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reverse osmosis

Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Penghui Gao, Meng Zhang, Yuji Du, Bo Cheng, Donghai Zhang
Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 1010 m3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Fengmin Du, David Warsinger, Tamanna Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and non-renewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Li, Samuel Patton, Jamie M Gleason, Stephen Peter Mezyk, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
A sequential combination of membrane treatment and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOP) has become the industry standard for potable water reuse. Chloramines are used as membrane anti-fouling agents and therefore carried over into the UV/AOP. In addition, persulfate (S2O82-) is an emerging oxidant which can be added into a UV/AOP, thus creating radicals generated from both chloramines and persulfate for water treatment. This study investigated the simultaneous photolysis of S2O82- and monochloramine (NH2Cl) on the removal of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) for potable water reuse...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yue Cui, Tai-Shung Chung
The organic solvent forward osmosis (OSFO) process can simultaneously concentrate the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and recover the organic solvents. Here we demonstrate and evaluate an OSFO process for solvent recovery. In this demonstration, OSFO was conducted in different solvents with different draw solutes. The OSFO process shows rejections >98% when recovering organic solvents from different feed solutions, even when the feed concentration is as high as 20 wt%. More importantly, all systems exhibit relatively low ratios of reverse solute flux to solvent flux, indicating that the adverse effects of using hazardous draw solutions could be minimized...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Ashley J Ansari, Faisal I Hai, William E Price, Huu H Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Long D Nghiem
This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
J Jaime Sadhwani Alonso, Nenna El Kori, N Melián-Martel, B Del Río-Gamero
Much of the deterioration of water resources is anthropogenically caused as a consequence of the incessant production of chemical compounds to obtain the quality of life that society demands today. This constant presence and harmful accumulation of these pollutants in different ecosystems have seen them emerge as a major concern both for human health and for environmental safety. Scientific advances have succeeded in legislating against, reducing and even eliminating priority pollutants, while new technologies are being constantly developed to identify and treat newly emerging pollutants...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gong Genghao, Hiroki Nagasawa, Masakoto Kanezashi, Toshinori Tsuru
The fabrication of a continuous and uniform organosilica membrane on a porous polymer substrate was achieved via a facile and technologically scalable flow-induced deposition (FD) approach. The uniformity of the thickness of an organosilica separation layer on a polymer surface with a large area was improved significantly via this two-step FD approach. Meanwhile, the optimal concentration of the organosilica used in membrane preparation was also investigated. This polymer-supported organosilica layered-hybrid membrane showed a high level of NaCl rejection (97...
April 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Numan Yanar, Moon Son, Eunmok Yang, Yeji Kim, Hosik Park, Seung-Eun Nam, Heechul Choi
Recently, feed spacer research for improving the performance of a membrane module has adopted three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. This study aims to improve the performance of membrane feed spacers by using various materials and incorporating 3D printing. The samples were fabricated after modeling with 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software to investigate the mechanical strength, water flux, reverse solute flux, and fouling performances. This research was performed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP), and natural polylactic acid (PLA) as printing material, and the spacer model was produced using a diamond-shaped feed spacer, with a commercially available product as a reference...
March 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Vladimir I Makarov, Igor Khmelinskii, Sabzali Javadov
Swelling of mitochondria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human diseases by stimulating mitochondria-mediated cell death through apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Changes in the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) of ions and other substances induce an increase in the colloid osmotic pressure, leading to matrix swelling. Modeling of mitochondrial swelling is important for simulation and prediction of in vivo events in the cell during oxidative and energy stress. In the present study, we developed a computational model that describes the mechanism of mitochondrial swelling based on osmosis, the rigidity of the IMM, and dynamics of ionic/neutral species...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ahmad Rahimpour, S Fatemeh Seyedpour, Sadegh Aghapour Aktij, Mostafa Dadashi Firouzjaei, Alireza Zirehpour, Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi, Saeed Khoshhal Salestan, Mostafa Jabbari, Masoud Soroush
This work shows that incorporating highly-compatible polyrhodanine nanoparticles (PRh-NPs) into a polyamide (PA) active layer allows for fabricating forward osmosis (FO) thin-film composite (TFC)-PRh membranes that have simultaneously-improved anti-microbial, antifouling, and transport properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of its kind to this date. The presence of the PRh-NPs on the surface of the TFC-PRh membrane active layers is evaluated using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and XPS...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammad Amin Alaei Shahmirzadi, Seyed Saeid Hosseini, Jianquan Luo, Inmaculada Ortiz
Desalination and softening of sea, brackish, and ground water are becoming increasingly important solutions to overcome water shortage challenges. Various technologies have been developed for salt removal from water resources including multi-stage flash, multi-effect distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, electrodialysis, as well as adsorption. Recently, removal of solutes by adsorption onto selective adsorbents has shown promising perspectives. Different types of adsorbents such as zeolites, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), activated carbons, graphenes, magnetic adsorbents, and low-cost adsorbents (natural materials, industrial by-products and wastes, bio-sorbents, and biopolymer) have been synthesized and examined for salt removal from aqueous solutions...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
P S Calabrò, E Gentili, C Meoni, S Orsi, D Komilis
"Fossetto" landfill has been operating in the municipality of Monsummano Terme (Pistoia Province, Italy) since 1988; the authorized volume for landfilling is about 1,000,000 m3 ; at the moment the plant is being mainly used to dispose of mechanically and biologically treated residual municipal solid waste. Since September 2006, an in-situ reverse osmosis leachate treatment plant has been operating to treat leachate. The treated water is being discharged into a small nearby stream while the concentrated leachate is being recirculated back into the landfill body following Italian Regulations and an authorization from the local authority (Pistoia Province)...
March 21, 2018: Waste Management
David M Warsinger, Emily W Tow, Laith A Maswadeh, Grace B Connors, Jaichander Swaminathan, John H Lienhard V
Enhanced fouling resistance has been observed in recent variants of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination which use time-varying batch or semi-batch processes, such as closed-circuit RO (CCRO) and pulse flow RO (PFRO). However, the mechanisms of batch processes' fouling resistance are not well-understood, and models have not been developed for prediction of their fouling performance. Here, a framework for predicting reverse osmosis fouling is developed by comparing the fluid residence time in batch and continuous (conventional) reverse osmosis systems to the nucleation induction times for crystallization of sparingly soluble salts...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
Sreenivasan Ramaswami, Joachim Behrendt, Ralf Otterpohl
Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable...
March 21, 2018: Membranes
Yujing Huang, Jia Wang, Yao Tan, Lingqiao Wang, Hui Lin, Lan Lan, Yu Xiong, Wei Huang, Weiqun Shu
Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
D Cingolani, F Fatone, N Frison, M Spinelli, A L Eusebi
Recovery of high quality water from municipal landfill leachate was studied by three-stage disc tube reverse osmosis optimized in pilot-scale. Following UF-membrane-assisted activated sludge plant, overall 46.5 tons of leachate were post-treated in real environment and analyzed for conventional contaminants and hazardous compounds (e.g. heavy metals, boron, selenium) throughout operation of membrane system. Operating pressure ranged from 21 to 76 bar, while permeate flux varied in the range 7.1-32.5 L m-2  h-1 ...
March 15, 2018: Waste Management
Jiade Wang, Tian Zhang, Yu Mei, Bingjun Pan
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) of printing and dyeing wastewater remains as a daunting environmental issue, which is characterized by high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), chroma and low biodegradability. In this study electro-oxidation process (PbO2 /Ti electrode) coupled with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) online monitor was applied to treat such a ROC effluent. The results show that with the increase of specific electrical charge (Qsp ), the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and chroma increased significantly at the incipience and then reached a gentle stage; the optimal total current efficiency (12...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Yushi Uetera, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Naohito Kumada, Yoshiki Misawa, Yoshiyuki Terada, Yoshio Satou, Tamaki Suhara, Kunio Kawamura
Recently, the use of filters has come into light for sanitizing water plants. This study investigated the role of heat-tolerant ultrafilters (UFs) for the remediation of reverse osmosis (RO) plants using periodic thermal disinfection. Two completely identical RO plants (RO plants A & B) were installed in 2006 for surgical hand antisepsis in the operating theater. RO water was stored in the 300-liter storage tank and re-circulated in the 190 meter-long loop delivering water to 12 faucets in each RO plant...
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Pei Biao, Chen Junjie, Liu Peng, He Tao, Li Xuemei, Zhang Lin
Generally, conventional polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes suffer from a low water flux and serious oil pollution in the treatment of oil saline wastewater. Here, a novel RO membrane was successfully fabricated with hyperbranched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) by interfacial reaction on polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane surface. The relatively smooth and thin PAMAM and TMC crosslinking active layer on the substrate membrane endowed the composite membrane with an excellent separation performance and remarkable anti-fouling performance simultaneously...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
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