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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223088/probing-molecular-interaction-mechanisms-of-organic-fouling-on-polyamide-membrane-using-a-surface-forces-apparatus-implication-for-wastewater-treatment
#1
Qingye Lu, Jun Huang, Omar Maan, Yang Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface fouling is the dominant fouling mechanism of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes used in reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Understanding the complex interactions between foulant-membrane which drive the attachment and growth of foulants on membrane surface is of both fundamental and practical importance. This work aims to understand the molecular interaction mechanisms of organic fouling on RO-TFC membranes. A surface forces apparatus (SFA) was employed to directly measure the interaction forces and time-dependent adsorption behaviors between model organic foulants: humic acid (HA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a polyamide (PA) thin film...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215353/heterotrophic-monitoring-at-a-drinking-water-treatment-plant-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-after-different-drinking-water-treatments
#2
Laura Sala-Comorera, Anicet R Blanch, Carles Vilaró, Belén Galofré, Cristina García-Aljaro
The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for routine heterotrophic monitoring in a drinking water treatment plant. Water samples were collected from raw surface water and after different treatments during two campaigns over a 1-year period. Heterotrophic bacteria were studied and isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, the diversity index and the coefficient of population similarity were also calculated using biochemical fingerprinting of the populations studied...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210702/effects-of-tannic-acid-on-membrane-fouling-and-membrane-cleaning-in-forward-osmosis
#3
Wanzhu Zhang, Lin Wang, Bingzhi Dong
The fouling behavior during forward osmosis (FO) was investigated. Tannic acid was used as a model organic foulant for natural organic matter analysis since the main characteristics are similar, and calcium ions were added at different concentrations to explore the anti-pollution capability of FO membranes. The initial permeate flux and calcium ions strength were varied in different operating conditions to describe membrane fouling with membrane cleaning methods. The observed flux decline in FO changed dramatically with the type of foulant and the type of draw solution used to provide the osmotic driving force...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197818/application-of-volume-retarded-osmosis-and-low-pressure-membrane-hybrid-process-for-water-reclamation
#4
Sung-Ju Im, Jungwon Choi, Jung-Gil Lee, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang
A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated...
November 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191315/occurrence-and-fate-of-endogenous-steroid-hormones-alkylphenol-ethoxylates-bisphenol-a-and-phthalates-in-municipal-sewage-treatment-systems
#5
Qian Wu, James C W Lam, Karen Y Kwok, Mirabelle M P Tsui, Paul K S Lam
Steroid hormones, alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are emerging endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that can interfere with the endocrine function in organisms at low concentrations. The occurrence, distribution behavior, removal rate and the fate of 31 target EDCs in sewage treatment plants, which consist of various treatment facilities and receiving water in Hong Kong, were investigated. Estrone, nonylphenol-di-ethoxylate and diethyl phthalate were found to be dominant in each group of influent samples with concentrations ranging from 11-33, 747-3945 and 445-4635ng/L, respectively...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190480/treatment-of-a-highly-concentrated-sulphate-rich-synthetic-wastewater-using-calcium-hydroxide-in-a-fluidised-bed-crystallizer
#6
Chiara Maharaj, Jemitias Chivavava, Alison Lewis
This study aimed to investigate factors that affect the conversion of sulphates and magnesium, and the recovery of gypsum and magnesium hydroxide in the neutralization of a sulphate rich stream using calcium hydroxide, in a laboratory scale seeded fluidised bed crystallizer. Particular focus was on reducing the precipitated fines that escaped with the treated water, through the use of seeds, while removing as much sulphate-compounds from the waste stream as possible. The composition of the total sulphate salts was as follows: 80% magnesium sulphate, calcium sulphate remaining at its saturation concentration (1...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181481/a-graphene-like-membrane-with-an-ultrahigh-water-flux-for-desalination
#7
Y G Yan, W S Wang, W Li, K P Loh, J Zhang
An ultrathin nanoporous membrane which combines high water permeability and high salt rejection is the core of ultrafiltration technology. Recently, we reported the synthesis of a chemically robust and nanoporous two-dimensional conjugated aromatic polymer (2D-CAP) membrane. Due to its array of highly regular sub-nanometer pores and channels, the ultrathin 2D-CAP membrane can be potentially used in desalination. Herein, we used molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the transmembrane hydrodynamics of mono- and multi-layer 2D-CAP membranes as a function of layer number...
November 28, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179069/renewable-energy-powered-membrane-technology-impact-of-ph-and-ionic-strength-on-fluoride-and-natural-organic-matter-removal
#8
Isaac Owusu-Agyeman, Junjie Shen, Andrea Iris Schäfer
Real water pH and ionic strength vary greatly, which influences the performance of membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Systematic variation of pH (3-12) and ionic strength (2-10g/L as total dissolved solids (TDS)) was undertaken with a real Tanzanian water to investigate how water quality affects retention mechanisms of fluoride (F) and natural organic matter (NOM). An autonomous solar powered NF/RO system driven by a solar array simulator was supplied with constant power from a generator...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164124/sterile-reverse-osmosis-water-combined-with-friction-are-optimal-for-channel-and-lever-cavity-sample-collection-of-flexible-duodenoscopes
#9
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Patricia DeGagne, Nancy Olson
Introduction: Simulated-use buildup biofilm (BBF) model was used to assess various extraction fluids and friction methods to determine the optimal sample collection method for polytetrafluorethylene channels. In addition, simulated-use testing was performed for the channel and lever cavity of duodenoscopes. Materials and methods: BBF was formed in polytetrafluorethylene channels using Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sterile reverse osmosis (RO) water, and phosphate-buffered saline with and without Tween80 as well as two neutralizing broths (Letheen and Dey-Engley) were each assessed with and without friction...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149751/massive-arrival-of-desalinated-seawater-in-a-regional-urban-water-cycle-a-multi-isotope-study-b-s-o-h
#10
W Kloppmann, Ido Negev, Joseph Guttman, Orly Goren, Ittai Gavrieli, Catherine Guerrot, Christine Flehoc, Marie Pettenati, Avihu Burg
"Man-made" or unconventional freshwater, like desalinated seawater or reclaimed effluents, is increasingly introduced into regional water cycles in arid or semi-arid countries. We show that the breakthrough of reverse osmosis-derived freshwater in the largely engineered water cycle of the greater Tel Aviv region (Dan Region) has profoundly changed previous isotope fingerprints. This new component can be traced throughout the system, from the drinking water supply, through sewage, treated effluents, and artificially recharged groundwater at the largest Soil-Aquifer Treatment system in the Middle East (Shafdan) collecting all the Dan region sewage...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149673/the-feasibility-of-nanofiltration-membrane-bioreactor-nf-mbr-reverse-osmosis-ro-process-for-water-reclamation-comparison-with-ultrafiltration-membrane-bioreactor-uf-mbr-ro-process
#11
Ming Feng Tay, Chang Liu, Emile R Cornelissen, Bing Wu, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m(2)h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148024/blue-planet-dialysis-novel-water-sparing-strategies-for-reducing-dialysate-flow
#12
Alejandra Molano-Triviño, Benjamin Wancjer, Mauro M Neri, Akash N Karopadi, Mitchell Rosner, Claudio Ronco
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145142/is-ozonation-environmentally-benign-for-reverse-osmosis-concentrate-treatment-four-level-analysis-on-toxicity-reduction-based-on-organic-matter-fractionation
#13
Jingxia Weng, Huichao Jia, Bing Wu, Bingcai Pan
Ozonation is a promising option to treat reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). However, a systematic understanding and assessment of ozonation on toxicity reduction is insufficient. In this study, ROC sampled from a typical industrial park wastewater treatment plant of China was fractionated into hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophobic neutral (HON), and hydrophilic fraction (HI). Systematic bioassays covering bacteria, algae, fish, and human cell lines were conducted to reveal the role of ozonation in toxicity variation of the four ROC fractions...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#14
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121472/comparing-the-uv-monochloramine-and-uv-free-chlorine-advanced-oxidation-processes-aops-to-the-uv-hydrogen-peroxide-aop-under-scenarios-relevant-to-potable-reuse
#15
Yi-Hsueh Chuang, Serena Chen, Curtis J Chinn, William A Mitch
Utilities incorporating the potable reuse of municipal wastewater are interested in converting from the UV/H2O2 to the UV/free chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The AOP treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) permeate often includes the de facto UV/chloramine AOP because chloramines applied upstream permeate RO membranes. Models are needed that accurately predict oxidant photolysis and subsequent radical reactions. By combining radical scavengers and kinetic modeling, we have derived quantum yields for radical generation by the UV photolysis of HOCl, OCl(-), and NH2Cl of 0...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112804/scalable-approach-to-highly-efficient-and-rapid-capacitive-deionization-with-cnt-thread-as-electrodes
#16
Maku Moronshing, Chandramouli Subramaniam
A scalable route to highly efficient purification of water through capacitive deionization (CDI) is reported using CNT-thread as electrodes. Electro-sorption capacity (qe) of 139 mg g(-1) and average salt-adsorption rate (ASAR) of 2.78 mg g(-1)min(-1) achieved here is the highest among all known electrode materials and nonmembrane techniques, indicating efficient and rapid deionization. Such exceptional performance is achieved with feedstock concentrations (≤1000 ppm) where conventional techniques such as reverse osmosis and electrodialysis prove ineffective...
November 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107906/calcium-phosphate-scaling-during-wastewater-desalination-on-oligoamide-surfaces-mimicking-reverse-osmosis-and-nanofiltration-membranes
#17
Karthik Rathinam, Yoram Oren, Winfried Petry, Dietmar Schwahn, Roni Kasher
Desalinated domestic wastewater is an indispensable water resource in arid regions; however, its recovery can be limited by calcium phosphate scaling and fouling of the membrane. Here we investigated calcium phosphate mineralization on oligoamide surfaces that mimics reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane surfaces. We used a solution that simulates desalination of secondary treated domestic wastewater effluents for calcium phosphate mineralization experiments with oligoamide-coated gold surfaces...
October 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105769/recovery-and-stability-over-time-of-phenolic-fractions-by-an-industrial-filtration-system-of-olive-mill-wastewaters-a-three-years-study
#18
Maria Bellumori, Lorenzo Cecchi, Annalisa Romani, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti
BACKGROUND: The recovery of phenolic compounds from olive milling is recognized as strategic for producers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of retentates obtained from olive mill wastewaters treated with a membrane filtration system constituted by a micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration followed by a final reverse osmosis, over three crop seasons. Efficiency was evaluated in terms of phenolic amount in the retentates and of organic load in the final discarded waters...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104107/preference-for-tap-bottled-and-recycled-water-relations-to-ptc-taste-sensitivity-and-personality
#19
Daniel Harmon, Mary Gauvain, Z Reisz, Isaac Arthur, S Drew Story
This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source...
November 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103718/feed-substrates-influence-biofilm-formation-on-reverse-osmosis-membranes-and-their-cleaning-efficiency
#20
Sowmya Marka, Sanjeev Anand
The dairy industry is increasingly using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for concentration of various fluid feed materials such as whey and ultrafiltration (UF) permeate. This study compared the effect of UF permeate and whey on membrane biofilm formation. A Bacillus sp., previously isolated in our laboratory from a cleaning-resistant membrane biofilm, was used to develop 48-h-old static biofilms on RO membrane pieces, using the different feed substrates (UF permeate, whey, and an alternating whey/UF feed). Biofilms were analyzed for viable counts by the swab technique, and we used scanning electron and atomic force microscopy for microstructure imaging...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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