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grape must

Jorge E Spangenberg, Vivian Zufferey
The grapevine is one of the most important edible fruit plants cultivated worldwide, and it is highly sensitive to changes in the soil water content. We studied the total carbon and nitrogen contents and stable isotope compositions (C/NWSR , δ13 CWSR and δ15 NWSR values) of the solid residues obtained by freeze-drying wines produced from two white grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chasselas and Petite Arvine) field grown under different soil water regimes while maintaining other climatic and ecopedological conditions identical...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Olivier Geffroy, Ricardo Lopez, Carole Feilhes, Frédéric Violleau, Didier Kleiber, Jean-Luc Favarel, Vicente Ferreira
The impact of two temperature levels (50 °C and 75 °C) and heating times (30 min and 3 h) on the composition of thermovinified musts and wines from Carignan was investigated at the laboratory scale in 2014 and 2015. The heating temperature had a significant impact on the extraction of amino acids and a probable thermal degradation of anthocyanins was noted at 75 °C. In 2014, musts from grapes that underwent a heat treatment at 50 °C for 3 h had a similar level of phenolic compounds as those treated at 75 °C for 30 min...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Lucía Payá-Tormo, Rocío Gómez-Pastor, Agustín Aranda, Emilia Matallana
Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non- Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY) production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
María Dolores Jiménez-Martínez, Rocío Gil-Muñoz, Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín
The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people...
March 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Scott Simonin, Hervé Alexandre, Maria Nikolantonaki, Christian Coelho, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal
In oenology, bio-protection consists in adding bacteria, yeasts or a mixture of microorganisms on grape must before fermentation in order to reduce the use of chemical compounds such as sulphites. More particularly, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are used as a total or partial alternative to sulphites. However, scientific data capable of proving the effectiveness of adding these yeasts on grape must is lacking. This study reports the analysis of antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of one non-Saccharomyces yeast, Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated at the beginning of the white winemaking process in two Burgundian wineries as an alternative to sulphiting...
May 2018: Food Research International
William W L Sampson, Sara A Khan, Eric J Nisenbaum, Jerald D Kralik
Abstraction allows us to discern regularities beyond the specific instances we encounter. It also promotes creative problem-solving by enabling us to consider unconventional problem solutions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Because it is often difficult to isolate human high-level cognitive processes, we utilized a nonhuman primate model, in which rhesus monkeys appear to use similar processes to consider an unconventional solution to the difficult reverse-reward problem: i...
March 13, 2018: Cognition
Laura Chasseriaud, Joana Coulon, Philippe Marullo, Warren Albertin, Marina Bely
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, naturally found in grape must, may impact wine quality positively or negatively. In this study, a mixture of five non-Saccharomyces species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia spp., Starmerella bacillaris (formerly called Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of the natural non-Saccharomyces community found in grape must, was used for alcoholic fermentation. The impact of CO2 saturation of the grape juice was studied first on this mixture alone, and then in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rocío Escribano-Viana, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana R Gutiérrez, Lucía González-Arenzana
This study was aimed to measure the impact of the application of a bio-fungicide against Botrytis cinerea on the microbiota involved in the alcoholic fermentation (AF) of Tempranillo Rioja wines. For this purpose, a bio-fungicide composed of the biological control bacterium Bacillus subtilis QST713 was applied to the vineyard. The microbial diversity was analyzed from grape biofilm to wine. Impact on microbial diversity was measured employing indexes assessed with the software PAST 3.10 P.D. Results were compared to non-treated samples and to samples treated with a chemical fungicide mainly composed by fenhexamid...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Amores-Arrocha, A Roldán, A Jiménez-Cantizano, I Caro, V Palacios
This study investigates the impact of bee pollen on volatile compounds, odour activity values and sensory profiles in Palomino fino and Riesling young white wines. Commercial bee pollen was added to grape must using six different doses (0 (control), 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 10 and 20g/L) and fermented under controlled conditions. Volatile compounds were determined with GC and GC-MS chromatography and sensorial analysis using a qualified panel of tasters. Bee pollen produces an increase in volatile compounds depending on the grape variety and the dose applied...
March 2018: Food Research International
Olta Noti, Enrico Vaudano, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Cristina Lamberti, Laura Cavallarin, Emilia Garcia-Moruno, Enrica Pessione
A strain of Saccharomyces (S) cerevisiae (ISE19), which displayed an initial good adaptation to a high sugar medium with increased acetate and glycerol production but weak overall growth/fermentation performances, was selected during the alcoholic fermentation of Cortese grape must. To obtain insights into the metabolic changes that occur in the must during growth in particular conditions (high ethanol, high residual sugars and low nitrogen availability) leading to a sluggish fermentation or even fermentation arrest, comparative in-gel proteomic analyses were performed on cells grown in media containing 200g/L and 260g/L of glucose, respectively, while the YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen) concentration was maintained as it was...
March 2018: Food Research International
Ying Liu, Jamie Finley, Joseph M Betz, Paula N Brown
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) has been a popular herb since the 1970s, with a US market share of over $32 million in 2014. Wild goldenseal has been listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species for decades. Limits in supply and greed for profit have led to adulteration with similar but more accessible and inexpensive plant materials. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) coupled with three different chemometric models, partial least squares (PLS) regression, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and moving window principal component analysis (MW-PCA) provide fast, simple, nondestructive approaches to differentiating pure goldenseal from 4 common pure adulterants (yellow dock, yellow root, coptis, Oregon grape)...
February 5, 2018: Fitoterapia
Ee Lin Tek, Joanna F Sundstrom, Jennie M Gardner, Stephen G Oliver, Vladimir Jiranek
Commercially available active dried wine yeasts are regularly used by winemakers worldwide to achieve reliable fermentations and obtain quality wine. This practice has led to increased evidence of traces of commercial wine yeast in the vineyard, winery and uninoculated musts. The mechanism(s) that enables commercial wine yeast to persist in the winery environment and the influence to native microbial communities on this persistence is poorly understood. This study has investigated the ability of commercial wine yeasts to form biofilms and adhere to plastic...
January 31, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Nina Duhamel, Davide Slaghenaufi, Lisa I Pilkington, Mandy Herbst-Johnstone, Roberto Larcher, David Barker, Bruno Fedrizzi
Sesquiterpenes are a widespread class of compounds of increasing interest found in grapes and wines, amongst many other natural sources. Due to a lack of standards and the complexity of the mass spectra fragmentation, accurate quantification of these low concentration compounds had not previously been accomplished. The current paper presents a new method for the concurrent quantification of several sesquiterpenes. The multivariate method optimisation is presented. Synthesised isotopic standards were utilised in conjunction with solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to perform a standard isotope dilution assay (SIDA)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Emilien Peltier, Margaux Bernard, Marine Trujillo, Duyên Prodhomme, Jean-Christophe Barbe, Yves Gibon, Philippe Marullo
This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats...
2018: PloS One
Christopher L Blackford, Eric G Dennis, Robert A Keyzers, Claudia Schueuermann, Robert D Trengove, Paul K Boss
A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jianming Luo, Shiren Song, Zheng Wei, Yu Huang, Yali Zhang, Jiang Lu
As a by-product of wine making, pomace contains rich amounts of phenolic compounds that can be potentially utilized as raw materials to make beneficial products especially for the anti-cancer agents including the breast cancer. Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Noble' is a wine-making grape cultivar, and to better use 'Noble' pomace, the most effective phenolic fractions in cancer inhibition must be identified. In this study, anti-oxidative activities of three separated fractions of 'Noble' pomace (F1, F2 and F3) were compared in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS) assays as well as the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
Veronika M Kupfer, Elisabeth I Vogt, Annemarie K Siebert, Magdalena L Meyer, Rudi F Vogel, Ludwig Niessen
The absence of the yeast protein seripauperin 5 (PAU5) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been suggested as a biomarker for the occurrence of gushing in sparkling wine as samples lacking PAU5 were found to be more susceptible to gushing. In this study, further characterization of PAU5 regarding its foam-stabilizing properties was performed to elucidate whether PAU5 has foam-stabilizing properties and therefore, to elucidate a direct influence on the gushing potential of sparkling wines. PAU5 was successfully purified from non-gushing sparkling wine using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
Jordi Tronchoni, José Antonio Curiel, María Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar Morales, Arancha de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Purificación Fernández-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira, Ramon Gonzalez
The use of non-Saccharomyces strains in aerated conditions has proven effective for alcohol content reduction in wine during lab-scale fermentation. The process has been scaled up to 20 L batches, in order to produce lower alcohol wines amenable to sensory analysis. Sequential instead of simultaneous inoculation was chosen to prevent oxygen exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, since previous results indicated that this would result in increased acetic acid production. In addition, an adaptation step was included to facilitate non-Saccharomyces implantation in natural must...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
Ileana Vigentini, Marinella Gebbia, Alessandra Belotti, Roberto Foschino, Frederick P Roth
An extensive repertoire of molecular tools is available for genetic analysis in laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae . Although this has widely contributed to the interpretation of gene functionality within haploid laboratory isolates, the genetics of metabolism in commercially-relevant polyploid yeast strains is still poorly understood. Genetic engineering in industrial yeasts is undergoing major changes due to Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) engineering approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Antoine Gobert, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal, Christophe Morge, Céline Sparrow, Youzhong Liu, Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Stefania Vichi, Hervé Alexandre
Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non- Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non- Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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