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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106004/wetting-behavior-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-nanofluids
#1
Adya Karthikeyan, Sylvain Coulombe, Anne-Marie Kietzig
Nanofluids - engineered colloidal suspensions in base liquids - have captivated the interest of researchers over the last two decades for various existing as well as emerging technological applications. The main impetus for the synthesis of such novel nanocomposite liquids is the potential to alter properties of the base liquid, such as its viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension, and to introduce specific optical and magnetic properties. Numerous studies suggest trends and explanations for the effects associated with the addition of nanoparticles, and that deviation from the base liquid properties are dependent on nanoparticle concentration...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097920/extending-the-life-cycle-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-a-review
#2
Eduardo Coutinho de Paula, Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral
The reverse osmosis (RO) technology for desalination and demineralization serves the global water crisis context, both technically and economically, and its market is growing. However, RO membranes have a limited life-cycle and are often disposed of in landfills. The impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of RO membranes have grown dramatically around the world. Waste prevention should have a high priority and take effect before the end-of-life phase of a product is reached. In this review, a summary is presented of the main advances in the performance of the RO technology and the membrane lifespan...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092936/the-effect-of-ozonation-and-biological-activated-carbon-treatment-of-wastewater-effluents-on-formation-of-n-nitrosamines-and-halogenated-disinfection-byproducts
#3
Yi-Hsueh Chuang, William A Mitch
Ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) is being considered as a key component of reverse osmosis-free advanced treatment trains for potable wastewater reuse. Using a laboratory-scale O3/BAC system treating two nitrified wastewater effluents, this study characterized the effect of different ozone dosages (0-1.0 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon) and BAC empty bed contact times (EBCT; 15-60 minutes) on the formation after chlorination or chloramination of 35 regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), 8 N-nitrosamines, and bromate...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040589/production-of-demineralized-water-for-use-in-thermal-power-stations-by-advanced-treatment-of-secondary-wastewater-effluent
#4
Ioannis A Katsoyiannis, Petros Gkotsis, Massimo Castellana, Fabricio Cartechini, Anastasios I Zouboulis
The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033494/forward-osmosis-as-an-approach-to-manage-oil-sands-tailings-water-and-on-site-basal-depressurization-water
#5
Shu Zhu, Mingyu Li, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
As the volume of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in tailings ponds increases, it is urgent to seek for water management approaches to alleviate the environmental impact caused by large quantity of toxic water. Forward osmosis (FO) utilizes osmotic pressure difference between two solutions, thereby giving a potential to manage two wastewaters. In this study, FO was proposed to manage OSPW, using on-site waste basal depressurization water (BDW) as draw solution. To investigate its feasibility, both short and long-term OSPW desalination experiments were carried out...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027980/assessment-of-the-carcinogenic-potential-of-high-intense-sweeteners-through-the-test-for-detection-of-epithelial-tumor-clones-warts-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Mirley Alves Vasconcelos, Priscila Capelari Orsolin, Rosiane Gomes Silva-Oliveira, Júlio César Nepomuceno, Mário Antônio Spanó
High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0...
December 24, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027527/predicting-the-impact-of-feed-spacer-modification-on-biofouling-by-hydraulic-characterization-and-biofouling-studies-in-membrane-fouling-simulators
#7
A Siddiqui, S Lehmann, Sz S Bucs, M Fresquet, L Fel, E I E C Prest, J Ogier, C Schellenberg, M C M van Loosdrecht, J C Kruithof, J S Vrouwenvelder
Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs)...
December 21, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008760/osmotic-ballasts-enhance-faradaic-efficiency-in-closed-loop-membrane-based-energy-systems
#8
Ryan Scott Kingsbury, Orlando Coronell
Aqueous processes for energy storage and conversion based on reverse electrodialysis (RED) require a significant concentration difference across ion exchange membranes, creating both an electrochemical potential and an osmotic pressure difference. In closed-loop RED, which we recently demonstrated as a new means of energy storage, the transport of water by osmosis has a very significant negative impact on the faradaic efficiency of the system. In this work, we use neutral, non-permeating solutes as "osmotic ballasts" in a closed-loop concentration battery based on RED...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999364/incorporation-of-graphene-related-carbon-nanosheets-in-membrane-fabrication-for-water-treatment-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Jenny Lawler
The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination...
December 19, 2016: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998786/combination-of-cupric-ion-with-hydroxylamine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-for-the-control-of-bacterial-biofilms-on-ro-membranes
#10
Hye-Jin Lee, Hyung-Eun Kim, Changha Lee
Combinations of Cu(II) with hydroxylamine (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (i.e., Cu(II)/HA, Cu(II)/H2O2, and Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 systems) were investigated for the control of P. aeruginosa biofilms on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. These Cu(II)-based disinfection systems effectively inactivated P. aeruginosa cells, exhibiting different behaviors depending on the state of bacterial cells (planktonic or biofilm) and the condition of biofilm growth and treatment (normal or pressurized condition). The Cu(II)/HA and Cu(II)/HA/H2O2 systems were the most effective reagents for the inactivation of planktonic cells...
December 11, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993395/a-sensitive-and-accurate-method-for-the-determination-of-perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-human-serum-using-a-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-online-solid-phase-extraction-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Chang Ho Yu, Bhupendra Patel, Marilou Palencia, Zhihua Tina Fan
A selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical method for the measurement of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum, utilizing LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), was developed and validated according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for biological sample analysis. Tests were conducted to determine the optimal analytical column, mobile phase composition and pH, gradient program, and cleaning procedure. The final analytical column selected for analysis was an extra densely bonded silica-packed reverse-phase column (Agilent XDB-C8, 3...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992824/nanotechnology-for-sustainable-wastewater-treatment-and-use-for-agricultural-production-a-comparative-long-term-study
#12
Patricia De La Cueva Bueno, Leonid Gillerman, Ronald Gehr, Gideon Oron
Nanotechnology applications can be used for filtering low quality waters, allowing under given conditions, the removal of salts and other micropollutants from these waters. A long-term field experiment, implementing nanotechnology in the form of UltraFiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) for salt removal from treated wastewater, was conducted with secondary effluents, aiming to prove the sustainability of agricultural production using irrigation with treated wastewater. Six outdoor field treatments, each under four replications, were conducted for examining the salt accumulation effects on the soil and the crops...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991635/mesoscale-simulation-of-phoretically-osmotic-boundary-conditions
#13
Mingcheng Yang, Riu Liu, Fangfu Ye, Ke Chen
Boundary walls can drive the tangential flow of fluids by phoretic osmosis when exposed to a gradient field, including chemical, thermal or electric potential gradient. At the microscale, such boundary driving mechanisms become quite pronounced. Here, we propose a mesoscale strategy to simulate the phoretically osmotic boundaries, in which the microscopic fluid-wall interactions are coarse-grained into the bounce-back or specular reflection, and the phoretically osmotic force is generated by selectively reversing the tangential velocity of specific fluid particles near the boundary wall...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967603/recovery-of-real-dye-bath-wastewater-using-integrated-membrane-process-considering-water-recovery-membrane-fouling-and-reuse-potential-of-membranes
#14
Cigdem Balcik-Canbolat, Cisel Sengezer, Hacer Sakar, Ahmet Karagunduz, Bulent Keskinler
It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966900/development-of-a-desalination-membrane-bioinspired-by-mangrove-roots-for-spontaneous-filtration-of-sodium-ions
#15
Kiwoong Kim, Hyejeong Kim, Jae Hong Lim, Sang Joon Lee
The shortage of available fresh water is one of the global issues presently faced by humanity. To determine a solution to this problem, the survival strategies of plants have been examined. In this study, a nature-inspired membrane with a highly charged surface is proposed as an effective membrane for the filtration of saline water. To mimic the desalination characteristics of mangrove roots, a macroporous membrane based on polyethylene terephthalate is treated with polyelectrolytes using a layer-by-layer deposition method...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934283/a-method-for-seawater-desalination-via-squeezing-ionic-hydrogels
#16
Chi Yu, Yanhong Wang, Xuemei Lang, Shuanshi Fan
In this study, mechanical force applied to squeeze poly(sodium acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels that contained seawater in order to obtain fresh water. By incorporating ionic monomer sodium acrylate (SA) into hydrogels, the salt rejection was significantly enhanced from 27.62% to 64.57% (feed concentration 35.00g/L NaCl solution). As SA's concentration continuously increased, salt rejection declined due to the change in hydrogel's matrix structure. Therefore, water recovery raised as the current swelling degree increased...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925378/investigating-the-potential-of-single-walled-aluminosilicate-nanotubes-in-water-desalination
#17
Kai-Hsin Liou, Dun-Yen Kang, Li-Chiang Lin
Water shortage has become a critical issue. To facilitate the large-scale deployment of reverse-osmosis water desalination to produce fresh water, discovering novel membranes is essential. Here, we computationally demonstrate the great potential of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (AlSiNTs), materials that can be synthesized through scalable methods, in desalination. State-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the desalination performance and structure-performance relationship of AlSiNTs...
January 18, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899431/monitoring-process-water-quality-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-partial-least-squares-regression-with-prediction-uncertainty-estimation
#18
Peter B Skou, Thilo A Berg, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Dorrit Thaysen, Morten A Rasmussen, Frans van den Berg
Reuse of process water in dairy ingredient production-and food processing in general-opens the possibility for sustainable water regimes. Membrane filtration processes are an attractive source of process-water recovery since the technology is already utilized in the dairy industry and its use is expected to grow considerably. At Arla Foods Ingredients (AFI), permeate from a reverse osmosis polisher filtration unit is sought to be reused as process water, replacing the intake of potable water. However, as for all dairy and food producers, the process-water quality must be monitored continuously to ensure food safety...
November 29, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892814/a-new-route-of-bioaugmentation-by-allochthonous-and-autochthonous-through-biofilm-bacteria-for-soluble-chemical-oxygen-demand-removal-of-old-leachate
#19
Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Sara Rastgar, Majid Peyravi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Ali Shokuhi Rad
Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic)...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889657/evaluation-of-fertilizer-drawn-forward-osmosis-for-sustainable-agriculture-and-water-reuse-in-arid-regions
#20
Laura Chekli, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Sheng Li, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
The present study focused on the performance of the FDFO process to achieve simultaneous water reuse from wastewater and production of nutrient solution for hydroponic application. Bio-methane potential (BMP) measurements were firstly carried out to determine the effect of osmotic concentration of wastewater achieved in the FDFO process on the anaerobic activity. Results showed that 95% water recovery from the FDFO process is the optimum value for further AnMBR treatment. Nine different fertilizers were then tested based on their FO performance (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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