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reverse osmosis

L-G Chong, P-A Chen, J-Y Huang, H-L Huang, H Paul Wang
A feasibility study for water recycling and reuse of a reverse osmosis (RO) brackish wastewater by capacitive deionization (CDI) was carried out in the present work. Palm-shell wastes enriched in carbon was recycled to yield valuable activated carbon (AC) that has advantages of high surface area, high specific capacitance, and low electrical resistance as the CDI electrodes. The GAC prepared by dispersion of AC in the graphene (rGO) layers has a high surface area and electrical conductivity for CDI. The GAC electrodes have increasing electrosorption efficiencies from 1...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Wenhai Luo, Ming Xie, Xiaoye Song, Wenshan Guo, Hao H Ngo, John L Zhou, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Marco Scheurer, Karsten Nödler, Finnian Freeling, Joachim Janda, Oliver Happel, Marcel Riegel, Uwe Müller, Florian Rüdiger Storck, Michael Fleig, Frank Thomas Lange, Andrea Brunsch, Heinz-Jürgen Brauch
Elevated concentrations of trifluoroacetate (TFA) of more than 100 μg/L in a major German river led to the occurrence of more than 20 μg/L TFA in bank filtration based tap waters. Several spatially resolved monitoring programs were conducted and discharges from an industrial company were identified as the point source of TFA contamination. Treatment options for TFA removal were investigated at full-scale waterworks and in laboratory batch tests. Commonly applied techniques like ozonation or granulated activated carbon filtration are inappropriate for TFA removal, whereas TFA was partly removed by ion exchange and completely retained by reverse osmosis...
September 26, 2017: Water Research
Zhaofeng Liu, Guiru Zhu, Yulin Wei, Dapeng Zhang, Lei Jiang, Haizeng Wang, Congjie Gao
A novel thin film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis membrane was prepared via the interfacial polymerization of m-phenylene diamine (MPD) in aqueous phase and 1,3,5-trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in organic phase on a polysulfone ultrafiltration support by assisting with ethyl formate as a co-solvent added in the organic phase. The ethyl formate added in the organic phase is intended to form a narrow miscibility zone, which leads to the thicker reaction zone. The multi-layered loose polyamide structure with larger pore size was formed due to the thicker reaction zone and lower content of MPD...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Husnain Haider
In arid environmental regions, such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), each and every drop of groundwater needs to be efficiently utilized to meet growing water demands. Ground water treatment plants (WTPs) are regularly being monitored by the municipalities to ensure safe water supply. However, analyzing large data to assess the performance of a WTP has always been a daunting task for plant's management. Most of existing performance assessment frameworks were developed for surface WTPs. In this research, an assessment framework using performance-based water quality indices (P WQI) is developed to facilitate senior management of ground WTPs for effective decision-making...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rui Zhang, Bin Liang, Ting Qu, Bing Cao, Pei Li
Pervaperation (PV), as a novel technology, has shown great promise in fresh water production from salty water. However, the low water flux of the present membranes hinders their practical applications. Here, a new type of pervaporation composite membrane, consisting of a selective skin layer fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) crosslinked by sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and a porous support layer using a commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membrane, was developed for applications in desalination...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
Bauke Albada, Nils Metzler-Nolte
Resistance of pathogenic bacteria against currently marketed antibiotics is again increasing. To meet the societal need for effective cures, scientists are faced with the challenge of developing more potent but equally bacteria-specific drugs. Currently, most efforts are directed toward the modification of existing antibiotics, but ideally, compounds with a new mode of action are required. In this Account, we detail our findings in the area of novel metal-based antibiotics. Our strategy is based on the modification of simple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with organometallic agents, resulting in organometallic AMPs (OM-AMPs)...
October 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ruizhi Pang, Kaisong Zhang
Thin film nanocomposite reverse osmosis (TFN RO) membranes incorporated with hydrophilic nanoparticles show a potential problem that the salt rejection can not be improved significantly. In this study, novel TFN RO membranes incorporated with hydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles were fabricated to improve the salt rejection. Fluorinated silica nanoparticles were well dispersed in organic phase during the interfacial polymerization (IP) process. The TFN RO membranes were characterized with attenuated total reflectance infra-red, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hongwei Song, Fang Xie, Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu
This study investigated a forward osmosis and membrane distillation (FO/MD) hybrid system for real dairy wastewater (DWW) recycling. Two types of FO membranes, cellulose triacetate-embedded polyester screen support (CTA-ES) and aquaporin inside (AQP), were employed. Sodium chloride was used as the draw solution. A cross-flow FO cell and an air gap membrane distillation module were established to conduct individual FO experiments and FO/MD experiments. From the experiments, an analysis of the water flux (Jw), reverse draw solute flux (Js), Js/Jw ratio and contaminant rejection was performed...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
Kang Hu, Thorsten Fiedler, Laura Blanco, Sven-Uwe Geissen, Simon Zander, David Prieto, Angeles Blanco, Carlos Negro, Nathalie Swinnen
A pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) followed behind a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for the desalination to reuse wastewater in a PVC production site. The solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) based on the solution-diffusion model (SDM) and the film theory was proposed to describe rejections of electrolyte mixtures in the MBR effluent which consists of dominant ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and several trace ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and SO4(2-)). The universal global optimisation method was used to estimate the ion permeability coefficients (B) and mass transfer coefficients (K) in SDFM...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt
Net-zero greywater (NZGW) reuse, or nearly closed-loop recycle of greywater for all original uses, can recover both water and its attendant hot-water thermal energy, while avoiding the installation and maintenance of a separate greywater sewer in residential areas. Such a system, if portable, could also provide wash water for remote emergency health care units. However, such greywater reuse engenders human contact with the recycled water, and hence superior treatment. The purpose of this paper is to review processes applicable to the mineralization of organics, including control of oxidative byproducts such as bromate, and maintenance of disinfection consistent with potable reuse guidelines, in NZGW systems...
November 15, 2017: Water Research
Mingchuan Yu, Hanmin Zhang, Fenglin Yang
Forward osmosis (FO) technology is an efficient route to obtain purity water for drinking from wastewater or seawater. However, there are some challenges in draw solution to limit its application. We first introduce a novel sodium alginate-graphene oxide (SA-GO) aerogel as draw agent for highly efficient FO process. The GO nanosheets covalently cross-linked to SA matrix to form a three-dimensional and highly porous aerogel to provide excellent water flux and operation stability, together with the property of compressibility served by SA-GO aerogel resulting in easy water production and regeneration process...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B H Boyden, L Nador, S Addleman, L Jeston
Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yoshihiro Takizawa, Shigeki Inukai, Takumi Araki, Rodolfo Cruz-Silva, Noriko Uemura, Aaron Morelos-Gomez, Josue Ortiz-Medina, Syogo Tejima, Kenji Takeuchi, Takeyuki Kawaguchi, Toru Noguchi, Takuya Hayashi, Mauricio Terrones, Morinobu Endo
We demonstrate efficient antifouling and low protein adhesion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyamide nanocomposite (MWCNT-PA) reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes by combining experimental and theoretical studies using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was used for the fouling studies. The fouling was observed in real time by using a crossflow system coupled to a fluorescence microscope. Notably, it was observed that BSA anchoring on the smooth MWCNT-PA membrane was considerably weaker than that of other commercial/laboratory-made plain PA membranes...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Amine Mnif, Imen Bejaoui, Meral Mouelhi, Béchir Hamrouni
Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hiroyuki Mano, Fumihiko Takeda, Tomokazu Kitamura, Seiichiro Okamoto, Yutaka Suzuki, Chang-Beom Park, Nobuhito Yasui, Kentarou Kobayashi, Yuji Tanaka, Naoyuki Yamashita, Mizuhiko Minamiyama
The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hanaa M Hegab, Ahmed ElMekawy, Thomas G Barclay, Andrew Michelmore, Linda Zou, Dusan Losic, Christopher P Saint, Milena Ginic-Markovic
A practical fabrication technique is presented to tackle the trade-off between the water flux and salt rejection of thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes through controlled creation of a thinner active selective polyamide (PA) layer. The new thin film nano-composite (TFNC) RO membranes were synthesized with multifunctional poly tannic acid-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets (pTA-f-GO) embedded in its PA thin active layer, which is produced through interfacial polymerization. The incorporation of pTA-f-GOL into the fabricated TFNC membranes resulted in a thinner PA layer with lower roughness and higher hydrophilicity compared to pristine membrane...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuan Xu, Xueli Gao, Xiaojuan Wang, Qun Wang, Zhiyong Ji, Xinyan Wang, Tao Wu, Congjie Gao
A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF) material-MIL-101 (Cr) was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA) layer on the polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration (UF) support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr) membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability measurement and reverse osmosis (RO) test. The porous structures of MIL-101 (Cr) can establish direct water channels in the dense selective PA layer for water molecules to transport through quickly, leading to the increasing water permeance of membranes...
October 26, 2016: Materials
Hyeon-Gyu Choi, Moon Son, Heechul Choi
Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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