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wine alcohol

Emilien Peltier, Margaux Bernard, Marine Trujillo, Duyên Prodhomme, Jean-Christophe Barbe, Yves Gibon, Philippe Marullo
This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats...
2018: PloS One
Cécile Philippe, Mart Krupovic, Fety Jaomanjaka, Olivier Claisse, Melina Petrel, Claire le Marrec
The Gluconobacter phage GC1 is a novel member of the Tectiviridae family isolated from a juice sample collected during dry white wine making. The bacteriophage infects Gluconobacter cerinus, an acetic acid bacterium which represents a spoilage microorganism during wine making, mainly because it is able to produce ethyl alcohol and transform it into acetic acid. Transmission electron microscopy revealed tail-less icosahedral particles with a diameter of ~78 nm. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of GC1 (16,523 base pairs) contains terminal inverted repeats and carries 36 open reading frames, only a handful of which could be functionally annotated...
January 16, 2018: Viruses
Ngozi M Eze, Helen Amaka Njoku, Chiedu Eseadi, Benedette Nwanneamaka Akubue, Amaka Bibian Ezeanwu, Uchenna Cosmas Ugwu, Justina Ifeoma Ofuebe
Alcohol consumption among secondary school students is a major public health issue worldwide; however, the extent of consumption among secondary school students and their understanding of its effects on human health remain relatively unknown in many Nigerian States. This study aimed to determine the extent of alcohol consumption and of the awareness of its negative effects on human health among secondary school students.The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to representative sample (N = 1302) of secondary school students in the study area...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yan Wen, Ricardo Lopez, Vicente Ferreira
An automated dynamic headspace (DHS) method combined with thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed and applied to characterize the composition of the vapors emanating from wine during its consumption. The method provides a snapshot of the contents in the wine vapors of up to 40 relevant aroma compounds, including methanethiol, sulfur dioxide, aldehydes, fusel alcohols or volatile phenols. Leaving aside methanethiol, method repeatability was better than 15%, and better than 11% in 30 cases...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Ting-Yao Tu, Xian-Fang Zhao, Xiao-Feng Yue, Jun-Xiang Zhang, Yu-Lin Fang, Jiang-Fei Meng
The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines was investigated during two growing seasons in the east foot of Mt. Helan, the semi-arid area. The vines received water with 60% (RDI-1), 70% (RDI-2), 80% (RDI-3), 100% (CK, traditional drip irrigation) of their estimated evapotranspiration (ETc) respectively. RDI treatments resulted in lower yield, berry weight and titratable acidity with higher total soluble solids. RDI-1 increased the content of unsaturated fatty acids in berries and decreased the level of alcohols and esters volatiles in wines...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Cornelia Bornhauser, Katharina Quack Lötscher, Burkhardt Seifert, Ana Paula Simões-Wüst
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to gain knowledge on the health status of pregnant women in Switzerland, especially their attitude to and decisions about diet, use of medication and consumption of drugs, including alcohol and tobacco. METHODS: Data collected by the consecutive Swiss Health Surveys of 2007 and 2012 on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics (including nutrition), type and intake of medication, use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs of the female population were analysed...
December 28, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
E J Falde, J Wang, M W Grinstaff
A surface tension sensor detects alcohol in solution by determining the transition of a liquid droplet from a non-wetted to a wetted state. Results from testing commercial wines are presented along with the fabrication of electrospun two-layer polymeric sensor arrays, which exhibit controlled wettability.
2017: RSC Advances
Nur Zeinomar, Ashley Thai, Ann J Cloud, Jasmine A McDonald, Yuyan Liao, Mary Beth Terry
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption is an established and important risk factor for breast cancer incidence in the general population. However, the relationship between alcohol and mortality among women with breast cancer is less clear. This study examines the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality in women affected with breast cancer at baseline from a high-risk family breast and ovarian cancer registry. METHODS: We studied 1116 women affected with breast cancer at baseline from the Metropolitan New York Registry...
2017: PloS One
Carolynn S Kohn, Nicole R Schultz, Katrina Bettencourt, Heather Dunn Carlton
We examined the correspondence between college students' ( N = 192, 71% women) definitions of free-pours and their free-poured volumes of beer, wine, and liquor. Participants' mean beer definitions and free-pours were positively correlated; participants' mean wine and liquor definitions were larger than their free-pours, which were fairly accurate. Contrary to what the aggregate mean values indicated, fewer than half of the participants accurately free-poured a standard volume of beer, wine, or liquor (37...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
Peng-Liang Wang, Fang-Tao Xiao, Bao-Cheng Gong, Fu-Nan Liu
Background: Many studies investigated the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk, but the results were controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to explore the association. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed to identify the relevant studies that reported the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk up to December 31, 2016. We pooled relative risks (RRs) in random effects model and performed dose-response analysis to quantify the association...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Adam Sherk, Tim Stockwell, Tanya Chikritzhs, Sven Andréasson, Colin Angus, Johanna Gripenberg, Harold Holder, John Holmes, Pia Mäkelä, Megan Mills, Thor Norström, Mats Ramstedt, Jonathan Woods
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses. METHOD: Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Timothy S Naimi, Jason G Blanchette, Ziming Xuan, Francis J Chaloupka
OBJECTIVE: In the United States, excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost $249 billion, or $2.05 per drink, in 2010. Specific excise taxes, the predominant form of alcohol taxation in the United States, are based on the volume of alcohol sold rather than a percentage of price and can thus degrade over time because of inflation. The objective of this study was to describe changes in inflation-adjusted state alcohol excise taxes on a beverage-specific basis...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
M Medel-Marabolí, J L Romero, E Obreque-Slier, A Contreras, A Peña-Neira
Astringency is a tactile sensation that is generated by a reduction in lubrication in the oral cavity and is generally attributed to the interaction of procyanidins or condensed tannins with salivary proteins. Several factors influence tannin-protein interactions, such as pH, alcohol, sweetness, oxygen and polyphenol content. A scarcely studied factor is the effect of the tannin content on the perception of astringency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of commercial oenological tannin (COT) on the timing of the perception of astringency...
December 2017: Food Research International
D Restuccia, V Sicari, T M Pellicanò, U G Spizzirri, M R Loizzo
In this study, during winemaking, was evaluated the influence of cultivar on bioactive compounds (organic acids, d-(+)-glucose, d-(-)-fructose, biogenic amines (BAs), anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids) and antioxidant activity of Calabrian (Southern Italy) autochthonous grapes (Arvino, Gaglioppo, Greco Nero, Magliocco Canino, Magliocco Dolce and Nocera). Phenolic compounds increased from grapes to wine for all varieties. Arvino grapevine showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, while a promising inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was observed with Greco Nero grapes...
December 2017: Food Research International
Rosario Sánchez-Gómez, Laurent Torregrosa, Amaya Zalacain, Hernán Ojeda, Virginie Bouckenooghe, Rémi Schneider, Gonzalo L Alonso, M Rosario Salinas
BACKGROUND: Microvine plant model displays an unique reproductive organ behaviors and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies: allow to undertake studies until 5 times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts on wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the vine-shoot extract foliar application effect on twenty-one stages of grapes development...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Carmen Berbegal, Giuseppe Spano, Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Francesco Grieco, Pasquale Russo, Vittorio Capozzi
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a common and significant wine spoilage microorganism. B. bruxellensis strains generally detain the molecular basis to produce compounds that are detrimental for the organoleptic quality of the wine, including some classes of volatile phenols that derive from the sequential bioconversion of specific hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulate and p-coumarate. Although B. bruxellensis can be detected at any stage of the winemaking process, it is typically isolated at the end of the alcoholic fermentation (AF), before the staring of the spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) or during barrel aging...
November 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jordi Tronchoni, José Antonio Curiel, María Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar Morales, Arancha de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Purificación Fernández-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira, Ramon Gonzalez
The use of non-Saccharomyces strains in aerated conditions has proven effective for alcohol content reduction in wine during lab-scale fermentation. The process has been scaled up to 20 L batches, in order to produce lower alcohol wines amenable to sensory analysis. Sequential instead of simultaneous inoculation was chosen to prevent oxygen exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, since previous results indicated that this would result in increased acetic acid production. In addition, an adaptation step was included to facilitate non-Saccharomyces implantation in natural must...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
Chunxiao Wang, Meiling Liu, Ying Li, Yujie Zhang, Mingyue Yao, Yi Qin, Yanlin Liu
In order to diminish the undesirable impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on wine, H2S synthesis was evaluated at phenotypic and transcriptional levels in 16 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which comprised 12 natural isolates, three commercial strains, and one laboratory heterozygote. Strain-dependent and multi-gene participation traits were evident, and high gene activity did not necessarily elevated H2S levels. When the variation of gene expression was analyzed between fermentation stages in each strain, similarities among some strains related to H2S formation...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
Antoine Gobert, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal, Christophe Morge, Céline Sparrow, Youzhong Liu, Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Stefania Vichi, Hervé Alexandre
Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Yu Ye, William C Kerr
BACKGROUND: While a strong association exists between alcohol and injury in emergency department (ED) studies, these studies are not representative of the general population. OBJECTIVE: The association of injury with the number of hours of exposure to a BAC ≥ 0.05 and average monthly volume in drinks, both based on self-report of quantity and frequency of drinking in the last year, in a merged sample of respondents (n=29,571) from four U.S. National Alcohol Surveys (2000-2015) is analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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