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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614047/estimating-how-extra-calories-from-alcohol-consumption-are-likely-an-overlooked-contributor-to-youth-obesity
#1
Kate Battista, Scott T Leatherdale
INTRODUCTION: Youth obesity rates in Canada continue to rise. In this study, we produced conservative estimates of the potential excess calories from alcohol use across different alcohol consumption patterns common among Canadian youth to assess whether alcohol use should be considered in future obesity prevention strategies. METHODS: Using data from 10 144 Grade 12 students participating in the COMPASS study (2013/14), we estimated the number of calories consumed per year from alcohol consumption...
June 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610732/early-leaf-removal-applied-in-warm-climatic-conditions-impact-on-tempranillo-wine-volatiles
#2
Daniel Moreno, Esperanza Valdés, David Uriarte, Esther Gamero, Inmaculada Talaverano, Mar Vilanova
Defoliation is a cultural practice with demonstrated benefits in grape and wine quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early leaf removal applied in warm climatic conditions on volatile composition of Tempranillo wines. During three consecutive vintages (2009-2011) wine volatile compounds (alcohols, C6-compounds, ethyl esters, acetates, volatile acids, lactones and carbonyl compounds) from defoliated and non-defoliated vines were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Early leaf removal induced the increase of the concentration of all families of volatile compound quantified with exception of lactones...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610731/moscatel-vine-shoot-extracts-as-a-grapevine-biostimulant-to-enhance-wine-quality
#3
R Sánchez-Gómez, A Zalacain, F Pardo, G L Alonso, M R Salinas
Non-aromatic vine-shoot extracts (Airén) has been recently proposed as "viticultural biostimulants" when applied to grapevine. In this paper, the application of extracts from non-toasted (MVS) and toasted (MVSToasted) vine-shoots from the well-known aromatic variety such Moscatel were applied on Airén grapevine leaves, observing an increased for grape yield and wines with a lower alcohol degree. All wines at the end of the alcoholic fermentation were characterized by their fruity and floral descriptors, especially MVS wines; and 4 months later, MSV and MVSToasted wines surprised by their higher spicy notes, which correspond with the highest OAVs values for compounds such as norisoprenoids (β-damascenone), vanillin derivatives (vanillin, acetovanillone) and volatile phenols (guaiacol, syringol), compared to control wine...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602493/alcohol-attenuates-myocardial-ischemic-injury
#4
Laura A Scrimgeour, Brittany A Potz, Nassrene Y Elmadhun, Louis M Chu, Frank W Sellke
BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol consumption is cardioprotective but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Nuclear factor κ-B regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation, stress, and apoptosis. We used a swine model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome to investigate the effects of red wine and vodka on nuclear factor κ-B signaling and cytokine activity in chronically ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Yorkshire swine were given a high-fat diet for 4 weeks; an ameroid constrictor was then placed on the left circumflex artery...
June 8, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602159/micro-drinking-behaviours-and-consumption-of-wine-in-different-wine-glass-sizes-a-laboratory-study
#5
Z Zupan, R Pechey, D L Couturier, G J Hollands, T M Marteau
BACKGROUND: Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass...
June 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597012/a-high-performance-enzyme-entrapment-platform-facilitated-by-a-cationic-polymer-for-the-efficient-electrochemical-sensing-of-ethanol
#6
Bal-Ram Adhikari, Heidi Schraft, Aicheng Chen
Entrapment is one of the major approaches for enzyme immobilization; however, it suffers a few critical drawbacks including leakage and high mass transfer resistance to substrates. To address these challenges, herein we report on a new facile and effective enzyme entrapment platform using a special cationic polymer, poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MADQUAT) on a single-wall carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide (SWCNT-rGO) nanohybrid thin film. To demonstrate this new approach, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is employed as a model enzyme for the entrapment toward the design of an efficient electrochemical biosensor for the detection of ethanol...
June 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595605/integrating-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-for-the-analysis-of-the-aroma-profiles-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-from-diverse-origins
#7
Inês Mendes, Isabelle Sanchez, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Carole Camarasa, Dorit Schuller, Sylvie Dequin, Maria João Sousa
BACKGROUND: During must fermentation thousands of volatile aroma compounds are formed, with higher alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters being the main aromatic compounds contributing to floral and fruity aromas. The action of yeast, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the must components will build the architecture of the wine flavour and its fermentation bouquet. The objective of the present work was to better understand the molecular and metabolic bases of aroma production during a fermentation process...
June 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592404/alcohol-flavoured-tobacco-products
#8
Robert K Jackler, Callie K VanWinkle, Isabela M Bumanlag, Divya Ramamurthi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. OBJECTIVES: To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)...
June 7, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585296/satisfaction-and-difficulties-of-french-professional-home-caregivers-in-supporting-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-or-alcohol-misuse
#9
Alba Moscato, Isabelle Varescon
In France, few studies have examined home care when it comes to ageing support and even fewer have considered alcohol misuse in this context. The studies also show that being old and having alcohol use disorders are two unfavourable conditions for receiving help, whereas for the Alzheimer's disease, there is a clear need for optimal care. In this article, we study professional home caregiver's perceptions of their job along with their difficulties and satisfactions in supporting older people with Alzheimer's disease or alcohol misuse...
June 6, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579910/influence-of-biological-experiential-and-psychological-factors-in-wine-preference-segmentation
#10
Gary J Pickering, John E Hayes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables...
June 2017: Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574422/influence-of-freeze-concentration-technique-on-aromatic-and-phenolic-compounds-color-attributes-and-sensory-properties-of-cabernet-sauvignon-wine
#11
Yan-Yan Wu, Kai Xing, Xiao-Xu Zhang, Hui Wang, Yong Wang, Fang Wang, Jing-Ming Li
Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content...
June 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559739/polyphenols-from-wine-lees-as-a-novel-functional-bioactive-compound-in-the-protection-against-oxidative-stress-and-hyperlipidaemia
#12
Irena Landeka, Jurčević, Mirna Dora, Iva Guberović, Marija Petras, Suzana Rimac, Brnčić, Domagoj Đikić
The study examines the potential of wine industry by-product, the lees, as a rich mixture of natural polyphenols, and its physiological potential to reduce postprandial metabolic and oxidative stress caused by a cholesterol-rich diet in in vivo model. Chemical analysis of wine lees showed that their total solid content was 94.2%. Wine lees contained total phenols, total nonflavonoids and total flavonoids expressed in mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry mass: 2316.6±37.9, 1332.5±51.1 and 984.1±28...
March 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559615/screening-of-enzymatic-activities-within-different-enological-non-saccharomyces-yeasts
#13
Rocío Escribano, Lucía González-Arenzana, Patrocinio Garijo, Carmen Berlanas, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez, Pilar Santamaría
Ninety-seven non-Saccharomyces wine yeast strains belonging to ten different genera and species (Candida spp. and Criptococcus spp.; Debaryomyces hansenii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis pratensis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) were screened for 13 enzymes related to wine aroma, color and clarity. Understanding the yeasts' influence in these wine characteristics provides a platform for selecting strains for their development as starter cultures and for the management of alcoholic fermentation...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555720/the-combination-of-overweight-and-smoking-increases-the-severity-of-androgenetic-alopecia
#14
Cristina Fortes, Simona Mastroeni, Thomas J Mannooranparampil, Marcella Ribuffo
INTRODUCTION: Even though androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of alopecia, factors associated with AGA severity have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to investigate risk factors for AGA severity among a Caucasian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among AGA subjects in the outpatient clinic of a reference hospital for skin diseases in Rome, Italy. A total of 351 Caucasian subjects with AGA, mean age 35...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521683/impact-of-red-wine-consumption-on-cardiovascular-health
#15
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Fabrizio Montecucco, Franco Dallegri, Federico Carbone
The devastating effects of heavy alcohol drinking have been long time recognized. In the last decades, potential benefits of modest red wine drinking were suggested. In European countries in which red wide intake is not negligible (such as France), the association between cholesterol and cardiovascular (CV) risk was less evident, suggesting the action of some protective molecules in red wine or other foods and drinks. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of a J-shaped relationship between red wine intake and CV risk further supported the "French paradox"...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504346/harvesting-and-blending-options-for-lower-alcohol-wines-a-sensory-and-chemical-investigation
#16
Rocco Longo, John W Blackman, Guillaume Antalick, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
BACKGROUND: Lower alcohol wines often have a poor reputation among consumers, in part due to their unsatisfactory flavours such as reduced overall aroma intensity or herbaceous characters. The aim of this study, performed on Verdelho and Petit Verdot, was to quantify the effectiveness of a monovarietal blend in which wines made from less ripe grapes were blended with an equivalent volume of a wine vinified from riper fruit to produce wines with a lower alcohol content and desirable ripe fruit flavours...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494091/fermentation-characteristics-and-aromatic-profile-of-plum-wines-produced-with-indigenous-microbiota-and-pure-cultures-of-selected-yeast
#17
Uroš Miljić, Vladimir Puškaš, Vesna Vučurović, Ana Muzalevski
The aim of this study was to assess and compare fermentation characteristics and aromatic profile of plum wines produced with indigenous microbiota and pure cultures of different selected yeast. Experiments were carried out with plum (Prunus domestica L.) varieties of different fruit ripening times (Čačanska rana, Čačanska lepotica, and Požegača). Wine fermentations were conducted by the activity of indigenous microbiota, commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus yeast strains and joint activity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490140/evaluation-of-antioxidant-capacity-and-flavor-profile-change-of-pomegranate-wine-during-fermentation-and-aging-process
#18
Yongli Lan, Jin Wu, Xuejiao Wang, Xuchun Sun, Robert M Hackman, Zhixi Li, Xianchao Feng
Antioxidant properties and flavor characteristic profile of pomegranate wine during winemaking were investigated. The total phenol content and radical scavenging activity exhibited a slightly decrease in the end edge. Punicalagins and gallic acid were revealed to be the most abundant phenolic compounds, followed by ellagic acid and vanillic acid. These constituents were mainly responsible for the effective antioxidant capacity of pomegranate wine. The major changes of flavor qualities occurred in the initial stage, particularly 0-4day of fermentation...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490069/study-of-the-contribution-of-massoia-lactone-to-the-aroma-of-merlot-and-cabernet-sauvignon-musts-and-wines
#19
Alexandre Pons, Lucile Allamy, Valérie Lavigne, Denis Dubourdieu, Philippe Darriet
Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478792/alcohol-consumption-pattern-and-risk-of-barrett-s-oesophagus-and-erosive-oesophagitis-an-italian-case-control-study
#20
Rosa A Filiberti, Vincenzo Fontana, Antonella De Ceglie, Sabrina Blanchi, Enzo Grossi, Domenico Della Casa, Teresa Lacchin, Marina De Matthaeis, Orazio Ignomirelli, Roberta Cappiello, Alessandra Rosa, Monica Foti, Francesco Laterza, Vittorio D'Onofrio, Gaetano Iaquinto, Massimo Conio
Knowledge about the association between alcohol and Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis is conflicting. In this case-control study we evaluated the role of specific alcoholic beverages (red and white wine, beer and liquors) in 339 Barrett's oesophagus and 462 oesophagitis patients compared with 619 endoscopic controls with other disorders, recruited in twelve Italian endoscopic units. Data on alcohol and other individual characteristics were obtained from structured questionnaires. No clear, monotonic significant dose-response relationship was pointed out for red wine...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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