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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#1
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317758/analysis-of-free-and-total-sulfur-dioxide-in-wine-by-using-a-gas-diffusion-analytical-system-with-ph-detection
#2
Pablo Giménez-Gómez, Manuel Gutiérrez-Capitán, Anna Puig-Pujol, Fina Capdevila, Sergio Muñoz, Andreu Tobeña, Antoni Miró, Cecilia Jiménez-Jorquera
The use of sulfur dioxide as preservative in winemaking industry has a direct impact on wine quality. The standard methods to analyze this parameter require several processes and are time consuming. In this paper a simple and rapid analytical method for free and total sulfur dioxide detection is proposed. This method is based on the separation of the analyte from the sample with a permeable gas diffusion membrane and its indirect detection with a pH sensor. The system has been validated and optimized for free sulfur dioxide detection in the range of 1-60mgL(-1) and for total sulfur dioxide in the range of 30-300mgL(-1) with a limit of detection of 0...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196526/the-genetic-architecture-of-low-temperature-adaptation-in-the-wine-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Estéfani García-Ríos, Miguel Morard, Leopold Parts, Gianni Liti, José M Guillamón
BACKGROUND: Low-temperature growth and fermentation of wine yeast can enhance wine aroma and make them highly desirable traits for the industry. Elucidating response to cold in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is, therefore, of paramount importance to select or genetically improve new wine strains. As most enological traits of industrial importance in yeasts, adaptation to low temperature is a polygenic trait regulated by many interacting loci. RESULTS: In order to unravel the genetic determinants of low-temperature fermentation, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by bulk segregant analyses in the F13 offspring of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strains with divergent performance at low temperature...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192619/genomic-signatures-of-adaptation-to-wine-biological-aging-conditions%C3%A2-in-biofilm-forming-flor-yeasts
#4
A L Coi, F Bigey, S Mallet, S Marsit, G Zara, P Gladieux, V Galeote, M Budroni, S Dequin, J L Legras
The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological aging are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose, and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185458/mutant-potential-ubiquitination-sites-in-dur3p-enhance-the-urea-and-ethyl-carbamate-reduction-in-a-model-rice-wine-system
#5
Peng Zhang, Guocheng Du, Huijun Zou, Guangfa Xie, Jian Chen, Zhongping Shi, Jingwen Zhou
Ubiquitination can significantly affect the endocytosis and degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Here, the ubiquitination of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae urea plasma membrane transporter (Dur3p) was altered. Two potential ubiquitination sites, lysine residues K556 and K571, of Dur3p were predicted and replaced by arginine, and the effects of these mutations on urea utilization and formation under different nitrogen conditions were investigated. Compared with Dur3p, the Dur3pK556R mutant showed a 20.1% decrease in ubiquitination level in yeast nitrogen base medium containing urea and glutamine...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138219/resveratrol-inhibits-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-by-suppressing-the-smad-pathway
#6
Ching-Long Chen, Yi-Hao Chen, Ming-Cheng Tai, Chang-Min Liang, Da-Wen Lu, Jiann-Torng Chen
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075467/resveratrol-suppresses-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-targeting-hgf-c-met-signaling-pathway
#7
Feng Gao, Gang Deng, Wenbin Liu, Kechao Zhou, Ming Li
Resveratrol, one of the major polyphenols found in red wine, is suggested to have a role as a chemo-prevention or chemotherapy agent in various human cancer models. Herein, we report that resveratrol has a profound antitumor effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by down-regulation of the HGF-c-Met signaling pathway. Resveratrol inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Short-term resveratrol exposure substantially decreased HGF-induced c-Met signaling pathway activation, and long-term exposure to resveratrol markedly inhibited c-Met expression on the cell membrane...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002613/different-responses-of-vanillic-acid-a-phenolic-compound-in-htc-cells-cytotoxicity-antiproliferative-activity-and-protection-from-dna-induced-damage
#8
I V Almeida, F M L Cavalcante, V E P Vicentini
The consumption of healthy and natural foods has increased over the last few years, primarily because these foods are rich in substances with biological properties of interest, such as exerting anticancer effects and decreasing oxidative stress in living tissues. These foods support adequate nutrition, maintain health, and improve quality of life. Vanillic acid (VA) is a phenolic compound used widely in the food industry as a flavoring, preservative, and food additive. VA can be found in various cereals, whole grains, fruits, herbs, green tea, juices, beers, and wines and possesses antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and antiapoptotic activities...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992098/candida-pyralidae-killer-toxin-disrupts-the-cell-wall-of-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-in-red-grape-juice
#9
N N Mehlomakulu, K J Prior, M E Setati, B Divol
AIMS: The control of the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis using biological methods such as killer toxins (instead of the traditional chemical methods e.g. SO2 ) has been the focus of several studies within the last decade. Our previous research demonstrated that the killer toxins CpKT1 and CpKT2 isolated from the wine yeast Candida pyralidae were active and stable under winemaking conditions. In the current study, we report the possible mode of action of CpKT1 on B. bruxellensis cells in red grape juice...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979050/comparison-of-the-physicochemical-and-volatile-composition-of-wine-fractions-obtained-by-two-different-dealcoholization-techniques
#10
Silvia Motta, Massimo Guaita, Maurizio Petrozziello, Aldo Ciambotti, Loretta Panero, Mauro Solomita, Antonella Bosso
Three wines (a Rosé wine, a Pelaverga and a Barbera red wines) were dealcoholized at 5% v/v ethanol with two different techniques: membrane contactor (MC) and distillation under vacuum (D). The influence of the treatments on the physicochemical composition and aromatic profile of the dealcoholized fractions was investigated. The main difference between the two techniques was the concentration grade reached by the dealcoholized fractions, which was 5-6times higher with D than with MC due to the concomitant loss of water...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933053/waste-conversion-into-n-caprylate-and-n-caproate-resource-recovery-from-wine-lees-using-anaerobic-reactor-microbiomes-and-in-line-extraction
#11
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763562/adsorption-of-wine-constituents-on-functionalized-surfaces
#12
Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev, Paul A Smith
The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704093/smart-sensory-materials-for-divalent-cations-a-dithizone-immobilized-membrane-for-optical-analysis
#13
Giancarla Alberti, Silvia Re, Anna Maria Chiara Tivelli, Raffaela Biesuz
An optode for Cu(ii), Cd(ii), Zn(ii) and Hg(ii) sensing has been designed by immobilization of dithizone on a triacetylcellulose membrane (mem-DTZ). The sorption of the metal ions on the mem-DTZ has been thoroughly characterized, in particular sorption kinetics, sorption isotherms and profiles as a function of the pH have been studied. Methods to assess the concentrations of the cations, both individually and in a mixture, in unknown samples, have been developed. In particular, UV-vis spectra and digital information of pictures taken by using a common desktop scanner, of the mem-DTZ sensor after equilibration with different solutions, were acquired and they were correlated with the concentration of the metal ions in solutions...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598001/comparative-morphological-characteristics-of-three-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-wine-strains-in-the-presence-absence-of-sulfur-dioxide
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marli Louw, Maret du Toit, Hervé Alexandre, Benoit Divol
The red wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been the subject of numerous investigations. Some of these studies focused on spoilage mechanisms, sulfur dioxide tolerance and nutrient requirements. Pseudomycelium formation, although a striking feature of this species, has however been poorly investigated. Furthermore, literature regarding the induction mechanism of pseudomycelium formation in this yeast is limited and lacks clarity, as results published are contradictory. This study elucidates this phenomenon among strains from geographically different areas...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534113/red-wine-inhibits-aggregation-and-increases-atp-diphosphohydrolase-cd39-activity-of-rat-platelets-in-vitro
#15
Elisabetta Caiazzo, Idolo Tedesco, Carmela Spagnuolo, Gian Luigi Russo, Armando Ialenti, Carla Cicala
Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502415/antimicrobial-properties-and-death-inducing-mechanisms-of-saccharomycin-a-biocide-secreted-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Patrícia Branco, Diana Francisco, Margarida Monteiro, Maria Gabriela Almeida, Jorge Caldeira, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista, Helena Albergaria
We recently found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CCMI 885) secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) that are active against various wine-related yeast and bacteria. Here, we show that several other S. cerevisiae strains also secrete natural biocide fractions during alcoholic fermentation, although at different levels, which correlates with the antagonistic effect exerted against non-Saccharomyces yeasts. We, therefore, term this biocide saccharomycin...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406567/lps-remodeling-triggers-formation-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-salmonella
#17
Wael Elhenawy, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Ezequiel Valguarnera, M Florencia Haurat, Eytan Wine, Mario F Feldman
UNLABELLED: Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are proposed to mediate multiple functions during pathogenesis and symbiosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for OMV formation remain poorly understood. It has been shown in eukaryotic membranes that lipids with an inverted-cone shape favor the formation of positive membrane curvatures. Based on these studies, we formulated the hypothesis that lipid A deacylation might impose shape modifications that result in the curvature of the outer membrane (OM) and subsequent OMV formation...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402289/grape-tannin-catechin-and-ethanol-fluidify-oral-membrane-mimics-containing-moderate-amounts-of-cholesterol-implications-on-wine-tasting
#18
Aurélien L Furlan, Ahmad Saad, Erick J Dufourc, Julie Géan
Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes...
November 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343571/automatic-bionalyzer-using-an-integrated-amperometric-biosensor-for-the-determination-of-l-malic-acid-in-wines
#19
E Vargas, M A Ruiz, F J Ferrero, S Campuzano, V Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, A J Reviejo, J M Pingarrón
A new automatic bioanalyzer for L-malic acid using an integrated amperometric biosensor as detector is reported for the first time in this work. The biosensor is constructed by gold film sputtering deposition on a stainless steel disk electrode and co-immobilization of the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and diaphorase (DP) together with the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) by means of dialysis membrane. The analytical performance of the biosensor was evaluated when it was used as amperometric detector in three different analytical methodologies: stirred solutions, semiautomatic FIA system and automatic bioanalyzer...
September 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314384/piceatannol-and-other-wine-stilbenes-a-pool-of-inhibitors-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-cytotoxicity
#20
Hamza Temsamani, Stéphanie Krisa, Marion Decossas-Mendoza, Olivier Lambert, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Tristan Richard
The aggregation of α-synuclein is one on the key pathogenic events in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory capacities of stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity. Thioflavin T fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of three stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation: piceatannol, ampelopsin A, and isohopeaphenol. Lipid vesicle permeabilization assays were performed to screen stilbenes for protection against membrane damage induced by aggregated α-synuclein...
June 15, 2016: Nutrients
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