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reverse osmosis

Keisuke Ikehata, Yuanyuan Zhao, Harshad Kulkarni, Yuan Li, Shane A Snyder, Kenneth P Ishida, Michael A Anderson
Reverse osmosis (RO)-based desalination and advanced water purification facilities have inherent challenges associated with concentrate management and disposal. Although enhanced permeate recovery and concentrate minimization are desired, membrane scaling due to inorganic constituents such as silica, calcium, phosphate, and iron hinders the process. To solve this problem, a new diatom-based photobiological process has been developed to remove these scaling constituents by biological uptake and precipitation...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Igor Kviatkovski, Hadas Mamane, Anat Lakretz, Ilana Sherman, Delila Beno-Moualem, Dror Minz
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an emerging strategy for controlling the formation of undesired biofilms in water desalination facilities using reverse osmosis (RO). However, most studies examining these pretreatments are limited as they have been conducted on single-species cultures, while biofilms are composed of multiple-species communities. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on a model community composed of six environmental isolates from a marine biofilm formed in RO seawater desalination plant...
June 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Erkan Sahinkaya, Ahmet Sahin, Adem Yurtsever, Mehmet Kitis
Industrial wastewater reuse together with zero or near zero liquid discharges have been a growing trend due to the requirement of sustainable water management mandated by water scarcity and tightening discharge regulations. Studies have been conducted on the reclamation of textile industry wastewater using RO processes. However a lot of scientific attention has been drawn upon limiting the amount of concentrate generated from RO processes, which depends on the concentrations of scale forming ions in the concentrate stream...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yudong Qiu, Benedict R Schwegler, Lee-Ping Wang
We report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of reverse osmosis desalination using nanoporous monolayer graphene passivated by SiH2 and Si(OH)2 functional groups. A highly accurate and detailed polarizable molecular mechanics force field model was developed for simulating graphene nanopores of various sizes and geometries. The simulated water fluxes and ion rejection percentages are explained using detailed atomistic mechanisms derived from analysis of the simulation trajectories. Our main findings are: (1) The Si(OH)2 pores possess superior ion rejection rates due to selective electrostatic repulsion of Cl- ions, but Na+ ions are attracted to the pore and block water transfer...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Tri Quang Bui, Vinh Duy Cao, Nu Bich Duyen Do, Trine Eker Christoffersen, Wei Wang, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen
Salinity gradients exhibit a great potential for production of renewable energy. Several techniques such as pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis have been employed to extract this energy. Unfortunately, these techniques are restricted by the high costs of membranes and problems with membrane fouling. However, the expansion and contraction of hydrogels can be a new and cheaper way to harvest energy from salinity gradients, since the hydrogels swell in fresh water and shrink in saltwater. We have examined the effect of crosslinker concentration and different external loads on the energy recovered for this type of energy-producing systems...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinshu Liu, Jon C Taylor, Susan A Baldwin
The mining industry needs to treat large volumes of wastewater highly concentrated in chemical compounds that can adversely affect receiving environments. One promising method of treatment is the use of reverse osmosis to remove most of the dissolved salts. However, the resulting brine reject is a highly saline wastewater that needs further treatment to remove the toxic components, such as selenate, which is a chemical compound of great concern in coal-mining regions. Biological reduction and removal of dissolved selenium from a brine solution was achieved...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jinxiang Zhou, Scott M Husson
This communication describes the application of forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate stick water, a nutrient-rich water byproduct of meat rendering operations. The objectives of the study were to carry out a set of batch FO runs in concentration mode to determine the maximum achievable stick water concentration and to perform a preliminary cost analysis for operating a FO/reverse osmosis membrane separation process for comparison to an evaporative concentration process. The study examined the roles of feed and draw solution stir rates, temperature, feed concentration, and draw solution ionic strength on flux using commercial cellulose triacetate membranes...
May 27, 2018: Membranes
Vishnu Prasad K, Sridhar Kumar Kannam, Remco Hartkamp, Sarith P Sathian
Molecular dynamics simulations are widely employed to analyze water and ion permeation through nanoporous membranes for reverse osmosis applications. In such simulations, water models play an important role in accurately reproducing the properties of water. We investigated the water and ion transport across a hydroxyl (OH) functionalized graphene nanopore using six water models: SPC, SPC/E, SPC/Fw, TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005. The water flux thus obtained varied up to 84% between the models. The water and ion flux showed a correlation with the bulk transport properties of the models such as the diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity...
May 31, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiao-Xiong Wang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Guo-Hua Dao, Hong-Ying Hu
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) has been widely used to control bacterial growth in reverse osmosis (RO) systems. However, MIT's toxicity on microalgae should be determined because residual MIT is concentrated into RO concentrate (ROC) and might have a severe impact on microalgae-based ROC treatment. This study investigated the tolerance of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 to MIT and revealed the mechanism of algal growth inhibition and toxicity resistance. Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was inhibited by MIT with a half-maximal effective concentration at 72 h (72 h-EC50 ) of 1...
May 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nuray Ates, Nigmet Uzal
Aluminum manufacturing has been reported as one of the largest industries and wastewater produced from the aluminum industry may cause significant environmental problems due to variable pH, high heavy metal concentration, conductivity, and organic load. The management of this wastewater with a high pollution load is of great importance for practitioners in the aluminum sector. There are hardly any studies available on membrane treatment of wastewater originated from anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the best treatment and reuse alternative for aluminum industry wastewater using membrane filtration...
May 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rocco Longo, John W Blackman, Guillaume Antalick, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
The aim of this study was to compare the volatile and sensory profiles of Australian Shiraz red wines produced by several methods to achieve alcohol concentrations of 10.5 and 13.5% v/v. These levels were considerably lower contents than the commercial wine (16-17% v/v) that was produced from this vineyard site. Wines were produced by: (i) harvest timing (19.3, 24 and 29.3 Brix); (ii) blending equal proportions of early harvest (19.3 Brix) and late harvest wines (29.3 Brix); and (iii) dealcoholization using reverse osmosis followed by a membrane contactor...
July 2018: Food Research International
Duksoo Jang, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang, Seoktae Kang
To elucidate the transport of emerging contaminants (CECs) in forward osmosis (FO) membrane process according to their solute properties, the rejections of CECs with various molecular weight, octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow), and dissociation constant (pKa ) were investigated. Among 12 selected CECs, negatively charged CECs exhibited the highest rejection efficiency than neutral or positively charged CECs due to the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged CECs and membrane surfaces as well as diffusional hindrance by reversely transported salts from draw stream...
May 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Azam Jeihanipour, Junjie Shen, Gudrun Abbt-Braun, Stefan A Huber, Godfrey Mkongo, Andrea I Schäfer
The Maji ya Chai River in Northern Tanzania, a fluoride-rich tropical area, shows a seasonal variation of natural organic matter (NOM) and fluoride concentration. Water samples collected monthly during one year from two locations of the River were characterized. High levels of precipitation in the rainy seasons increased the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration to as high as 36 mgC L-1 and diluted the fluoride concentration from a dry season high of 24 mg L-1 to <4 mg L-1 . A black water swamp in the Maji ya Chai River catchment was confirmed as the main source of NOM, fluoride, salinity, and inorganic carbon entering the River in the rainy season...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ting Li, Liangchang Zhang, Weidang Ai, Wenyi Dong, Qingni Yu
Water supply was vital to people's life, especially inside Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term space exploration. A platform of 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS including 6 cabins called 'SPACEnter' was established in Shenzhen, China. Based on this platform, a Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) system configuring post advanced purification, including I-MBR, II-MBR, nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), ion-exchange (IE), polyiodide disinfection (PI) and mineralization (MC) stages, used as a Domestic Water Supply System (DWSS) to guarantee crew's daily life was constructed...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak
Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability...
May 5, 2018: Water Research
Lei Zheng, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
In this study, forward osmosis (FO) membranes and fouling solutions were systematically characterized to elucidate the effects of organic fouling on the rejection of two pharmaceutically active compounds, namely, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Municipal wastewater resulted in a more severe flux decline compared to humic acid and sodium alginate fouling solutions. This result is consistent with the molecular weight distribution of these foulant solutions. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection analysis shows that municipal wastewater consists of mostly low molecular weight acids and neutrals, which produce a more compact cake layer on the membrane surface...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daiane R B Belgini, Virgínia M Siqueira, Douglas M Oliveira, Samantha G Fonseca, Viviane Piccin-Santos, Roberto S Dias, Larissa Quartaroli, Rodrigo S Souza, Ana Paula R Torres, Maíra P Sousa, Cláudio M Silva, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O De Paula, Valéria M Oliveira
Oil refineries are known for the large volume of water used in their processes, as well as the amount of wastewater generated at the end of the production chain. Due to strict environmental regulations, the recycling of water has now become a viable alternative for refineries. Among the many methods available to treat wastewater for reuse, the use of membranes in reverse osmosis systems stands out due to several economic and environmental benefits. However, these systems are vulnerable to contamination and deposition of microorganisms, mainly because of the feedwater quality...
April 13, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Ce Wang, Yongmei Li, Yanqiang Wang
Effects of operating conditions were investigated in terms of water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF) and pollutant rejection in a forward osmosis (FO) membrane system treating synthetic greywater. Changing cross-flow velocity had a slight impact on the performance of the FO membrane. Elevating operating temperature was more effective than increasing draw solution concentration to enhance the water flux. Further observation on the effect of heating mode showed that when the temperature was increased from 20 to 30 o C, heating the feed solution (FS) side was better than heating the draw solution (DS) side or heating both sides; further increasing the temperature to 40 and 50 o C, heating both the FS and DS achieved much higher water flux compared with only increasing the FS or DS temperature...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Marzena Smol, Dariusz Włóka, Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
In this paper, coke wastewater that had passed through biological and integrated membrane processes (filtration on sand bed-reverse osmosis) was chosen to assess the phytotoxicity of selected industrial wastewater with regard to the test plant- Vicia faba . An innovative research technique in vitro test was conducted in a large scale phytothrone chamber on two matrices: cotton and Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MSBM). The toxicity of wastewater was evaluated for samples: (1) treated in the treatment plant by biological processes, (2) filtrated through a sand bed and filtrated (3) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Xiaoxiao Song, Lifen Liu, Bing Wu, Jiefeng Pan, Saren Qi, Chuyang Y Tang, Congjie Gao
Forward osmosis has a great potential to be applied in treating biomass containing streams. However, the reverse salt permeation and the high energy consumption in draw solutes recovery pose two main obstacles. In this work, a porous FO membrane water extraction system is proposed to overcome these shortages. Using polyelectrolytes as draw solution and a porous PAN FO membrane, the system could recover water from a biologically treated wastewater (from a pilot anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactor) with a stable flux of 7 L/m2 ...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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