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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899431/monitoring-process-water-quality-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-partial-least-squares-regression-with-prediction-uncertainty-estimation
#1
Peter B Skou, Thilo A Berg, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Dorrit Thaysen, Morten A Rasmussen, Frans van den Berg
Reuse of process water in dairy ingredient production-and food processing in general-opens the possibility for sustainable water regimes. Membrane filtration processes are an attractive source of process-water recovery since the technology is already utilized in the dairy industry and its use is expected to grow considerably. At Arla Foods Ingredients (AFI), permeate from a reverse osmosis polisher filtration unit is sought to be reused as process water, replacing the intake of potable water. However, as for all dairy and food producers, the process-water quality must be monitored continuously to ensure food safety...
November 29, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892814/a-new-route-of-bioaugmentation-by-allochthonous-and-autochthonous-through-biofilm-bacteria-for-scod-removal-of-old-leachate
#2
Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Sara Rastgar, Majid Peyravi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Ali Shokuhi Rad
Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic)...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889657/evaluation-of-fertilizer-drawn-forward-osmosis-for-sustainable-agriculture-and-water-reuse-in-arid-regions
#3
Laura Chekli, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Sheng Li, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
The present study focused on the performance of the FDFO process to achieve simultaneous water reuse from wastewater and production of nutrient solution for hydroponic application. Bio-methane potential (BMP) measurements were firstly carried out to determine the effect of osmotic concentration of wastewater achieved in the FDFO process on the anaerobic activity. Results showed that 95% water recovery from the FDFO process is the optimum value for further AnMBR treatment. Nine different fertilizers were then tested based on their FO performance (i...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889212/study-of-the-effect-of-the-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-present-in-real-wastewater-effluents-on-the-performance-of-fungal-treatments
#4
Marina Badia-Fabregat, Daniel Lucas, Tero Tuomivirta, Hannu Fritze, Taina Pennanen, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Damià Barceló, Glòria Caminal, Teresa Vicent
The use of the ligninolytic fungi Trametes versicolor for the degradation of micropollutants has been widely studied. However, few studies have addressed the treatment of real wastewater containing pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) under non-sterile conditions. The main drawback of performing such treatments is the difficulty for the inoculated fungus to successfully compete with the other microorganisms growing in the bioreactor. In the present study, several fungal treatments were performed under non-sterile conditions in continuous operational mode with two types of real wastewater effluent, namely, a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a wastewater treatment plant and a veterinary hospital wastewater (VHW)...
November 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883917/osmotic-versus-conventional-membrane-bioreactors-integrated-with-reverse-osmosis-for-water-reuse-biological-stability-membrane-fouling-and-contaminant-removal
#5
Wenhai Luo, Hop V Phan, Ming Xie, Faisal I Hai, William E Price, Menachem Elimelech, Long D Nghiem
This study systematically compares the performance of osmotic membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) and conventional membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Both systems achieved effective removal of bulk organic matter and nutrients, and almost complete removal of all 31 trace organic contaminants investigated. They both could produce high quality water suitable for recycling applications. During OMBR-RO operation, salinity build-up in the bioreactor reduced the water flux and negatively impacted the system biological treatment by altering biomass characteristics and microbial community structure...
November 12, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876242/corrigendum-to-pilot-study-on-arsenic-removal-from-groundwater-using-a-small-scale-reverse-osmosis-system-towards-sustainable-drinking-water-production-j-hazard-mater-318-2016-671-678
#6
Stefan-André Schmidt, Ephraim Gukelberger, Mario Hermann, Florian Fiedler, Benjamin Großmann, Jan Hoinkis, Ashok Ghosh, Debashis Chatterjee, Jochen Bundschuh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836559/performance-of-electrodialysis-reversal-and-reverse-osmosis-for-reclaiming-wastewater-from-high-tech-industrial-parks-in-taiwan-a-pilot-scale-study
#7
Feng-Chi Yen, Sheng-Jie You, Tien-Chin Chang
Wastewater reclamation is considered an absolute necessity in Taiwan, as numerous industrial parks experience water shortage. However, the water quality of secondary treated effluents from sewage treatment plants generally does not meet the requirements of industrial water use because of the high inorganic constituents. This paper reports experimental data from a pilot-plant study of two treatment processes-(i) fiber filtration (FF)-ultrafiltration (UF)-reverse osmosis (RO) and (ii) sand filtration (SF)-electrodialysis reversal (EDR)-for treating industrial high conductivity effluents from the Xianxi wastewater treatment plant in Taiwan...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796991/heavy-metal-contamination-in-sand-and-sediments-near-to-disposal-site-of-reject-brine-from-desalination-plant-arabian-gulf-assessment-of-environmental-pollution
#8
Fatimh Alshahri
Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX)...
October 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792956/characterization-of-trihalomethane-haloacetic-acid-and-haloacetonitrile-precursors-in-a-seawater-reverse-osmosis-system
#9
Zhe Yang, Ying-Xue Sun, Tao Ye, Na Shi, Fang Tang, Hong-Ying Hu
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has been extensively applied to replenish the limited freshwater resources. One concern of such technology is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the pre-chlorination process. For the SWRO tested in this study, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and haloacetonitriles (HANs) increased by 35.1, 23.7 and 4.9μg/L, respectively, after a seawater sample (with UV254/DOC of 3.7L/mg·m and Br(-) of 50.9mg/L) was pre-chlorinated (1-2mg-Cl2/L)...
October 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784261/recent-development-of-chitosan-nanocomposites-for-environmental-applications
#10
Sher Bahader Khan, Shahid Ali Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Abdullah M Asiri, Kalsoom Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Potable, clean and safe water is the basic need for all human beings. Major portion of the earth is occupied by water, however, this is contaminated by rapid industrialization, improper sewage and natural calamities and man-made activates, which produce several water-borne and fetal diseases. In this review we presented some recent patent for environmental remediation. METHODS: Various technologies have been developed for the treatment of waste water consist of chemical, membrane, filtration, sedimentation, chlorination, disinfection, electrodialysis, electrolysis, reverse osmosis and adsorption...
October 25, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784239/membrane-based-technologies-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-and-continuous-production-of-polymer-coated-crystals-particles
#11
Dengyue Chen, Kamalesh K Sirkar, Chi Jin, Dhananjay Singh, Robert Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Membrane technologies are of increasing importance in a variety of separation and purification applications involving liquid phases and gaseous mixtures. Although the most widely used applications at this time are in water treatment including desalination, there are many applications in chemical, food, healthcare, paper and petrochemical industries. This brief review is concerned with existing and emerging applications of various membrane technologies in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry...
October 25, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782663/carbon-membranes-for-efficient-water-ethanol-separation
#12
Simon Gravelle, Hiroaki Yoshida, Laurent Joly, Christophe Ybert, Lydéric Bocquet
We demonstrate, on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, the possibility of an efficient water-ethanol separation using nanoporous carbon membranes, namely, carbon nanotube membranes, nanoporous graphene sheets, and multilayer graphene membranes. While these carbon membranes are in general permeable to both pure liquids, they exhibit a counter-intuitive "self-semi-permeability" to water in the presence of water-ethanol mixtures. This originates in a preferred ethanol adsorption in nanoconfinement that prevents water molecules from entering the carbon nanopores...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771085/condensed-milk-storage-and-evaporation-affect-the-flavor-of-nonfat-dry-milk
#13
Curtis W Park, MaryAnne Drake
Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763342/effects-of-dmso-and-glycerol-additives-on-the-property-of-polyamide-reverse-osmosis-membrane
#14
Fengjing Wu, Xiaojuan Liu, Chaktong Au
The polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared through interfacial polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC). The use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol as additives for the formation of thin-film composite (TFC) was investigated. We studied the effect of DMSO and glycerol addition on membrane property and RO performance. Microscopic morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The surface hydrophilicity was characterized on the basis of water contact angle and surface solid-liquid interfacial free energy (-ΔGSL)...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753069/aquifer-treatment-of-sea-water-to-remove-natural-organic-matter-before-desalination
#15
Abdullah H A Dehwah, Samir Al-Mashharawi, Kim Choon Ng, Thomas M Missimer
An investigation of a sea water reverse osmosis desalination facility located in western Saudi Arabia has shown that aquifer treatment of the raw sea water provides a high degree of removal of natural organic matter (NOM) that causes membrane biofouling. The aquifer is a carbonate system that has a good hydraulic connection to the sea and 14 wells are used to induce sea water movement 400 to 450 m from the sea to the wells. During aquifer transport virtually all of the algae, over 90% of the bacteria, over 90% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and high percentages of the humic substance, building blocks, and some of the low molecular weight fractions of NOM are removed...
October 17, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744596/reverse-osmosis-plant-maintenance-and-efficacy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-endemic-region-in-sri-lanka
#16
Channa Jayasumana, Omesh Ranasinghe, Sachini Ranasinghe, Imalka Siriwardhana, Sarath Gunatilake, Sisira Siribaddana
OBJECTIVE: Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. METHODS: We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding...
November 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736670/refuse-leachate-exposure-causes-changes-of-thyroid-hormone-level-and-related-gene-expression-in-female-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#17
Yufeng Gong, Hua Tian, Xiaona Zhang, Yifei Dong, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
To elucidate the potential thyroid disrupting effects of refuse leachate on females, female goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0.5% diluted leachates from each step of a leachate treatment process (i.e. raw leachate before treatment, after membrane bioreactor treatment, and the final treated leachate) for 21days. Raw leachate exposure caused disturbances in the thyroid cascade of female fish, as evidenced by the elevated plasma 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (p<0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (p<0...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728821/energy-efficiency-of-batch-and-semi-batch-ccro-reverse-osmosis-desalination
#18
David M Warsinger, Emily W Tow, Kishor G Nayar, Laith A Maswadeh, John H Lienhard V
As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed...
September 25, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723481/visualization-of-hydraulic-conditions-inside-the-feed-channel-of-reverse-osmosis-a-practical-comparison-of-velocity-between-empty-and-spacer-filled-channel
#19
A H Haidari, S G J Heijman, W G J van der Meer
It is widely accepted that our understanding about the membrane process increases by investigation of the hydraulic conditions of membranes. While numerical studies have been broadly used for this purpose, the experimental studies of a comparable resolution are scarce. In this study, we compared the pressure drop, the temporal and the spatial velocity maps of a spacer-filled channel and an empty channel of the same size to determine the effect of presence of the feeds spacer on hydraulic conditions. The velocity maps are obtained experimentally by using of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718544/salinity-gradients-for-sustainable-energy-primer-progress-and-prospects
#20
Ngai Yin Yip, Doriano Brogioli, Hubertus V M Hamelers, Kitty Nijmeijer
Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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