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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909499/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-radiosurgery-for-newly-diagnosed-melanoma-brain-metastases
#1
Tyler P Robin, Robert E Breeze, Derek E Smith, Chad G Rusthoven, Karl D Lewis, Rene Gonzalez, Amanda Brill, Robin Saiki, Kelly Stuhr, Laurie E Gaspar, Sana D Karam, David Raben, Brian D Kavanagh, Sameer K Nath, Arthur K Liu
INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases are common in metastatic melanoma and radiosurgery is often utilized for local control. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) play a central role in contemporary melanoma management; however, there is limited data exploring outcomes and potential toxicities for patients treated with CPIs and radiosurgery. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all consecutive cases of newly diagnosed melanoma brain metastases (MBM) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery at a single institution between 2012 and 2017, and included only patients that initiated CPIs within 8 weeks before or after radiosurgery...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909492/modelling-glioma-invasion-using-3d-bioprinting-and-scaffold-free-3d-culture
#2
Derek M van Pel, Kaori Harada, Dandan Song, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Glioma is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer, with some subtypes having 5-year survival rates of less than 5%. Tumour cell invasion into the surrounding parenchyma seems to be the primary driver of these poor outcomes, as most gliomas recur within 2 cm of the original surgically-resected tumour. Many current approaches to the development of anticancer therapy attempt to target genetic weaknesses in a particular cancer, but may not take into account the microenvironment experienced by a tumour and the patient-specific genetic differences in susceptibility to treatment...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909048/serotonin-in-the-gut-blessing-or-a-curse
#3
REVIEW
Suhrid Banskota, Jean-Eric Ghia, Waliul I Khan
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) once most extensively studied as a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is seen to be predominantly secreted in the gut. About 95% of 5-HT is estimated to be found in gut mainly within the enterochromaffin cells whereas about 5% is found in the brain. 5-HT is an important enteric signaling molecule and is well known for playing a key role in sensory-motor and secretory functions in the gut. In recent times studies uncovering various new functions of gut-derived 5-HT indicate that many more are yet to be discovered in coming days...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908953/electrophysiological-indices-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function-reveal-changing-levels-of-cognitive-effort-and-reward-valuation-that-sustain-task-performance
#4
Akina Umemoto, Michael Inzlicht, Clay B Holroyd
Successful execution of goal-directed behaviors often requires the deployment of cognitive control, which is thought to require cognitive effort. Recent theories have proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regulates control levels by weighing the reward-related benefits of control against its effort-related costs. However, given that the sensations of cognitive effort and reward valuation are available only to introspection, this hypothesis is difficult to investigate empirically. We have proposed that two electrophysiological indices of ACC function, frontal midline theta and the reward positivity (RewP), provide objective measures of these functions...
June 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908952/recognition-memory-advantage-for-negative-emotional-words-has-an-early-expiry-date-evidence-from-brain-oscillations-and-erps
#5
G Santaniello, P Ferré, P Rodríguez-Gómez, C Poch, M Moreno Eva, J A Hinojosa
Evidence from prior studies has shown an advantage in recognition memory for emotional compared to neutral words. Whether this advantage is short-lived or rather extends over longer periods, as well as whether the effect depends on words' valence (i.e., positive or negative), remains unknown. In the present ERP/EEG study, we investigated this issue by manipulating the lag distance (LAG-2, LAG-8 and LAG-16) between the presentation of old and new words in an online recognition memory task. LAG differences were observed at behavior, ERPs and in the theta frequency band...
June 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908790/association-of-neuronal-injury-in-the-genu-and-body-of-corpus-callosum-after-cranial-irradiation-in-children-with-impaired-cognitive-control-a-prospective-study
#6
Kristin J Redmond, Meghan Hildreth, Haris I Sair, Stephanie Terezakis, Todd McNutt, Lawrence Kleinberg, Kenneth J Cohen, Moody Wharam, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone
PURPOSE: Brain radiation is associated with functional deficits in children. The purpose of this study was to examine white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and associations with region-specific radiation dose and neuropsychological functioning in children treated with cranial irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 20 patients and 55 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the present study. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline and 6, 15, and 27 months after treatment...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908788/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-outcomes-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-centre
#7
Andrew Bang, Wayne S Kendal, Scott A Laurie, Graham Cook, Robert M MacRae
PURPOSE: The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) remains controversial in extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) with the publication of 2 randomized control trials demonstrating differing outcomes in overall survival. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PCI on survival and the development of brain metastasis while addressing the disparate use of postchemotherapy brain imaging in the aforementioned trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The medical records of 397 consecutive patients with ES-SCLC between Jan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908673/is-hiragana-decoding-impaired-in-children-with-periventricular-leukomalacia
#8
Naoko Kurahashi, Yukiko Futamura, Norie Nonobe, Shunsuke Ogaya, Yuki Maki, Ikuko Yoshimura, Takeshi Suzuki, Yosuke Hosokawa, Keitaro Yamada, Kosaburo Aso, Koichi Maruyama, Miho Nakamura
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on hiragana reading skill and phonological awareness in Japanese schoolchildren with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Three seven-year-old children with PVL who had no intellectual disabilities or dysarthria were recruited. Their perinatal information, brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) at term equivalent age, accompanying neurodevelopmental disorders, ophthalmologic features, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), a hiragana reading test (four tasks), and a phonological awareness task (mora reversal tasks) were analyzed...
June 13, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908476/abnormal-early-dynamic-individual-patterns-of-functional-networks-in-low-gamma-band-for-depression-recognition
#9
Kun Bi, Mahammad Ridwan Chattun, Xiaoxue Liu, Qiang Wang, Shui Tian, Siqi Zhang, Qing Lu, Zhijian Yao
BACKGROUND: The functional networks are associated with emotional processing in depression. The mapping of dynamic spatio-temporal brain networks is used to explore individual performance during early negative emotional processing. However, the dysfunctions of functional networks in low gamma band and their discriminative potentialities during early period of emotional face processing remain to be explored. METHODS: Functional brain networks were constructed from the MEG recordings of 54 depressed patients and 54 controls in low gamma band (30-48 Hz)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908313/a-magnetic-resonance-multi-atlas-for-the-neonatal-rabbit-brain
#10
Sebastiano Ferraris, Johannes van der Merwe, Lennart Van Der Veeken, Ferran Prados, Juan-Eugenio Iglesias, Andrew Melbourne, Marco Lorenzi, Marc Modat, Willy Gsell, Jan Deprest, Tom Vercauteren
The rabbit model has become increasingly popular in neurodevelopmental studies as it is best suited to bridge the gap in translational research between small and large animals. In the context of preclinical studies, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the best modality to investigate structural and functional variability of the brain, both in vivo and ex vivo. In most of the MRI-based studies, an important requirement to analyze the acquisitions is an accurate parcellation of the considered anatomical structures...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908312/detection-of-neural-light-scattering-activity-in-vivo-optical-transmittance-studies-in-the-rat-brain
#11
Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908286/il-6-deficiency-alters-spatial-memory-in-4-and-24-month-old-mice
#12
Izabela Bialuk, Andrzej Taranta, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
Significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency in cognitive processes was evaluated in 4- and 24-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control (WT) mice in Morris water maze (MWM), holeboard test (HB) and elevated plus maze (EPM). During 3-day learning escape latency time (ELT) was longer in IL-6 KO than in WT mice, however their swimming was slower, floating longer, and path length did not differ. The comparison of ELT and the distance traveled between the first and the third learning day within each group revealed significant decrease of ELT in all groups with the highest difference in 4-month-old WT mice, and significant decrease of distance travelled only in both groups of WT mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908241/environmental-enrichment-enhances-conditioned-place-preference-to-ethanol-via-an-oxytocinergic-dependent-mechanism-in-male-mice
#13
Mariana Rae, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Priti Chivers, Alexis Bailey, Rosana Camarini
Environmental conditions, such as stress and environmental enrichment (EE), influence predisposition to alcohol use/abuse; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To assess the effect of environmental conditions on the initial rewarding effects of alcohol, we examined conditioned place-preference (CPP) to alcohol following exposure to EE in mice. Since social context is a major factor contributing to initial alcohol-drinking, we also assessed the impact of EE on the levels of the "social neuropeptide" oxytocin (OT) and its receptor, OTR...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908234/agmatine-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-and-camkii-%C3%AE-gene-expression-deteriorations-in-hippocampus-of-rat
#14
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908224/implication-of-surgical-procedure-in-the-induction-of-headache-and-generalized-painful-sensation-in-a-fluid-percussion-injury-model-in-rats
#15
Fernando da SilvaFiorin, Caroline Cunha do Espírito Santo, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes
BACKGROUND: This study demonstrated the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and each step of the surgical procedure for a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model on periorbital allodynia. NEW METHOD: Adult male Wistar rats were divided in naive, incision, scraping, sham-TBI and TBI groups. Periorbital allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments, and heat hyperalgesia of the hindpaws was evaluated by a Plantar Test Apparatus. RESULTS: The statistical analyses revealed that the surgical procedure decreased von Frey filaments thresholds twenty-four hours after the surgery in all groups when compared to the naive group (p < 0...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908145/influence-of-multiple-delays-in-brain-tumor-and-immune-system-interaction-with-t11-target-structure-as-a-potent-stimulator
#16
Subhas Khajanchi, Sandip Banerjee
We present a mathematical model which describes the growth of malignant gliomas in presence of immune responses by considering the role of immunotherapeutic agent T11 target structure (T11TS). The model consider five populations, namely, glioma cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, TGF - β and IFN - γ. The model system has highly nonlinear terms with four discrete time lags, but remains tractable. The goal of this work is to better understand the effect of multiple delays on the interaction between gliomas and immune components in conjunction with an administration of T11 target structure...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907737/paradoxical-reaction-in-a-patient-with-co-occurring-tuberculous-meningitis-and-pott-s-disease
#17
Talia Robledo-Gil, Kaoru Harada, Ichiro Ikuta, Merceditas Villanueva
BACKGROUND Paradoxical reactions to tuberculosis (TB) are clinical or radiological worsening of prior tuberculous lesions or the development of new lesions upon treatment with appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). This phenomenon has been described in both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Although historically estimated to occur in 6-30% of HIV-seronegative patients with TB, the phenomenon is often under-recognized in the current era, particularly in countries of low TB prevalence. We describe a case of a TB paradoxical reaction affecting the CNS and spine in an HIV-seronegative individual who received clinical care in the U...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907583/fifteen-minute-consultation-modern-day-art-and-science-of-managing-cerebral-palsy
#18
Jill Cadwgan, Jane Goodwin, Charlie Fairhurst
While there remains limited intervention to address the damage to the developing brain, current multidisciplinary management of cerebral palsy (CP) needs to minimise the impact of secondary musculoskeletal complications. A focus on comorbidities to maximise function for activity and participation by supporting the child and family in their environment is required. Comprehensive clinical guidance was published by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) earlier this year. This article aims to provide a practical clinical approach to the child and family based on:(1) art: empathy, listening and weighing up the clinical picture of the child and family in context; diagnosis, the need for support and space; and care coordination at the right time; and (2) science: the current science in CP care is rapidly expanding in terms of plasticity, pathophysiology, functional assessments and treatments...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907493/reduced-higher-dimensional-resting-state-fmri-dynamism-in-clinical-high-risk-individuals-for-schizophrenia-identified-by-meta-state-analysis
#19
Eva Mennigen, Robyn L Miller, Barnaly Rashid, Susanna L Fryer, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Vince D Calhoun
New techniques to investigate functional network connectivity in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data have recently emerged. One novel approach, called meta-state analysis, goes beyond the mere cross-correlation of time courses of distinct brain areas and explores temporal dynamism in more detail, allowing for connectivity states to overlap in time and capturing global dynamic behavior. Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia exhibit reduced neural dynamism compared to healthy controls, but it is not known whether these alterations extend to earlier phases of the illness...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907438/effects-of-valproate-on-brain-volumes-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-preliminary-study
#20
Fadwa Cazala, Robert Suchting, Cristian P Zeni, Isabelle E Bauer, Benson Mwangi, Mon-Ju Wu, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Danielle E Spiker, Giovanna B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
Sodium valproate (VPA) has well-established neuroprotective effects and is recommended as treatment in bipolar disorder patients. The neural effects of VPA in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) have yet to be established. This preliminary study explored the effects of VPA on brain structure in PBD. Fourteen PBD patients (10 males; mean = 13.43 ± 3.05 years old) underwent a structural MRI before and after a 6-week VPA treatment period. Bayesian linear mixed modeling explored seven brain region volumes as a function of dichotomous pre/post time...
June 6, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
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