Read by QxMD icon Read

reverse osmosis

Jing-Long Han, Xue Xia, Muhammad Rizwan Haider, Wen-Li Jiang, Yu Tao, Mei-Jun Liu, Hong-Cheng Wang, Yang-Cheng Ding, Ya-Nan Hou, Hao-Yi Cheng, Ai-Jie Wang
Some refractory organic matters or soluble microbial products remained in the effluents of refractory organic wastewater after biological secondary treatment and need an advanced treatment before final disposal. Graphene oxide (GO) was known to have potential to be the next generation membrane material. The functional organics/inorganic salts separation GO membrane preparation and application in wastewater advanced treatment could reduce energy or chemicals consumption and avoid organics/inorganic salts mixed concentrate waste problems after nanofiltration or reverse osmosis...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sung Kyu Maeng, Song Hee You, Joo-Youn Nam, Hodon Ryu, Thomas C Timmes, Hyun-Chul Kim
This study achieves a better operational simplicity for the phycoremediation of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate using Scenedesmus quadricauda microalgae. Under continuous illumination with CO2 supplementation, algal growth in the RO concentrate resulted in a conversion of polymeric organic matter (a mixture of humic substances and polysaccharides) to biodegradable fractions and their prompt removal along with inorganic nutrients (NO3- and PO43-). The algal-induced degradation of humic-like substances which are typically refractory to microbial decomposition was demonstrated in an indirect manner...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
J D Kenny, B D Webber, E W Howe, R B Holden
Dieldrin and DDx removal through wastewater treatment, ozonation, and microfiltration was assessed for a water reuse project for groundwater replenishment in Monterey, California, USA. Full-scale sampling was conducted at the wastewater treatment plant, and physical wastewater treatment processes, ozonation, and microfiltration were tested at the bench scale. Removals observed through wastewater treatment, ozonation, and microfiltration were 84%, 44% to 63%, and 97% to 98%, respectively, for dieldrin, and 93%, 36% to 48%, and 92% to 94% for DDx...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
J Ortiz-Medina, S Inukai, T Araki, A Morelos-Gomez, R Cruz-Silva, K Takeuchi, T Noguchi, T Kawaguchi, M Terrones, M Endo
Chlorine resistant reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were fabricated using a multi-walled carbon nanotube-polyamide (MWCNT-PA) nanocomposite. The separation performance of these membranes after chlorine exposure (4800 ppm·h) remained unchanged (99.9%) but was drastically reduced to 82% in the absence of MWCNT. It was observed that the surface roughness of the membranes changed significantly by adding MWCNT. Moreover, membranes containing MWCNT fractions above 12.5 wt.% clearly improved degradation resistance against chlorine exposure, with an increase in water flux while maintaining salt rejection performance...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muralikrishna Raju, Pavan B Govindaraju, Adri C T van Duin, Matthias Ihme
Recent theoretical and experimental studies reported ultra-high water permeability and salt rejection in nanoporous single-layer graphene. However, creating and controlling the size and distribution of nanometer-scale pores pose significant challenges to application of these membranes for water desalination. Graphyne and hydrogenated graphyne have tremendous potential as ultra-permeable membranes for desalination and wastewater reclamation due to their uniform pore-distribution, atomic thickness and mechano-chemical stability...
February 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Gloria Wada, Michael Vincent, Marcia Lee
Fungi, particularly molds that are cosmopolitan in soils, are frequent etiologic agents of opportunistic mycoses. Members of the Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum species complexes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents of opportunistic fusarial infections in mammals, while Paecilomyces variotii is one of the most frequently encountered Paecilomyces species in human infections. Prevention and treatment of these mycoses are problematic because available antimycotics are limited and often have toxic side effects...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mingjun Deng, Dave T F Kuo, Qihang Wu, Ying Zhang, Xinyu Liu, Shengyu Liu, Xiaodong Hu, Bixian Mai, Zhineng Liu, Haozhi Zhang
The occurrence, distribution and removal efficiencies of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and metals were examined in a municipal landfill leachate treatment system in Guangzhou, China. Five OPFRs and thirty-five metals were detected in wastewater samples collected at different treatment stages. ∑OPFRs was reduced from 4807.02 ng L-1 to 103.91 ng L-1 through the treatment system, with close to 98% removed from the dissolved phase. Tris(clorisopropyl) phosphates (TCPPs) dominated through the treatment process and accounted for over 80% and 50% of ∑OPFRs at the influent and the effluent, respectively...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brian M Kobylkevich, Anyesha Sarkar, Brady R Carlberg, Ling Huang, Suman Ranjit, David M Graham, Mark A Messerli
Weak external electric fields (EFs) polarize cellular structure and direct most migrating cells (galvanotaxis) toward the cathode, making it a useful tool during tissue engineering and healing of epidermal wounds. However, the biophysical mechanisms for sensing weak EFs remain elusive. We have reinvestigated the mechanism of cathode-directed water flow (electro-osmosis) in the boundary layer of cells, by reducing it with neutral, viscous polymers. We report that increasing viscosity with low molecular weight polymers decreases cathodal migration and promotes anodal migration in a concentration dependent manner...
February 7, 2018: Physical Biology
Charles P Gerba, Walter Q Betancourt, Masaaki Kitajima, Channah M Rock
Treatment of wastewater for potable reuse requires the reduction of enteric viruses to levels that pose no significant risk to human health. Advanced water treatment trains (e.g., chemical clarification, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, advanced oxidation) have been developed to provide reductions of viruses to differing levels of regulatory control depending upon the levels of human exposure and associated health risks. Importance in any assessment is information on the concentration and types of viruses in the untreated wastewater, as well as the degree of removal by each treatment process...
January 29, 2018: Water Research
Yonggang Wang, Xu Wang, Mingwei Li, Jing Dong, Changhong Sun, Guanyi Chen
This study focuses on the application of combining membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment with reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membrane treatment for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal wastewater. Twenty-seven PPCPs were measured in real influent with lowest average concentration being trimethoprim (7.12 ng/L) and the highest being caffeine (18.4 ng/L). The results suggest that the MBR system effectively removes the PPCPs with an efficiency of between 41.08% and 95...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Biagio R Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Luigi Russo, Luca Nardone, Emanuele De Simone, M L Sirico, Gabriella Di Natale, Domenico Russo
This is a post-hoc analysis evaluating erythropoiesis stimulating agents' (ESA) related costs while using an additional ultrafilter (Estorclean PLUS) to produce ultrapure dialysis water located within the fluid pathway after the treatment with reverse osmosis and before the dialysis machine. Twenty-nine patients (19 treated with epoetin alfa and 10 with darboepoetin alfa) were included in the analysis. We showed to gain savings of 210 € per patient (35 € per patient each month) with epoetin alfa during the experimental period of 6 months, compared to the control period and of 545 € per patient (90 € per patient each month) with darboepoetin alfa...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
C Letournel, V Montecot
OBJECTIVES: In French health centers, the pharmacist is responsible for the quality of hemodialysis fluids. In an insular hospital, it is difficult to make bacteriological controls because of the lack of an environmental laboratory. Alternative choices of methods must be seek to facilitate water control and ensure the security of hemodialysis for patients. Controlling the microbiological risk is an essential condition for the good operation of a telemedicine partnership in dialysis. METHODS: A review of the different methods that has been tried is presented...
January 17, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Xi Chen, Ngai Yin Yip
Current practice of using thermally-driven methods to treat hypersaline brines is highly energy-intensive and costly. While conventional reverse osmosis (RO) is the most efficient desalination technique, it is confined to purifying seawater and lower salinity sources. Hydraulic pressure restrictions and elevated energy demand render RO unsuitable for high-salinity streams. Here, we propose an innovative cascading osmotically mediated reverse osmosis (COMRO) technology to overcome the limitations of conventional RO...
January 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jerod J Hurst, Josh S Wallace, Diana S Aga
Ionophore antimicrobials are heavily used in the livestock industries, both for preventing animal infection by coccidia protozoa and for increasing feed efficiency. Ionophores are excreted mostly unmetabolized and are released into the environment when manure is land-applied to fertilize croplands. Here, an analytical method was optimized to study the occurrences of five ionophore residues (monensin, lasalocid, maduramycin, salinomycin, and narasin) in dairy manure after solid-liquid separation and further treatment of the liquid manure by a membrane-based treatment system...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yun Chul Woo, Youngjin Kim, Minwei Yao, Leonard Demegilio Tijing, Juneseok Choi, Sangho Lee, Seunghyun Kim, Hokyong Shon
In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Behnam Khorshidi, Ishita Biswas, Tanushree Ghosh, Thomas Thundat, Mohtada Sadrzadeh
The development of nano-enabled composite materials has led to a paradigm shift in the manufacture of high-performance nanocomposite membranes with enhanced permeation, thermo-mechanical, and antibacterial properties. The major challenges to the successful incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) to polymer films are the severe aggregation of the NPs and the weak compatibility of NPs with polymers. These two phenomena lead to the formation of non-selective voids at the interface of the polymer and NPs, which adversely affect the separation performance of the membrane...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shamima Moazzem, Jamie Wills, Linhua Fan, Felicity Roddick, Veeriah Jegatheesan
Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saikat Sinha Ray, Shiao Shing Chen, Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Hau Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Phuoc Dan, Bui Xuan Thanh, Le Thuy Trang
Selection of a proper osmotic agent is important to make the forward osmosis (FO) feasible. The objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse solute flux and maintaining high water flux. Poly(propylene glycol) with molecular weight of 725 Da (PPG-725) was found to possess high osmolality, making it a strong candidate for using as a draw agent. In addition, to reduce the partial leakage of draw solute, a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) has been incorporated. Typically, when the hydrophobic tails of Triton X-114 interacted with the membrane surface, a layer on the surface of membrane is produced to constrict the pores and thus minimize the reverse solute flux...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ming Xie, Wenhai Luo, Hao Guo, Long D Nghiem, Chuyang Y Tang, Stephen R Gray
We investigated transport mechanisms of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) through aquaporin thin-film composite forward osmosis (FO) membrane, and membrane stability under extreme conditions with respect to TrOC rejections. Morphology and surface chemistry of the aquaporin membrane were characterised to identify the incorporation of aquaporin vesicles into membrane active layer. Pore hindrance model was used to estimate aquaporin membrane pore size as well as to describe TrOC transport. TrOC transport mechanisms were revealed by varying concentration and type of draw solutions...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"