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Robert de Bruijn, J Michael Reed, L Michael Romero
Repeated exposure to acute stressors causes dramatic changes in an animal's stress physiology and the cumulative effects are often called chronic stress. Recently we showed that short-term exposure to weather-related stimuli, such as temperature change, artificial precipitation, and food restriction, cause acute responses in captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Here, we examined the effect of repeated exposure to weather-related stressors on heart rate and corticosterone (CORT) of captive non-molting and molting European starlings...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Stephanie R Burtch, Mahyar Sameti, Richard Ty Olmstead, Chris A Bashur
The development of tissue engineered products has been limited by lack of a perfused microvasculature that delivers nutrients and maintains cell viability. Current strategies to promote vascularization such as additive 3-D printing techniques have limitations. This study validates the use of an ultra-fast laser subtractive printing technique to generate capillary-sized channels in hydrogels pre-populated with cells by demonstrating cell viability relative to the photodisrupted channels in the gel. The system can move the focal spot laterally in the gel at a rate of 2,500 mm/s by using a galvanometric scanner to raster the in plane focal spot...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Leila Bigdelu, Hoorak Poorzand, Ali Azari, Lida Jarahi, Fereshteh Ghaderi, Afsoon Fazlinejad, Hedieh Alimi, Atooshe Rohani, Negar Manavifar
BACKGROUND: Determining severity of mitral stenosis (MS) by planimetry of mitral valve orifice area (MVA) has been a challenging issue in clinical practice, especially for less experienced cardiologists. Mitral leaflet separation (MLS) has shown a good correlation with MVA measurements. However, it has never been validated against multiplane 3DTEE planimetry (MVA3D ). We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of MLS index (MLSI2D ) in predicting MS severity. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 144 patients with MS who underwent clinically indicated 2DTTE and 3DTEE...
January 21, 2018: Echocardiography
John Baer, Matthew M Wyatt, Kenneth R Kreisler
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) have routinely been positioned by wedging into the pulmonary artery before pulling back 1-2 centimeters or advancing the PAC several centimeters after achieving a pulmonary artery waveform. A rare, major complication is pulmonary artery rupture. This study presents transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for PAC placement by leaving the catheter tip at the one o'clock position, upper window short-axis view of the ascending aorta at the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery (TEE distance)...
January 22, 2018: Echocardiography
Naoki Adachi, Shingo Suzuki, Hidetada Matsuoka, Satoko Fushimi, Junichiro Ono, Ken-Ichi Ohta, Yohei Hirai, Takanori Miki, Hisatsugu Koshimizu
A recent study revealed that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the cerebral cortex (CTX) plays a regulatory role in emotional behaviors in rodents. Given the functional interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the CRH-signaling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that BDNF may regulate gene expression of CRH and its related molecules in the CTX. Findings of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) indicated that stimulation of cultured rat cortical neurons with BDNF led to marked elevations in the mRNA levels of CRH and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Justin M Moore, Elisa Sala, Alvaro Amorin, Hector Martinez, Aprotim C Bhowmik, Steven D Chang, Scott G Soltys, Griffith R Harsh, Laurence Katznelson
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is the primary treatment for Cushing's disease (CD). However, when surgery is not successful at normalizing hypercortisolism, adjuvant radiation, such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), may be useful to improving biochemical control. METHODS: We completed a retrospectively cohort study of consecutively treated patients with CyberKnife (CK) radiosurgery for active CD at Stanford Hospital and Clinics. RESULTS: As first line treatment, all patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery with histological demonstration of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing pituitary adenoma...
January 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Martha Funabashi, François Nougarou, Martin Descarreaux, Narasimha Prasad, Gregory N Kawchuk
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Previous studies found that the intervertebral disc (IVD) experiences the greatest loads during spinal manipulation therapy (SMT). PURPOSE: Based on that, this study aimed to determine if loads experienced by spinal tissues are significantly altered when the application site of SMT is changed. STUDY DESIGN: A biomechanical robotic serial dissection study SAMPLE: 13 porcine cadaveric motion segments OUTCOME MEASURES: Forces experienced by lumbar spinal tissues METHODS: A servo-controlled linear actuator provided standardized 300N SMT simulations to 6 different cutaneous locations of the porcine lumbar spine: L2/L3 and L3/L4 facet joints (FJ), L3 and L4 transverse processes (TVP), and the space between the FJs and TVPs (BTW)...
January 17, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Koji Tamai, Joshua Romanu, Phillip Grisdela, Permsak Paholpak, Pengfei Zheng, Hiroaki Nakamura, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) of ≥40mm is recognized as the key factor of poor health-related quality of life, poor surgical outcomes, and correction loss after surgery for cervical deformity. However, little is known about the radiological characteristics of patients with cSVA≥40mm. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological characteristics of patients with cervical imbalance. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of weight-bearing cervical magnetic resonance (MR) images PATIENT SAMPLE: Consecutive 1,500 MR images of symptomatic patients in weight-bearing position OUTCOME MEASURES: cSVA, cervical alignment, cervical balance parameters (T1 slope, Co-C2 angle, C2-C7 angle, C7-T1 angle, neck tilt and thoracic inlet angle), disc degeneration (Pfirmann and Suzuki classification), endplate degeneration (Modic change), Spondylolisthesis (antero- and retrolisthesis), antero-posterior (AP) diameter of dural sac, cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat infiltration ratio of the transversospinalis muscles at C4 and C7 levels METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) ≥40mm and <40mm...
January 17, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Mai M Helmy, Amel A Hashim, Samar M Mouneir
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated for the first time the possible beneficial effect of zileuton, a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (5-LOX), against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. METHODOLOGY: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or combined with oral zileuton (10 mg/kg, given twice; 1 hour before and 12 hours after cisplatin). RESULTS: Compared with control rats, acute cisplatin administration caused significant increases of BUN (33...
January 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yong Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Mingxiang Ye, Pengyu Jing, Jie Xiong, Zhiping Han, Jing Kong, Mengyang Li, Xiaofeng Lai, Ning Chang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang
The E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBW7α) functions as a putative tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its regulation of a set of oncogenic proteins associated with cell proliferation and mitosis. Increasing efforts have been focused on the understanding of FBW7 in determining cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction, however, the correlation between FBW7 and tumor metastasis is not fully understood. In this study, we reported a potential anti-metastatic effect of FBW7 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
Ryoko Tsukahara, Hisao Haniu, Yoshikazu Matsuda, Tamotsu Tsukahara
Alkyl-glycerophosphate (AGP) accumulates in atherogenic oxidized-LDL and human atherosclerotic plaques and is a potent agonist of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Recent studies suggest a potential regulatory role for PPARγ in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression/activation and nitrogen oxide (NO) generation in the vascular endothelium. Importantly, eNOS-induced NO and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in blood-vessel damage, and diabetic patients exhibit high serum NO and AGE levels; however, the effect of AGP on NO- and AGE-mediated endothelium dysfunction remains unknown...
January 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Huapu Chen, Ling Xiao, Yali Liu, Shuisheng Li, Guangli Li, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
Neurokinin B (NKB) plays important roles in the mammalian reproductive axis by modulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins. In the present study, the tac3 cDNA was cloned from a hermaphroditic species, the orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that the grouper Tac3 precursor encoded two tachykinin peptides, NKB and NKB-related peptide (NKBRP). Expression analysis in different tissues revealed that tac3 mRNA was highly expressed in the brain of the orange-spotted grouper...
January 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hongyu Wu, Caicun Zhou
Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs have been documented aberrantly expressed and exerted crucial role in variety of cancers. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is a potential new type of biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and exerts oncogenic effect on various human cancers. However, the mechanism of oncogenic role of UCA1 in lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly confirmed the role of UCA1 in lung cancer and found that UCA1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and migration in both SKMES-1 and H520 lung cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marissa Sobolewski, Katherine Conrad, Elena Marvin, Joshua L Allen, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Metals, including lead (Pb), methylmercury (MeHg) and arsenic (As), are long-known developmental neurotoxicants. More recently, environmental context has been recognized to modulate metals toxicity, including nutritional state and stress exposure. Modulation of metal toxicity by stress exposure can occur through shared targeting of endocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Our previous rodent research has identified that prenatal stress (PS) modulates neurotoxicity of two endocrine active metals (EAMs), Pb and MeHg, by altering HPA and CNS systems disrupting behavior...
January 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group (n=8), a model group (n=8), a moxibustion group (n=32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n=8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Colleen S Nell, Maria M Meza-Lopez, Jordan R Croy, Annika S Nelson, Xoaquín Moreira, Jessica D Pratt, Kailen A Mooney
Intraspecific plant trait variation can have cascading effects on plant-associated biotic communities. Sexual dimorphism is an important axis of genetic variation in dioecious plants, but the strength of such effects and the underlying mechanisms relative to genetic variation are unknown. We established a common garden with 39 genotypes of Baccharis salicifolia sampled from a single population that included male and female genotypes and measured plant traits and quantified associated arthropod communities. Genetic variation sensu lato (genotypic variation) had strong effects on most plant traits (flower number, relative growth rate, specific leaf area, percent water content, carbon-nitrogen ratio, monoterpene but not sesquiterpene concentrations) and on herbivore and predator density, and on arthropod community composition (relative abundance of 14 orders)...
January 22, 2018: Oecologia
Kazuto Takaishi, Ryosuke Takehana, Tadashi Ema
(R,R,R)-Quaternaphthyls possessing eight and six pyrenes (compounds 4 and 3) displayed intense excimer-CPL. The glum values in solution and in the solid state were +0.034-0.037 and +0.0053-0.0056, respectively. The glum values of 3 and 4 were indistinguishable, indicating that the pyrenes of 3 and 4 assumed the same conformation, even in excited states. The intense CPL was caused by conformationally rigid pyrenes arranged via the cumulative steric effects along the quaternaphthyl axis.
January 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Adam S Howe, Vinaya Vasudevan, Michael Kongnyuy, Kevin Rychik, Lisa A Thomas, Maria Matuskova, Steven C Friedman, Jordan S Gitlin, Edward F Reda, Lane S Palmer
Background: Testicular torsion is surgical emergency. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion is essential for testicular viability. At surgical exploration, the spermatic cord is seen twisted a variable number of times around its longitudinal axis. There is scant data regarding the degree of twisting and its association with testis outcomes. The purpose of our study is to explore how the degree of torsion factors into testicular outcome using follow-up data. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of adolescent males who presented with testicular torsion to our institution, looking at duration of pain symptoms, degree of torsion documented in the operative note, procedure performed (orchiopexy versus orchiectomy), and follow-up clinic data for whether testicular atrophy after orchiopexy was present...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
Fang Zhu, Lindsay McCaw, David E Spaner, Reginald M Gorczynski
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo...
January 17, 2018: Leukemia Research
Caroline S Biskup, Katrin Helmbold, Maike Linden, Karl-Josef Langen, C P Filss, Kevin C Runions, Richard M Stewart, Pradeep Rao, Julie K Moore, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Janice W Y Wong, Lothar Rink, Florian D Zepf
Recent research suggested an influence of diminished central nervous serotonin (5-HT) synthesis on the leptin axis via immunological mechanisms in healthy adult females. However, studies assessing immunological parameters in combination with dietary challenge techniques that impact brain 5-HT synthesis in humans are lacking. In the present trial, a pilot analysis was conducted on data obtained in healthy adult humans receiving either different dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) challenge or tryptophan (TRP)-balanced control conditions (BAL) to study the effects of reduced central nervous 5-HT synthesis on serum TNF-α, IL-1β beta and IL-6 concentrations...
January 22, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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