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grape must

Alexandre Pons, Lucile Allamy, Valérie Lavigne, Denis Dubourdieu, Philippe Darriet
Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xiangyu Sun, Tingting Ma, Luyang Han, Weidong Huang, Jicheng Zhan
The effects of copper pollution on the polyphenol content, color, and antioxidant activity of wine, as well as correlations among these factors, were investigated. Copper had clear influences on wine polyphenol content. At low copper concentrations, the concentrations of nearly all polyphenols increased, and the antioxidant activity values of the wine also increased. When the copper concentration reached the lowest level of the medium copper range (9.6~16 mg/L), most of the indices also improved. When the copper concentrations reached the latter part of the medium copper range (19...
May 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Laura Treu, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Stefano Campanaro, Chiara Nadai, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast.
April 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
María L Raymond Eder, Cristina Reynoso, Santiago C Lauret, Alberto L Rosa
Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Viacheslav Liato, Mohammed Aïder
The earthy-musty smell produced by Streptomyces sp. is assigned to geosmin and is responsible for the major organoleptic defects found in drinking water, fruits and vegetables such as grapes, mushrooms, carrots, and beet. Geosmin is also found in juices and musts before fermentation and its presence has been associated with partial presence of Botrytis cinerea. It has a variable detection threshold depending on the matrix and the detection level ranges from 5 to 50 ng/L. On the sensory level, very few individuals are immune to geosmin and although the intensity of the defect caused by this molecule decreases rapidly in the nose, a bad taste is very persistent in the mouth...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Irene Stefanini, Silvia Carlin, Noemi Tocci, Davide Albanese, Claudio Donati, Pietro Franceschi, Michele Paris, Alberto Zenato, Silvano Tempesta, Alberto Bronzato, Urska Vrhovsek, Fulvio Mattivi, Duccio Cavalieri
The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yuliya Vystavna, Liubov Zaichenko, Nina Klimenko, Reelika Rätsep
BACKGROUND: The study was focused on Zn, Cu and Pb transfer in the system of soil-grape-must-juice-wine in a Chardonnay grape variety from Ukrainian vine growing regions. The analyses of soil, grape, must, pomace, juice and wine were done at the study plot in the south-west of Crimea. RESULTS: Commercial white wines of Chardonnay from different vine growing regions in Ukraine were analysed for trace metals content. Results revealed that trace elements transfer was related to diverse Zn, Cu and Pb sources, trace metals bioavailability, their speciation and complexes during the wine making processes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Manuel Cantos, Rosa Arroyo-García, José Luis García, Miguel Lara, Ramón Morales, María Ángeles López, Antonio Gallardo, Carlos Alvar Ocete, Álvaro Rodríguez, José Manuel Valle, Ramón Vaca, Magdalena González-Maestro, Hajnalka Bánáti, Rafael Ocete
For decades, human activities have gradually destroyed the natural habitats of wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, and nowadays this species is endangered in southern Europe. In this paper, 94 populations of this species have been localized and characterized in the Andalusian region in the Iberian Peninsula between 1989 and 2013. Location, ecological aspects, and sanitary characteristics are described. Must properties and in vitro tolerance to calcareous conditions were also checked...
February 27, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Michelle F Terra, Nathasha de A Lira, Fabiana R F Passamani, Wilder Douglas Santiago, Maria das Graças Cardoso, Luís Roberto Batista
Prevention in the field of mycotoxin-producing fungi is the most effective strategy for controlling the presence of mycotoxins in foods. Chemical fungicides are widely used to protect crops, so their implications on mycotoxin production need to be considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect in vitro and on grapes of five fungicides commonly used on grape cultures in Brazil on Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. At the doses recommended by manufacturers, most fungicides significantly reduced A...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Jordi Tronchoni, Alda J Rodrigues, Jose Antonio Curiel, Pilar Morales, Ramon Gonzalez
The respiratory metabolism of yeast species alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been explored in recent years as a tool to reduce ethanol content in grape wine. The efficacy of this strategy has been previously proven for mixed cultures of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae strains. In this work, we perform a transcriptomic analysis of the Crabtree-negative yeast Kluyveromyces lactis under tightly controlled growth conditions in order to better understand physiology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during the fermentation of grape must under aerated conditions...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
María Victoria Mestre Furlani, Yolanda Paola Maturano, Mariana Combina, Laura Analía Mercado, María Eugenia Toro, Fabio Vazquez
Ethanol content of wine has increased over the last decades as consequence of searching phenolic maturity, requiring increased grape maturity. This may result in the production of wines with excessive alcohol levels (sometimes more than 15% (v/v)), sluggish and stuck fermentations and excessive volatile acidity. Many strategies to reduce ethanol in wines are being studied, and microbial methods have some additional advantages. However, because of the broad intra- and interspecies variability, new selection criteria should be included...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Lucía González-Arenzana, Javier Portu, Rosa López, Patrocinio Garijo, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Isabel López-Alfaro
The main aim of this study was to describe the impact of foliar phenylalanine and urea application on grape and must microbial populations. The tool used to perform the ecological study was DGGE conducted with several infusions in non-enriched and enriched liquid media, as well as direct DNA extractions of grapes and musts. A total of 75 microbial species were found in the study. The alpha diversity indices of grape after both foliar nitrogen treatments did not show significant changes in comparison to the control samples, but were modified in some indices in must samples...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Lucie Crépin, Nhat My Truong, Audrey Bloem, Isabelle Sanchez, Sylvie Dequin, Carole Camarasa
During fermentative growth in natural and industrial environments, Saccharomyces cerevisiae must redistribute the available nitrogen from multiple exogenous sources to amino acids in order to suitably fulfill anabolic requirements. To exhaustively explore the management of this complex resource, we developed an advanced strategy based on the reconciliation of data from a set of stable isotope tracer experiments with labeled nitrogen sources. Thus, quantifying the partitioning of the N compounds through the metabolism network during fermentation, we demonstrated that, contrary to the generally accepted view, only a limited fraction of most of the consumed amino acids is directly incorporated into proteins...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Francesca De Filippis, Antonietta La Storia, Giuseppe Blaiotta
Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape must is a complex process, carried out by indigenous yeast populations arising from the vineyard or the winery environment and therefore representing an autochthonous microbial terroir of the production area. Microbial diversity at species and biotype level is extremely important in order to develop the composite and typical flavour profile of DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) wines. In this study, we monitored fungal populations involved in spontaneous fermentations of Aglianico and Greco di Tufo grape must by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA gene amplicons...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
Rossella Chessa, Sara Landolfo, Maurizio Ciani, Marilena Budroni, Severino Zara, Murat Ustun, Zeynep Petek Cakar, Ilaria Mannazzu
The use of natural antimicrobials from plants, animals and microorganisms to inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is becoming more frequent. This parallels the increased consumer interest towards consumption of minimally processed food and 'greener' food and beverage additives. Among the natural antimicrobials of microbial origin, the killer toxin produced by the yeast Tetrapisispora phaffii, known as Kpkt, appears to be a promising natural antimicrobial agent. Kpkt is a glycoprotein with β-1,3-glucanase and killer activity, which induces ultrastructural modifications to the cell wall of yeast of the genera Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
B Puertas, M J Jiménez, E Cantos-Villar, J M Cantoral, M E Rodríguez
AIMS: We have evaluated for the first time the impact of two commercial yeast strains (Torulaspora delbrueckii TD291 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae QA23) inoculated sequentially in musts of Chardonnay and Palomino Fino grape varieties grown under warm climate (South-west of Spain). METHODS AND RESULTS: Semi-industrial scale alcoholic fermentations (AF) were performed during the 2011 and 2012 harvests. Implantation analyses demonstrated that T. delbrueckii is the predominant strain until the end of the AF phase...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Liz Erika Cruz-Pio, Marta Poveda, María Rosa Alberto, Sergi Ferrer, Isabel Pardo
One hundred and four Oenococcus oeni isolates were characterised by the carbohydrate fermentation (CH) profile and DNA fingerprinting. Forty-four isolates came from grape must, and 60 from wines sampled at the end of alcoholic fermentation or during malolactic fermentation. The grape must isolates fermented more CH than the wine isolates. In genotypical terms, no clear boundary between grape must and wine isolates was found. Diversities were deduced by considering the isolates of grape must and of wine separately and jointly...
January 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Chien-Wei Huang, Michelle E Walker, Bruno Fedrizzi, Miguel Roncoroni, Richard C Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
The undesirable rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by yeast shortly after yeast inoculation of grape musts might be an important source of desirable varietal thiols, which contribute to tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvign-on Blanc. In this study, we observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce an early burst of H2S from cysteine. Both Δmet2 and Δmet17 strains produce a larger burst, likely because they are unable to utilise the H2S in the sulfate assimilation pathway. For the first time, we show that TUM1 is partly responsible for the early production of H2S from cysteine...
December 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
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