa. Result: Compared with the blank control group, allergic rhinitis group rats sneezing, flexible nose, runny nose, subcutaneous mass increases;The levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and Bregs in blood decreased, the levels of IL-4, CD23+ B cells and CD4+ T cells increased;Nasal mucosa CD23 fluorescence intensity increased, CD19 and IL-10 fluorescence intensity decreased...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Weidong Li, Yuan Liu, Min Wu, Xiaolei Feng, Simon A T Redfern, Yuan Shang, Xue Yong, Tanglue Feng, Kaifeng Wu, Zhongyi Liu, Baojun Li, Zhimin Chen, John S Tse, Siyu Lu, Bai Yang
Highly active, stable, and cheap Pt-free catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are facing increasing demand as a result of their potential use in future energy-conversion systems. However, the development of HER electrocatalysts with Pt-like or even superior activity, in particular ones that can function under alkaline conditions, remains a significant challenge. Here, the synthesis of a novel carbon-loaded ruthenium nanoparticle electrocatalyst (Ru@CQDs) for the HER, using carbon quantum dots (CQDs), is reported...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nicolas P D Sawaya, Dmitrij Rappoport, Daniel P Tabor, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
Regulating energy transfer pathways through materials is a central goal of nanotechnology, as a greater degree of control is crucial for developing sensing, spectroscopy, microscopy, and computing applications. Such control necessitates a toolbox of actuation methods that can direct energy transfer based on user input. Here we introduce a proposal for a molecular exciton gate, analogous to a traditional transistor, for regulating exciton flow in chromophoric systems. The gate may be activated with an input of light or an input flow of excitons...
June 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Leslie Kuhnel
The broad use of social networking and user-generated content has increased the online footprint of many individuals. A generation of healthcare professionals have grown up with online search activities as part of their everyday lives. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have given the public new ways to share intimate details about their public and private lives and the lives of their friends and families. As a result, careproviders have the ability to find out more about their patients with just the tap of a key or the click of a mouse...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Michele Vitacca, Dina Visca, Antonio Spanevello
OBJECTIVES: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. Cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, depression/anxiety, musculoskeletal impairment and obstructive sleep apnea are frequent and important comorbidities in COPD, often under-diagnosed, and associated with poor health status and prognosis. METHODS: Pulmonary rehabilitation improves symptoms, quality of life, pulmonary function, and health care in patients with chronic respiratory disease...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Sawako Kato, Masahiko Ando, Takaaki Kondo, Yasuko Yoshida, Hiroyuki Honda, Shoichi Maruyama
Modification of lifestyle habits, including diet and physical activity, is essential for the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in elderly patients. However, individualized treatment is more critical for the elderly than for general patients. This study aimed to determine lifestyle interventions that resulted in lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) in Japanese pre- and early diabetic elderly subjects. The BEST-LIFE trial is an ongoing, open-label, 6-month, randomized (1:1) parallel group trial...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Manuela Marescotti, Konstantinos Lagogiannis, Barbara Webb, R Wayne Davies, J Douglas Armstrong
We present a bioluminescence method, based on the calcium-reporter Aequorin (AEQ), that exploits targeted transgenic expression patterns to identify activity of specific neural groups in the larval Drosophila nervous system. We first refine, for intact but constrained larva, the choice of Aequorin transgene and method of delivery of the co-factor coelenterazine and assay the luminescence signal produced for different neural expression patterns and concentrations of co-factor, using standard photo-counting techniques...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kouichi Yamamoto, Yukihiro Isogai, Takayuki Ishida, Keisuke Hagihara
Teriparatide is clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis; however, nausea is often observed in patients. Its insufficient control affects the ability to continue teriparatide therapy. Rikkunshi-To (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, improves the gastrointestinal function via activation of the ghrelin-signaling system. We investigated the therapeutic effects of RKT on teriparatide-induced nausea in rats and the involvement of ghrelin in these effects. We previously reported that ovariectomized rats showed pica (kaolin ingestion), a behavior that can be used to assess nausea in rats, after the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide; thus, the behavior was used as an index of nausea...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Adalberta Lima Martins, Rhaisa Almeida Volpato, Maria da Penha Zago-Gomes
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies in different countries. This study aimed to assess phenotype, medications, prevalence and incidence of IBD in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Patients with IBD who utilized the Public Medication-Dispensing System of the Department of Health of Espírito Santo, between August 2012 and July 2014. Of 1484 active patients, 1048 were analyzed, which included patients of all ages. RESULTS: The prevalence of IBD was 38...
June 18, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
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