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grape must

Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Martina Cumova, Veronika Kyrova, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse, Marketa Pospichalova, Jiri Ruprich
Twenty three strains of Penicillium expansum, as a predominant species, were isolated from 23 (92%) out of 25 grape samples of 17 different grape varieties. The results of the identification of P. expansum strains were confirmed by a PCR method. Most of the isolates of P. expansum (21/23, 91%), when tested for toxigenicity, were bi-toxigenic: they produced citrinin (CIT) and particularly high amounts of patulin (PAT). A validated UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of PAT and CIT was applied. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for PAT and CIT in grape must and toxigenicity testing samples were 100 and 2 ng/g, respectively...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Perini Matteo, Nardin Tiziana, Camin Federica, Malacarne Mario, Larcher Roberto
'Aceto Balsamico di Modena' (ABM) is a PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) salad dressing obtained from cooked and/or concentrated grape must, with the addition of wine vinegar and a maximum of 2% caramel (EU Reg. 583/2009). In this study we investigated whether the combination of 13 C/12 C of ethanol using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry with 2 H-site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and minor sugars using Ion Chromatography with Pulse Amperometric and Charged Aerosol Detection, is able to improve detection of sugar addition to ABM must...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
M Breniaux, L Dutilh, M Petrel, E Gontier, H Campbell-Sills, M Deleris-Bou, S Krieger, P-L Teissedre, M Jourdes, C Reguant, P Lucas
AIMS: Oenococcus oeni is the lactic acid bacteria species which is the most adapted to wine. Recently, two groups of strains that form two genetic lineages were described in red and white Burgundy wines. The aim of this study was to analyze the phenotypes of these strains in order to determine how they have adapted specifically to either red or white wines. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four strains from each group were tested in grape must and in wines to evaluate their tolerance to pH and to phenolic compounds content...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Chen Liang, Renata Ristic, Vladimir Jiranek, David W Jeffery
3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is a potent odorant present in grapes and wines that is reminiscent of green capsicum. Suprathreshold concentrations can lead to obvious vegetative characters and suppress desirable fruity aroma nuances in wines, but options to manage IBMP concentrations are limited. This work investigated pre- and postfermentation addition of a putative imprinted magnetic polymer (PIMP) as a remedial treatment for elevated concentrations of IBMP in Cabernet Sauvignon grape must in comparison to nonimprinted magnetic polymer (NIMP) and to a commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) based film added postfermentation...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vasileios Englezos, Luca Cocolin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Audrey Bloem, Sylvie Dequin, Carole Camarasa
Over the last past years, the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve the sensory quality of wine has been well recognized. In particular, the use of Starmerella bacillaris in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as an appropriate way to enhance glycerol formation and reduce ethanol production. However, during sequential fermentation, many factors as the inoculation timing, strain combination and physical and biochemical interactions can affect yeast growth, fermentation process and/or metabolite synthesis...
June 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Antonio Amores-Arrocha, Ana Roldán, Ana Jiménez-Cantizano, Ildefonso Caro, Víctor Palacios
The aim of the present study was to compare and analyze the impact of using bee pollen doses (0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 10 and 20 g/L) as activator in the alcoholic fermentation process of Palomino fino and Riesling wines. In this regard, its influence on the musts composition, the fermentative kinetics, the evolution of the populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the evolution of yeast-assimilable nitrogen and physico-chemical characteristics of final wines has been analyzed. Bee pollen addition produces significant increases in yeast-assimilable nitrogen and maximum yeasts population and exponential velocity reached during alcoholic fermentation...
May 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jessica Lleixà, Dimitrios Kioroglou, Albert Mas, Maria Del Carmen Portillo
The main losses in viticulture around the world are normally associated with rotten grapes affecting both the chemical composition and the grape microbiota that later might affect the alcoholic fermentation. We analyzed the population in musts obtained from sour rotten, botrytized and healthy Macabeo grapes and the population dynamics during the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation by culture dependent and various culture independent methods including, for the first time, qPCR and massive sequencing. Grape health state affected the fermentation kinetics and also the microbial diversity and composition...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
G Orlandi, R Calvini, L Pigani, G Foca, G Vasile Simone, A Antonelli, A Ulrici
An electronic eye (EE) for fast and easy evaluation of grape phenolic ripening has been developed. For this purpose, berries of different grape varieties were collected at different harvest times from veraison to maturity, then an amount of the derived must was deposited on a white sheet of absorbent paper to obtain a sort of paper chromatography. Thus, RGB images of the must spots were collected using a flatbed scanner and converted into one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams, which codify the colour properties of the images...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Chunfang Zheng, Yuji Jeong, Madisyn Gabrielle Turcotte, David Sankoff
BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of ancestral genomes must deal with the problem of resolution, necessarily involving a trade-off between trying to identify genomic details and being overwhelmed by noise at higher resolutions. RESULTS: We use the median reconstruction at the synteny block level, of the ancestral genome of the order Gentianales, based on coffee, Rhazya stricta and grape, to exemplify the effects of resolution (granularity) on comparative genomic analyses...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stéphanie Rollero, Audrey Bloem, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Carole Camarasa, Benoit Divol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently the most important yeast involved in food fermentations, particularly in oenology. However, several other yeast species occur naturally in grape must that are highly promising for diversifying and improving the aromatic profile of wines. If the nitrogen requirement of S. cerevisiae has been described in detail, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain poorly studied despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we explored the fermentation performances, the utilization of nitrogen sources and the volatile compound production of ten strains of non-conventional yeasts in pure culture...
May 7, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Thulile Ndlovu, Benoit Divol, Florian F Bauer
Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry, and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, the addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze...
July 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Christian Coelho, Perrine Julien, Maria Nikolantonaki, Laurence Noret, Mathilde Magne, Jordi Ballester, Régis D Gougeon
Chardonnay wines from Burgundy, obtained from musts with three levels of clarification (Low, Medium and High) during two consecutive vintages (2009 and 2010) and for two kinds of closures (screw caps and synthetic coextruded closures) were analyzed chemically and sensorially. Three bottles per turbidity level were opened in 2015 in order to assess the intensity of the reductive and/or oxidative aromas (REDOX sensory scores) by a trained sensory panel. The chemical analyses consisted in polyphenols and colloids quantification, followed by a proteomic characterization...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jorge E Spangenberg, Vivian Zufferey
The grapevine is one of the most important edible fruit plants cultivated worldwide, and it is highly sensitive to changes in the soil water content. We studied the total carbon and nitrogen contents and stable isotope compositions (C/NWSR , δ13 CWSR and δ15 NWSR values) of the solid residues obtained by freeze-drying wines produced from two white grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chasselas and Petite Arvine) field grown under different soil water regimes while maintaining other climatic and ecopedological conditions identical...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Olivier Geffroy, Ricardo Lopez, Carole Feilhes, Frédéric Violleau, Didier Kleiber, Jean-Luc Favarel, Vicente Ferreira
The impact of two temperature levels (50 °C and 75 °C) and heating times (30 min and 3 h) on the composition of thermovinified musts and wines from Carignan was investigated at the laboratory scale in 2014 and 2015. The heating temperature had a significant impact on the extraction of amino acids and a probable thermal degradation of anthocyanins was noted at 75 °C. In 2014, musts from grapes that underwent a heat treatment at 50 °C for 3 h had a similar level of phenolic compounds as those treated at 75 °C for 30 min...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Lucía Payá-Tormo, Rocío Gómez-Pastor, Agustín Aranda, Emilia Matallana
Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non- Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY) production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
María Dolores Jiménez-Martínez, Rocío Gil-Muñoz, Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín
The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people...
March 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Scott Simonin, Hervé Alexandre, Maria Nikolantonaki, Christian Coelho, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal
In oenology, bio-protection consists in adding bacteria, yeasts or a mixture of microorganisms on grape must before fermentation in order to reduce the use of chemical compounds such as sulphites. More particularly, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are used as a total or partial alternative to sulphites. However, scientific data capable of proving the effectiveness of adding these yeasts on grape must is lacking. This study reports the analysis of antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of one non-Saccharomyces yeast, Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated at the beginning of the white winemaking process in two Burgundian wineries as an alternative to sulphiting...
May 2018: Food Research International
William W L Sampson, Sara A Khan, Eric J Nisenbaum, Jerald D Kralik
Abstraction allows us to discern regularities beyond the specific instances we encounter. It also promotes creative problem-solving by enabling us to consider unconventional problem solutions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Because it is often difficult to isolate human high-level cognitive processes, we utilized a nonhuman primate model, in which rhesus monkeys appear to use similar processes to consider an unconventional solution to the difficult reverse-reward problem: i...
July 2018: Cognition
Laura Chasseriaud, Joana Coulon, Philippe Marullo, Warren Albertin, Marina Bely
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, naturally found in grape must, may impact wine quality positively or negatively. In this study, a mixture of five non-Saccharomyces species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia spp., Starmerella bacillaris (formerly called Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of the natural non-Saccharomyces community found in grape must, was used for alcoholic fermentation. The impact of CO2 saturation of the grape juice was studied first on this mixture alone, and then in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
April 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rocío Escribano-Viana, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana R Gutiérrez, Lucía González-Arenzana
This study was aimed to measure the impact of the application of a bio-fungicide against Botrytis cinerea on the microbiota involved in the alcoholic fermentation (AF) of Tempranillo Rioja wines. For this purpose, a bio-fungicide composed of the biological control bacterium Bacillus subtilis QST713 was applied to the vineyard. The microbial diversity was analyzed from grape biofilm to wine. Impact on microbial diversity was measured employing indexes assessed with the software PAST 3.10 P.D. Results were compared to non-treated samples and to samples treated with a chemical fungicide mainly composed by fenhexamid...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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