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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822604/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-not-only-for-hippocampal-sparing-but-also-for-reduction-of-dose-to-organs-at-risk
#1
Sumit Sood, Damodar Pokhrel, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
A prospective clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933, has demonstrated that whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using conformal radiation delivery technique with hippocampal avoidance is associated with less memory complications. Further sparing of other organs at risk (OARs) including the scalp, ear canals, cochleae, and parotid glands could be associated with reductions in additional toxicities for patients treated with WBRT. We investigated the feasibility of WBRT using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to spare the hippocampi and the aforementioned OARs...
August 16, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822029/gene-structure-and-comparative-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-catla-catla-cyp1a-full-length-cdna-and-its-responsiveness-to-benzo-a-pyrene-and-copper-sulphate-at-early-developmental-stages
#2
Kavita Kumari, Gireesh-Babu Pathakota, Shivendra Kumar, Gopal Krishna
In the present study, full-length CYP1A cDNA from Catla catla (Catla) has been identified, and its real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression has been evaluated in different tissues, developmental stages (0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h and 5, 7 and 9 days post-fertilization) and copper sulphate and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-treated 5-day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae (6 to 6.5 mm). Various structural, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the identified gene of Catla belongs to the CYP1A1 subfamily...
August 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821923/ankg-hemizygous-mice-present-cognitive-impairment-and-elevated-anxiety-depressive-like-traits-associated-with-decreased-expression-of-gaba-receptors-and-postsynaptic-density-protein
#4
Cui Liu, Ling Zhang, Jie Wu, Xiaolong Sui, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yunlin Han, Hua Zhu, Yanhong Li, Xiuping Sun, Chuan Qin
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of patient populations and genetic linkage assessments have demonstrated that the ankyrin-G (AnkG) gene is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease, but it remains unclear how the genetic variants of AnkG contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we generated AnkG hemizygous mice using the gene trapping approach. Homozygous AnkG was embryonically lethal. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assessments of wild type (WT) and AnkG (+/-) mutant mice demonstrated a 50% reduction of ANKG levels, at the gene and protein levels, in AnkG hemizygous mice...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821670/rodent-medial-frontal-control-of-temporal-processing-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#5
Eric B Emmons, Benjamin J De Corte, Youngcho Kim, Krystal L Parker, Matthew S Matell, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Although frontostriatal circuits are critical for the temporal control of action, how time is encoded in frontostriatal circuits is unknown. We recorded from frontal and striatal neurons while rats engaged in interval timing, an elementary cognitive function that engages both areas. We report four main results. First, 'ramping' activity-a monotonic change in neuronal firing rate across time-is observed throughout frontostriatal ensembles. Second, frontostriatal activity scales across multiple intervals. Third, striatal ramping neurons are correlated with activity of the medial frontal cortex...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821669/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ribosome-bound-mrna-in-cortical-neurites-in-vivo
#6
Rebecca Ouwenga, Allison M Lake, David O'Brien, Amit Mogha, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Localized translation in neurites helps regulate synaptic strength and development. Dysregulation of local translation is associated with many neurological disorders. However, due to technical limitations, study of this phenomenon has largely been limited to brain regions with laminar organization of dendrites such as the hippocampus or cerebellum. It has not been examined in the cortex, a region of importance for most neurological disorders, where dendrites of each neuronal population are densely intermingled with cell bodies of others...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-mu-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#7
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic mu opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling, MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady-state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#8
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821608/the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-stimulates-phosphorylation-of-the-trkb-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#9
Khalil Saadipour, Michael MacLean, Sean Pirkle, Solav Ali, Maria Luisa Lopez-Redondo, David L Stokes, Moses V Chao
The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein which results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes a very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821448/cognitive-impairment-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-a-rodent-model-of-binge-eating-disorder
#10
A Chawla, Z A Cordner, G Boersma, T H Moran
Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined as recurrent, distressing over-consumption of palatable food (PF) in a short time period. Clinical studies suggest that individuals with BED may have impairments in cognitive processes, executive functioning, impulse control, and decision-making, which may play a role in sustaining binge eating behavior. These clinical reports, however, are limited and often conflicting. In this study, we used a limited access rat model of binge-like behavior in order to further explore the effects of binge eating on cognition...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821438/effect-of-lipid-emulsion-infusion-on-paliperidone-pharmacokinetics-in-the-acute-overdose-rat-model-a-potential-emergency-treatment-for-paliperidone-intoxication
#11
Tomoyuki Enokiya, Erquan Zhang, Kenji Ikemura, Yuichi Muraki, Yoshiaki Iwashita, Takuya Iwamoto, Hiroshi Imai, Kazuo Maruyama, Masahiro Okuda
Paliperidone prolongs cardiac repolarization in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, continuous infusion of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been established as a detoxification therapy for lipophilic drugs. However, this change in pharmacokinetics of various drugs following ILE administration remains to be clarified. Our objective is to clarify the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of lipid emulsion (ILE) on the pharmacokinetics of overdosed paliperidone in rats. Paliperidone (20mg/kg) was administered orally to free-moving male Wistar rats...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#12
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820571/comparison-of-spreading-depolarizations-in-the-motor-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-similar-patterns-of-oxygen-responses-and-the-role-of-dopamine
#13
Caddy Noahl Hobbs, Gordon Holzberg, Akira S Min, R Mark Wightman
Spreading depolarizations (SD) are pathophysiological phenomena that spontaneously arise in traumatized neural tissue and can promote cellular death. Most investigations of SD are performed in the cortex, a brain region that is susceptible to these depolarizing waves and accessible via a variety of monitoring techniques. Here, we describe SD responses in the cortex and the deep brain region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the anesthetized rat with a minimally invasive, implantable sensor. With high temporal resolution, we characterize the time course of oxygen responses to SD in relation to the electrophysiological depolarization signal...
August 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820391/deep-brain-stimulation-alters-light-phase-food-intake-microstructure-in-rats
#14
P Prinz, P Kobelt, S Scharner, M Goebel-Stengel, D Harnack, K Faust, Y Winter, M Rose, A Stengel
Treatment of eating disorders like obesity or anorexia is challenging. Options are limited and new approaches desired. An interesting approach is the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is part of the food reward system. A pilot study reported that DBS of the NAcc shell modulates food intake and body weight in rats. Underlying mechanisms such as the food intake microstructure are unknown so far. Normal weight female Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with a custom-made DBS electrode placed unilaterally in the NAcc shell...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820141/silicon-synaptic-transistor-for-hardware-based-spiking-neural-network-and-neuromorphic-system
#15
Hyungjin Kim, Sungmin Hwang, Jungjin Park, Byung-Gook Park
Brain-inspired neuromorphic systems have attracted much attention as new computing paradigms for power-efficient computation. Here, we report a silicon synaptic transistor with two electrically independent gates to realize a hardware-based neural network system without any switching components. The spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) characteristics of the synaptic devices are measured and analyzed. With the help of the device model based on the measured data, the pattern recognition capability of the hardware-based spiking neural network (SNN) systems is demonstrated using the modified national institute of standards and technology (MNIST) handwritten dataset...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819737/further-controversies-about-brain-tissue-oxygenation-pressure-reactivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Morten Andresen, Joseph Donnelly, Marcel Aries, Marianne Juhler, David Menon, Pja Hutchinson, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity...
August 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819547/continuous-force-decoding-from-deep-brain-local-field-potentials-for-brain-computer-interfacing
#17
Syed A Shah, Huiling Tan, Peter Brown
Current Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems are limited by relying on neuronal spikes and decoding limited to kinematics only. For a BCI system to be practically useful, it should be able to decode brain information on a continuous basis with low latency. This study investigates if force can be decoded from local field potentials (LFP) recorded with deep brain electrodes located at the Subthalamic nucleus (STN) using data from 5 patients with Parkinson's disease, on a continuous basis with low latency. A Wiener-Cascade (WC) model based decoder was proposed using both time-domain and frequency-domain features...
2017: International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819211/dynamic-local-connectivity-uncovers-altered-brain-synchrony-during-propofol-sedation
#18
Rose Dawn Bharath, Rajanikant Panda, Jitender Saini, Kamath Sriganesh, G S Umamaheswara Rao
Human consciousness is considered a result of the synchronous "humming" of multiple dynamic networks. We performed a dynamic functional connectivity analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in 14 patients before and during a propofol infusion to characterize the sedation-induced alterations in consciousness. A sliding 36-second window was used to derive 59 time points of whole brain integrated local connectivity measurements. Significant changes in the connectivity strength (Z Corr) at various time points were used to measure the connectivity fluctuations during awake and sedated states...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819107/medial-prefrontal-cortical-thinning-mediates-shifts-in-other-regarding-preferences-during-adolescence
#19
Sunhae Sul, Berna Güroğlu, Eveline A Crone, Luke J Chang
Adolescence is a time of significant cortical changes in the 'social brain', a set of brain regions involved in sophisticated social inference. However, there is limited evidence linking the structural changes in social brain to development of social behavior. The present study investigated how cortical development of the social brain relates to other-regarding behavior, in the context of fairness concerns. Participants aged between 9 to 23 years old responded to multiple rounds of ultimatum game proposals...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819084/the-significance-of-lactate-and-lipid-peaks-for-predicting-primary-neuroepithelial-tumor-grade-with-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#20
Hisao Nakamura, Masatomo Doi, Takuya Suzuki, Yasuyuki Yoshida, Masahiro Hoshikawa, Masashi Uchida, Yuichiro Tanaka, Masayuki Takagi, Yasuo Nakajima
PURPOSE: (1)H-MRS is a non-invasive technique used to assess the metabolic activity of brain tumors. The technique is useful for the preoperative prediction of tumor grade, which is important for treatment planning and accurate prognosis. We used (1)H-MRS to study the lactate peak, which appears in various conditions, including hyperglycemia, ischemia, and hypoxia and lipid peak, which is associated with necrotic cells. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the frequency and significance of lactate and lipid peaks in relation to brain tumor grade...
August 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
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