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wine ethanol

Etienne Sémon, Gaëlle Arvisenet, Elisabeth Guichard, Jean-Luc Le Quéré
With proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry standard operating conditions, analysis of alcoholic beverages is an analytical challenge. Ethanol reacts with the primary ion H3 O(+) leading to its depletion and to formation of ethanol-related ions and clusters, resulting in unstable ionization and in significant fragmentation of analytes. Different methods were proposed but generally resulted in lowering the sensitivity and/or complicating the mass spectra. The aim of the present study was to propose a simple, sensitive and reliable method with fragmentation as low as possible, linearity within a realistic range of volatile organic compounds concentrations, and applicability to in vivo dynamic aroma release (nosespace) studies of wines...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Kimberly D McCarter, Chun Li, Zheng Jiang, Wei Lu, Hillary C Smith, Guodong Xu, William G Mayhan, Hong Sun
Increasing evidence suggest that low-dose alcohol consumption (LAC) reduces the incidence and improves the functional outcome of ischemic stroke. We determined the influence of LAC on post-ischemic inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, an ethanol (13.5% alcohol) group, a red wine (Castle Rock Pinot Noir, 13.5% alcohol) group, and a control group. The amount of alcohol given to red wine and ethanol groups was 1.4 g/kg/day. After 8 weeks, the animals were subjected to a 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sacrificed at 24 hours of reperfusion...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Federica Valdetara, Daniela Fracassetti, Alessia Campanello, Carlo Costa, Roberto Foschino, Concetta Compagno, Ileana Vigentini
Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage yeast in barrel-aged wine, metabolize hydroxycinnamic acids into off-flavors, namely ethylphenols. Recently, both the enzymes involved in this transformation, the cinnamate decarboxylase (DbCD) and the vinylphenol reductase (DbVPR), have been identified. To counteract microbial proliferation in wine, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used commonly to stabilize the final product, but limiting its use is advised to preserve human health and boost sustainability in winemaking...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giuseppe Avellone, Andrea Salvo, Rosaria Costa, Emanuele Saija, David Bongiorno, Vita Di Stefano, Giorgio Calabrese, Giacomo Dugo
The purpose of the present work was to find a correlation between microencapsulation technology applied to wines and the resulting quality of the wine itself in terms of volatile composition and phenolic profile. To this aim, samples of Nero d'Avola wines produced in Sicily (Italy) were investigated in order to: i) elucidate the aromatic composition by means of HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS; ii) assess the polyphenolic content by UHPLC mass spectrometry; iii) compare the results obtained from both the screenings with those relative to the same wines that had previously been subjected to spray-drying...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuyun Lu, Marilyn Kai Wen Voon, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu
This is a first study on using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Pichia kluyveri FrootZen to produce durian wine via co-inoculation (Co-I) and sequential inoculation (Seq-I). T. delbrueckii inhibited the growth of P. kluyveri and P. kluyveri also partly retarded the growth of T. delbrueckii in Co-I and Seq-I treatments. Co-I and Seq-I produced similar levels of ethanol to T. delbrueckii Biodiva monoculture. In addition, Seq-I increased malic acid degradation and higher succinic acid production...
September 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jingqi Han, Xin Zhang, Hao Li, Yue Hou, Jingdan Hou, Zhongfeng Li, Feng Yang, Yang Liu, Tianyu Han
In this work, we synthesize a series of compounds with electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) units. They show general solvent effect in aprotic solvents, suggesting a charge transfer (CT) process. While in protic solvents including water, ethanol and methanol, the spectra exert no polarity-dependence but a remarkable hypochromatic shift together with the fading of CT band. Dynamic analysis implies that intermolecular hydrogen bond will be formed between carboxylic acid and protic solvent, boosting another deactivation pathway that jumps off a bigger energy gap, in other words, favoring the locally excited (LE) state emission...
September 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Farhana R Pinu, Silas G Villas-Boas
Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library...
July 26, 2017: Metabolites
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
Nataliya Borzova, Olena Gudzenko, Lyudmila Varbanets
Naringinase which was extracted from the fermented broth of Cryptococcus albidus was purified about 42-folds with yield 0.7% by sulfate fractionation and chromatography on Toyopearl HW-60, Fractogel DEAE-650-s, and Sepharose 6B columns. Molecular weight of protein determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was 50 kDa. Naringinase of C. albidus includes high content of the dicarbonic and hydrophobic amino acids. Enzyme contains also carbohydrate component, represented by mannose, galactose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose...
September 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
It has previously been demonstrated that emissions of the agricultural pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O), may be a confounder to the relationship between herbicide use and psychiatric impairments, including ADHD. This report attempts to extend this hypothesis by testing whether annual use of anthropogenic nitrogen-based fertilizers in U.S. agriculture (thought to be the most reliable indicator of environmental N2O emissions) is associated with per capita ethanol consumption patterns, a behavior often comorbid with ADHD...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Verónica Soares-Santos, Isabel Pardo, Sergi Ferrer
A novel quantitative PCR assay called Cells-qPCR has been developed for the rapid detection and quantification of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) directly from grape must and wine that does not require DNA extraction. The assay was tested on Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Oenococcus oeni, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans in culture media, and in white and red grape musts and wines. Standard curves were constructed from DNA and cells for the six target species in all the matrices...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Anne-Kathrin Langenberg, Frauke J Bink, Lena Wolff, Stefan Walter, Christian von Wallbrunn, Manfred Grossmann, Jürgen J Heinisch, Hans-Peter Schmitz
Hanseniaspora uvarum (anamorph Kloeckera apiculata) is a predominant yeast on wine grapes and other fruits and has a strong influence on wine quality, even when Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures are employed. In this work we sequenced and annotated approximately 93% of the H. uvarum genome. Southern and synteny analyses were employed to construct a map of the seven chromosomes present in a type strain. Comparative determinations of specific enzyme activities within the fermentative pathway in H. uvarum and S...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kai Hu, Guo-Jie Jin, Wen-Chao Mei, Ting Li, Yong-Sheng Tao
Medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl esters, as yeast secondary metabolites, significantly contribute to the fruity aroma of foods and beverages. To improve the MCFA ethyl ester content of wine, mixed fermentations with Hanseniaspora uvarum Yun268 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. Final volatiles were analyzed by gas solid phase microextraction-chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantitated by sensory analysis. Results showed that mixed fermentation increased MCFA ethyl ester content by 37% in Cabernet Gernischt wine compared to that obtained by pure fermentation...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Amy A Caudy
Fermentative growth on glucose is one of the most widely studied conditions of yeast growth in the laboratory. The production of ethanol from sugars is relevant to the wine, beer, and bread industries and to production of biofuels. Assaying the levels of glucose and ethanol in yeast growth medium allows the experimenter to determine the consumption of the carbon source glucose and the production of ethanol. This protocol describes enzyme-coupled assays for determination of glucose and ethanol concentrations in a sample of cell-free culture medium...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Stephen B Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Gregory Patts, Michael Winter, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Nneka Emenyonu, Winnie Muyindike, Allen Kekibiina, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Evgeny Kruptisky, Debbie M Cheng, Jeffrey H Samet, Judith A Hahn
In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment...
August 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Cheng-Chih Huang, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Wei-Ting Lee, Yao-Chou Lee, Chun-Yen Ou, Chan-Chi Chang, Yu-Cheng Lu, Jehn-Shyun Huang, Tung-Yiu Wong, Ken-Chung Chen, Sen-Tien Tsai, Sheen-Yie Fang, Jiunn-Liang Wu, Yuan-Hua Wu, Wei-Ting Hsueh, Chia-Jui Yen, Shang-Yin Wu, Jang-Yang Chang, Chen-Lin Lin, Yi-Hui Wang, Ya-Ling Weng, Han-Chien Yang, Yu-Shan Chen, Jeffrey S Chang
Although alcohol is an established risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC), insufficiencies exist in the literature in several aspects. We analyzed detailed alcohol consumption data (amount and type of alcoholic beverage) of 811 HNC patients and 940 controls to evaluate the association between alcohol and HNC by HNC sites and by genotypes of ADH1B and ALDH2. Alcohol was associated with an increased HNC risk in a dose-response relationship, with the highest risk observed for hypopharyngeal cancer, followed by oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancers...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yun Fa, Yinghui Liu, Aihua Xu, Yuexue Yu, Fangfang Li, Huizhou Liu
An effective pretreatment method for wine color removal by a PS-DVB SPE cartridge and online alcohol elimination by valve switching was presented. The optimum parameters for color removal were investigated: 40-μm and 100Å poly (styrene)-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) (0.4g) was selected as the color removal material and 5mL of ethanol (10%) as the elution solvent for sample pretreatment under given condition. Moreover, an accurate and automated two-dimensional ion chromatography method for the simultaneous detection of amino acids and sugars was achieved with two valves after injection without alcohol interference...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ofélia Anjos, David Frazão, Ilda Caldeira
Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples...
July 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Jari Rubbens, Danny Riethorst, Joachim Brouwers, Kris Wolfs, Erwin Adams, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
INTRODUCTION: This study determined intraluminal ethanol concentrations (stomach and duodenum) in fed healthy volunteers after the consumption of common alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and whisky). The results of this study were compared with a previous study in fasted volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers were recruited in a cross-over study. The fed state was simulated by ingestion of 250 mL of Nutridrink Compact® Neutral. Volunteers subsequently consumed two standard units of beer (Stella Artois®, 500 mL, 5...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Irina Timofeeva, Daria Kanashina, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
A sample pre-treatment technique based on evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EVA-DLLME), followed by HPLC-MS/MS has been developed for the determination of organophosphate insecticides (malathion, diazinon, phosalone) in wine samples. The procedure includes the addition of mixture of organic solvents (with density higher than water), consisting of the extraction (low density) and volatile (high density) solvents, to aqueous sample followed by heating of the mixture obtained, what promotes the volatile solvent evaporation and moving extraction solvent droplets from down to top of the aqueous sample and, as a consequence, microextraction of target analytes...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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