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reverse osmosis

Amine Mnif, Imen Bejaoui, Meral Mouelhi, Béchir Hamrouni
Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hiroyuki Mano, Fumihiko Takeda, Tomokazu Kitamura, Seiichiro Okamoto, Yutaka Suzuki, Chang-Beom Park, Nobuhito Yasui, Kentarou Kobayashi, Yuji Tanaka, Naoyuki Yamashita, Mizuhiko Minamiyama
The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hanaa M Hegab, Ahmed ElMekawy, Thomas G Barclay, Andrew Michelmore, Linda Zou, Dusan Losic, Christopher P Saint, Milena Ginic-Markovic
A practical fabrication technique is presented to tackle the trade-off between the water flux and salt rejection of thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes through controlled creation of a thinner active selective polyamide (PA) layer. The new thin film nano-composite (TFNC) RO membranes were synthesized with multifunctional poly tannic acid-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets (pTA-f-GO) embedded in its PA thin active layer, which is produced through interfacial polymerization. The incorporation of pTA-f-GOL into the fabricated TFNC membranes resulted in a thinner PA layer with lower roughness and higher hydrophilicity compared to pristine membrane...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuan Xu, Xueli Gao, Xiaojuan Wang, Qun Wang, Zhiyong Ji, Xinyan Wang, Tao Wu, Congjie Gao
A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF) material-MIL-101 (Cr) was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA) layer on the polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration (UF) support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr) membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability measurement and reverse osmosis (RO) test. The porous structures of MIL-101 (Cr) can establish direct water channels in the dense selective PA layer for water molecules to transport through quickly, leading to the increasing water permeance of membranes...
October 26, 2016: Materials
Hyeon-Gyu Choi, Moon Son, Heechul Choi
Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Madhnure Pandith, R D Kaplay, S S Potdar, H Sangnor, A D Rao
Rapid expansion in urbanization and industrialization coupled with recent drought conditions has triggered unplanned groundwater development leading to severe stress on groundwater resources in many urban cities of India, particularly cities like Nanded, Maharashtra. In the quest of tapping drinking water requirement, due to recent drought conditions, people from the city are piercing through entire thickness of shallow basalt aquifers to reach productive deeper granite aquifers. Earlier reports from Nanded and surrounding districts suggest that deeper granite aquifer is contaminated with fluoride (geogenic)...
September 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chi Siang Ong, Bader Al-Anzi, Woei Jye Lau, Pei Sean Goh, Gwo Sung Lai, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Yue Seong Ong
Despite its attractive features for energy saving separation, the performance of forward osmosis (FO) has been restricted by internal concentration polarization and fast fouling propensity that occur in the membrane sublayer. These problems have significantly affected the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. In this study, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with excellent anti-fouling properties has been developed for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between a highly dense polyamide (PA) layer for salt rejection and a fairly loose dense bottom zwitterionic layer for emulsified oil particle removal...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sanghyun Jeong, Kyungjin Cho, Dawoon Jeong, Seockheon Lee, TorOve Leiknes, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran, Hyokwan Bae
Four dual media filters (DMFs) were operated in a biofiltration mode with different engineered environments (DMF I and II: coagulation with/without acidification and DMF III and IV: without/with chlorination). Designed biofilm enrichment reactors (BERs) containing the removable reverse osmosis (RO) coupons, were connected at the end of the DMFs in parallel to analyze the biofilm on the RO membrane by DMF effluents. Filtration performances were evaluated in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC)...
July 25, 2017: Water Research
Eduardo Coutinho de Paula, Júlia Célia Lima Gomes, Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral
The adverse impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes modules have grown dramatically around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of recycling by chemical oxidation of end-of-life RO membranes for applications in other separation processes with specifications less rigorous. The recycling technique consisted in to cause a membrane exposition with oxidant solutions in order to remove its aromatic polyamide layer and subsequent conversion to a porous membrane...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Talaeipour, J Nouri, A H Hassani, A H Mahvi
BACKGROUND: As an appropriate tool, membrane process is used for desalination of brackish water, in the production of drinking water. The present study aims to investigate desalination processes of brackish water of Qom Province in Iran. METHODS: This study was carried out at the central laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company of the studied area. To this aim, membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), separately and also their hybrid process were applied...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Ashish Gulagi, Piyush Choudhary, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Christian Breyer
The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections...
2017: PloS One
Roxanna Barnaby, Amanda Liefeld, Brian P Jackson, Thomas H Hampton, Bruce A Stanton
Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
Dani Mulas, Antonia Camacho, Isabel Serrano, Sergio Montes, Ricard Devesa, Maria Amor Duch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Oleg Yu Dinariev, Nikolay V Evseev
Modeling of multiphase compositional hydrodynamics at nanoscale is performed by means of density functional hydrodynamics (DFH). DFH is the method based on density functional theory and continuum mechanics. This method has been developed by the authors over 20 years and used for modeling in various multiphase hydrodynamic applications. In this paper, DFH was further extended to encompass phenomena inherent in liquids at nanoscale. The new DFH extension is based on the introduction of external potentials for chemical components...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Enchao Li, Rongchang Wang, Xuewen Jin, Shuguang Lu, Zhaofu Qiu, Xiang Zhang
Global water shortages have resulted in increasing interest in water reuse and recycling. Therefore, in the present study, a biological denitrifying process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was employed to treat reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate with high conductivity produced from a coking wastewater plant. From the results, the average removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and nitrate were 79.5%, 90.5%, and 93.1%, respectively. Different microbial communities were identified after sequencing the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq platform, and the major bacterial phyla in the SBR system were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Jiaohui Xia, Hui Zhang, Shaoxuan Ding, Changyu Li, Jincheng Ding, Jie Lu
The primary pollutants in reverse osmosis concentrates (ROC) are the substances with the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254)which is closely related to humic substances that can be degraded by humus-reducing bacteria. This work studied the degradation characteristics of humus-reducing bacteria in ROC treatment. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of humus-reducing bacteria were investigated and the effects of pH values and electron donors on the reduction of humic analog, antraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate were explored to optimize the degradation...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
Gayathri Naidu, Sanghyun Jeong, Md Abu Hasan Johir, Anthony G Fane, Jaya Kandasamy, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
The ultimate goal of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine management is to achieve minimal liquid discharge while recovering valuable resources. The suitability of an integrated system of membrane distillation (MD) with sorption for the recovery of rubidium (Rb(+)) and simultaneous SWRO brine volume reduction has been evaluated for the first time. Polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate (KCuFC(PAN)) sorbent exhibited a good selectivity for Rb(+) sorption with 10-15% increment at 55 °C (Langmuir Qmax = 125...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
Nicolas Combernoux, Luc Schrive, Véronique Labed, Yvan Wyart, Emilie Carretier, Philippe Moulin
The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater...
June 24, 2017: Water Research
Annabel Fernandes, Lazhar Labiadh, Lurdes Ciríaco, Maria José Pacheco, Abdellatif Gadri, Salah Ammar, Ana Lopes
The electro-Fenton oxidation of a concentrate from reverse osmosis of a sanitary landfill leachate, with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 42 g L(-1), was carried out using a carbon-felt cathode and a boron doped diamond anode. The influence of the applied current intensity, initial pH and dissolved iron initial concentration on the electro-Fenton process was assessed. For the experimental conditions used, results showed that the initial pH is the parameter that more strongly influences the current efficiency of the electro-Fenton process, being this influence more pronounced on the oxidation rate than on the mineralization rate of the organic matter...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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