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Greinacher A. CLINICAL PRACTICE. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia.

Miriam E Jaax, Andreas Greinacher
BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare but severe prothrombotic adverse effect of heparin treatment. The underlying cause is the formation of highly immunogenic complexes between negatively charged heparin and positively charged platelet factor 4 (PF4). Resulting antibodies against these PF4/heparin complexes can activate platelets via the platelet FcγIIa receptor, leading to thrombin generation and thus to the paradox of a prothrombotic state despite thrombocytopenia and application of heparin...
May 2012: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Adriano Alatri, Anna-Elina Armstrong, Andreas Greinacher, Andreas Koster, Sibylle A Kozek-Langenecker, Marcus D Lancé, Andreas Link, Jørn D Nielsen, Per M Sandset, Alexander J Spanjersberg, Michael Spannagl
Argatroban has been introduced as an alternative parenteral anticoagulant for HIT-patients in several European countries in 2005. In 2009 a panel of experts discussed their clinical experience with argatroban balancing risks and benefits of argatroban treatment in managing the highly procoagulant status of HIT-patients. This article summarizes the main conclusions of this round table discussion. An ongoing issue is the appropriate dosing of argatroban in special patient groups. Therefore, dosing recommendations for different HIT-patient groups (ICU patients; non-ICU patients, paediatric patients, and for patients undergoing renal replacement therapies) are summarized in this consensus statement...
April 2012: Thrombosis Research
Theodore E Warkentin, Andreas Greinacher, Andreas Koster, A Michael Lincoff
This chapter about the recognition, treatment, and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patient values may lead to different choices. Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: For patients receiving heparin in whom the clinician considers the risk of HIT to be > 1...
June 2008: Chest
Norbert Lubenow, Theodore E Warkentin, Andreas Greinacher, Antje Wessel, Debi-Ann Sloane, Erica L Krahn, Harry N Magnani
INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment of acute, transient, but uncommon diseases are difficult to perform. The prothrombotic adverse drug reaction, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), is such an example. During the mid-1980s, the defibrinogenating snake venom, ancrod (+/-warfarin, Canada), or coumarin (warfarin, Canada; phenprocoumon, Germany) alone, were often used to treat HIT. During the 1990s, danaparoid+/-coumarin began to replace ancrod (+/-coumarin), or coumarin alone, for treating HIT, despite danaparoid not being approved for treatment of HIT...
2006: Thrombosis Research
Andreas Greinacher
Lepirudin (Refludan), Berlex Laboratories, USA and Canada; Pharmion, all other countries), a recombinant derivative of the naturally occurring leech anticoagulant hirudin, was the first direct thrombin inhibitor to be approved by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products and the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Since its introduction into Europe and the USA, it has been studied in over 7000 patients requiring anticoagulation in conditions including acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention, cardiopulmonary bypass and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia...
May 2004: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Andreas Greinacher
Appropriate management, as well as efficacy and safety, of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and prevention of severe consequences with argatroban and lepirudin are discussed. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, a serious immune-mediated drug reaction, can occur as an isolated incident (isolated HIT) or with acute thrombosis sometimes referred to as HIT and associated thrombosis syndrome (HITTS). Due to the severe consequences associated with HIT, appropriate management is critical. Argatroban and lepirudin, two direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs), are currently FDA approved for use in patients with HIT...
October 15, 2003: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Oliver Ranze, Alexander Rakow, Petra Ranze, Petra Eichler, Andreas Greinacher, Christoph Fusch
OBJECTIVE: Despite controversy about whether peripheral and central venous catheters should be locked with heparin to prevent catheter-associated clotting, the practice is widespread. We describe a severe side effect of the practice: a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia occurring with catheter flushes using unfractionated heparin (UFH) in a 10-month-old boy successfully treated with danaparoid. Patient: A preterm-born patient (33 wks gestational age, birth weight 1200 g) suffering from VACTERL syndrome was repeatedly treated with UFH in the context of several invasive procedures...
April 2001: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
A Greinacher, N Lubenow
Clinical applications for recombinant hirudins have been investigated for the past 10 years. The first indication for which a hirudin-lepirudin-has been approved is treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Also, the recently completed trials for use of lepirudin in unstable angina indicate a potentially new indication. This review describes pharmacology and clinical applications of lepirudin with an emphasis on HIT and unstable angina. An overview of usage of lepirudin in acute coronary syndromes is given, as well as a summary of rare indications for lepirudin, such as extracorporeal circulation, for which comprehensive data are lacking...
March 13, 2001: Circulation
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