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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#2
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655939/improving-the-signal-detection-accuracy-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Niels Janssen, Juan A Hernández-Cabrera, Laura Ezama Foronda
A major drawback of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) concerns the lack of detection accuracy of the measured signal. Although this limitation stems in part from the neuro-vascular nature of the fMRI signal, it also reflects particular methodological decisions in the fMRI data analysis pathway. Here we show that the signal detection accuracy of fMRI is affected by the specific way in which whole-brain volumes are created from individually acquired brain slices, and by the method of statistically extracting signals from the sampled data...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655936/dynamic-causal-modelling-on-infant-fnirs-data-a-validation-study-on-a-simultaneously-recorded-fnirs-fmri-dataset
#4
Chiara Bulgarelli, Anna Blasi, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell, Carina de Klerk, Victoria Southgate, Sabrina Brigadoi, William Penny, Sungho Tak, Antonia Hamilton
Tracking the connectivity of the developing brain from infancy through childhood is an area of increasing research interest, and fNIRS provides an ideal method for studying the infant brain as it is compact, safe and robust to motion. However, data analysis methods for fNIRS are still underdeveloped compared to those available for fMRI. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is an advanced connectivity technique developed for fMRI data, that aims to estimate the coupling between brain regions and how this might be modulated by changes in experimental conditions...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655871/cloning-partial-sequencing-and-expression-analysis-of-the-neural-form-of-p450-aromatase-cyp19a1b-in-the-south-america-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#5
Helena C Silva de Assis, Laia Navarro-Martín, Letícia S P Fernandes, Cibele C Cardoso, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Vance L Trudeau
Brain aromatase is a key enzyme exclusively expressed in fish radial glial cells that convert androgens into estrogens, thus controlling neuroendocrine functions and neurogenesis. As an important step in characterizing the neuroendocrine systems of Rhamdia quelen (jundiá), a partial cDNA sequence (1045 bp) of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) was cloned and sequenced. At the nucleotide level the cDNA sequence was found to be 88% identical to cyp19a1b of two species of catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and Silurus meridionalis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655638/attenuation-of-the-niemann-pick-type-c2-disease-phenotype-by-intracisternal-administration-of-an-aavrh-10-vector-expressing-npc2
#6
Sandra Markmann, Jasmine Reid, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Bishnu P De, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal, Dolan Sondhi
Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) disease is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC2 gene, leading to lysosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids. It is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver dysfunction and severe neurological manifestations, resulting in early death. There is no effective therapy for NPC2 disease. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of an adeno-associated virus (AAV), serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector expressing the mouse Npc2 gene (AAVrh...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655371/platelet-derived-growth-factor-predicts-prolonged-relapse-free-period-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze, Fabio Buttari
BACKGROUND: In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653273/jacques-joseph-bonhomme-1708-1793-forgotten-french-neuroanatomist-and-surgeon
#8
REVIEW
Ali Akhaddar
Although relatively little is written of Jacques-Joseph Bonhomme's life (1708-1793) and contribution, his descriptions of the brain "Traité de la Céphalotomie" (Treatise on dissection of the Head) were among the most accurate of his day. Published in 1748 in Avignon (France), this book remained a valuable resource to anatomists and surgeons as it was highlighted in many publications. Bonhomme was one of the first surgeons to study brain details in the skull on natural position. The brain was cut perpendicularly along the median line with new techniques of dissection (by the bottom of the head and not by the top)...
April 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653202/clinicopathological-feature-and-outcome-of-pythiosis
#9
Maria Nina Chitasombat, Noppadol Larbcharoensub, Ariya Chindamporn, Theerapong Krajaejun
OBJECTIVES: Vascular pythiosis is a life-threatening infection, caused by Pythium insidiosum. We presented the clinical presentation, serodiagnosis, pathology, and outcome from our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with proven vascular pythiosis at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 2006 to December 2016. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were analyzed, eight thalassemias. Five had aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia, acute leukemia, cirrhosis, and alcoholism...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653127/evaluation-of-early-chronic-functional-outcomes-and-their-relationship-to-pre-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-pathology-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Holly Colton, Frances Corrigan, Lyndsey Collins-Praino
TBI is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, with the interaction between structural damage from TBI and neuroinflammation potentially driving this relationship. This study investigated the early chronic post-TBI neuroinflammatory response and its relationship to both neurodegenerative pathology and functional impairment up to 3 months post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or the Marmarou model of diffuse moderate-severe TBI. At 1-month and 3-months post-injury, a functional battery encompassing motor function, depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition was performed...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653018/brain-complications-of-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-study-of-awareness-among-individuals-with-diabetes-and-the-general-population-in-ireland
#11
C Dolan, R Glynn, S Griffin, C Conroy, C Loftus, P C Wiehe, M L Healy, B Lawlor
AIMS: To identify awareness of potential brain complications of diabetes among individuals with diabetes and the public. METHODS: For this observational, cross-sectional survey study, we recruited consecutive adult attendees of a specialist diabetes clinic and two primary care practices. Primary care attendees represented members of the general population of Ireland. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on respondents' awareness of brain complications of diabetes and modifiable risk factors for dementia...
April 13, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652955/-neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-patients-with-congenital-hypothyroidism
#12
Alicia Núñez, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Becerra, Francisca Grob L
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of preventable cognitive disability worldwide. Generally, it is produced by an alteration in the embryogenesis of the thyroid gland or by an alteration in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which determine that affected patients have low or absent thyroid hormone concentrations. The importance of this fact is that brain development during the first three years of life is highly dependent on thyroid hormones. Prior to the implementation of national neonatal screening programs around the world, 8 to 27% of children with CH had an IQ lower than 70...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652699/impact-of-the-glymphatic-system-on-the-kinetic-and-distribution-of-gadodiamide-in-the-rat-brain-observations-by-dynamic-mri-and-effect-of-circadian-rhythm-on-tissue-gadolinium-concentrations
#13
Toshiaki Taoka, Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Shinji Naganawa, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments...
April 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652587/superspike-supervised-learning-in-multilayer-spiking-neural-networks
#14
Friedemann Zenke, Surya Ganguli
A vast majority of computation in the brain is performed by spiking neural networks. Despite the ubiquity of such spiking, we currently lack an understanding of how biological spiking neural circuits learn and compute in vivo, as well as how we can instantiate such capabilities in artificial spiking circuits in silico. Here we revisit the problem of supervised learning in temporally coding multilayer spiking neural networks. First, by using a surrogate gradient approach, we derive SuperSpike, a nonlinear voltage-based three-factor learning rule capable of training multilayer networks of deterministic integrate-and-fire neurons to perform nonlinear computations on spatiotemporal spike patterns...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652586/a-computational-account-of-the-role-of-cochlear-nucleus-and-inferior-colliculus-in-stabilizing-auditory-nerve-firing-for-auditory-category-learning
#15
Irina Higgins, Simon Stringer, Jan Schnupp
It is well known that auditory nerve (AN) fibers overcome bandwidth limitations through the volley principle, a form of multiplexing. What is less well known is that the volley principle introduces a degree of unpredictability into AN neural firing patterns that may be affecting even simple stimulus categorization learning. We use a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network model of the auditory brain with spike time dependent plasticity learning to demonstrate that plastic auditory cortex is unable to learn even simple auditory object categories when exposed to the raw AN firing input without subcortical preprocessing...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652442/antioxidant-hydrolysed-peptides-from-manchurian-walnut-juglansmandshurica-maxim-attenuate-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#16
Dayong Ren, Fanrui Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Ji Wang, Yong Guo, Jingsheng Liu, Weihong Min
BACKGROUND: Walnut protein, which is obtained as a by-product of oil expression, has not been used efficiently. Although walnuts are beneficial for cognitive functioning, the potential of their protein composition in strengthening learning and memory functions remains unknown. In this research, the inhibition of memory impairment by the Manchurian walnut hydrolyzed peptide (MWHP) was evaluated. RESULTS: Small-molecular-weight MWHP (<3 kDa) achieved the optimal antioxidative activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652249/clathrin-coat-controls-synaptic-vesicle-acidification-by-blocking-vacuolar-atpase-activity
#17
Zohreh Farsi, Sindhuja Gowrisankaran, Matija Krunic, Burkhard Rammner, Andrew Woehler, Eileen M Lafer, Carsten Mim, Reinhard Jahn, Ira Milosevic
Newly-formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) are rapidly acidified by vacuolar adenosine triphosphatases (vATPases), generating a proton electrochemical gradient that drives neurotransmitter loading. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is needed for the formation of new SVs, yet it is unclear when endocytosed vesicles acidify and refill at the synapse. Here, we isolated clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from mouse brain to measure their acidification directly at the single vesicle level. We observed that the ATP-induced acidification of CCVs was strikingly reduced in comparison to SVs...
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651966/specific-cytostatic-and-cytotoxic-effect-of-dihydrochelerythrine-in-glioblastoma-cells-role-of-nf-kb-b-catenin-and-stat3-il-6-pathways
#18
Tereza Cristina Costa Silva, Noelio de Jesus Menezes-Filho, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes, Diego Madureira de Oliveira, Ezequiel Pereira, Bruno Penas Seara Pitanga, Eudes S Velozo, Songeli Menezes Freire, Jorge Clarencio de Souza Andrade, Helena Lobo Borges, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Silvia Lima Costa
A glioblastoma is a primary CNS tumor that is more aggressive and lethal than other brain tumors. Its location, rapid proliferation, invasive growth, angiogenesis and immunosuppression are the main factors that limit its treatment, making it a major challenge to neuro-oncology. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the in vitro effects of the alkaloid dihydrochelerythrine (DHC), which is extracted from Zanthoxylum stelligerum, on the viability, proliferation, cell death and b-catenin, NFkB, STAT3/pSTAT3 and interleukins roles...
April 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651945/modeling-of-a-cyclotron-target-for-the-production-of-11c-with-geant4
#19
Andrea Chiappiniello, Federico Zagni, Angelo Infantino, Sara Vichi, Gianfranco Cicoria, Maria Pia Morigi, Mario Marengo
BACKGROUND: In medical cyclotron facilities, 11C is produced according to the 14N(p,α)11C reaction and widely employed in studies of prostate and brain cancers by Positron Emission Tomography. It is known from literature [1] that the 11C-target assembly shows a reduction in efficiency during time, meaning a decrease of activity produced at the end of bombardment. This effect might depend on aspects still not completely known. OBJECTIVE: Possible causes of the loss of performance of the 11C-target assembly were addressed by Monte Carlo simulations...
April 12, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651927/a-two-stage-approach-to-estimate-spatial-and-spatio-temporal-disease-risks-in-the-presence-of-local-discontinuities-and-clusters
#20
A Adin, D Lee, T Goicoa, María Dolores Ugarte
Disease risk maps for areal unit data are often estimated from Poisson mixed models with local spatial smoothing, for example by incorporating random effects with a conditional autoregressive prior distribution. However, one of the limitations is that local discontinuities in the spatial pattern are not usually modelled, leading to over-smoothing of the risk maps and a masking of clusters of hot/coldspot areas. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach to estimate and map disease risk in the presence of such local discontinuities and clusters...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
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