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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142421/extract-of-bauhinia-vahlii-shows-antihyperglycemic-activity-reverses-oxidative-stress-and-protects-against-liver-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Ahmed H Elbanna, Mohammed M Nooh, Engy A Mahrous, Amal E Khaleel, Taha S Elalfy
Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142399/the-effect-of-thymoquinone-on-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-levels-and-oxidative-dna-damage-on-experimental-diabetic-rats
#2
Ayşe Usta, Semiha Dede
Background: Thymoquinone (TQ), the basic bioactive phytochemical constituent of seed oil of Nigella sativa, is one of these herbal drugs known for antidiabetic effects. This study was carried out to assess the effects of the possible role of TQ on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and oxidative DNA damage levels in experimental diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats (200-250 g) were used as experimental subjects. The rats were divided into four groups, including the control, control supplemented with TQ (CT), diabetic (D), and diabetic supplemented with TQ (DT), each containing seven rats...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139245/evaluation-of-a-pointwise-microcirculation-assessment-method-using-liquid-and-multilayered-tissue-simulating-phantoms
#3
Ingemar Fredriksson, Rolf B Saager, Anthony J Durkin, Tomas Strömberg
A fiber-optic probe-based instrument, designed for assessment of parameters related to microcirculation, red blood cell tissue fraction (fRBC), oxygen saturation (SO2), and speed resolved perfusion, has been evaluated using state-of-the-art tissue phantoms. The probe integrates diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) at two source-detector separations and laser Doppler flowmetry, using an inverse Monte Carlo method for identifying the parameters of a multilayered tissue model. Here, we characterize the accuracy of the DRS aspect of the instrument using (1) liquid blood phantoms containing yeast and (2) epidermis-dermis mimicking solid-layered phantoms fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane, titanium oxide, hemoglobin, and coffee...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136901/biomarker-analysis-of-hemoglobin-adducts-of-acrylamide-and-glycidamide-enantiomers-for-mid-term-internal-exposure-assessment-by-isotope-dilution-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Yu Zhang, Qiao Wang, Gong Zhang, Wei Jia, Yiping Ren, Yongning Wu
Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide (AA) and its oxidative metabolite glycidamide (GA) are important biomarkers for evaluating the mid-term exposure of acrylamide toxicity in vivo. Taking pentafluoro-2-methylphenyl isothiocyanates of N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine (AAVal-PFPTH) and N-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethy)valine (GAVal-PFPTH) as target analytes, we developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of AA and GA hemoglobin (Hb) adducts under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI‾) mode in the present work...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134657/mechanisms-involved-in-hemoglobin-mediated-oxidation-of-lipids-in-washed-fish-muscle-and-inhibitory-effects-of-phospholipase-a2
#5
Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham, Mark P Richards
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4), is linked to increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen-thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanism of hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl hemoglobin and methemoglobin, the pro-oxidative hemoglobin species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133139/methemoglobin-reductase-activity-in-intact-fish-red-blood-cells
#6
Frank B Jensen, Karsten Nielsen
Red blood cells (RBCs) possess methemoglobin reductase activity that counters the ongoing oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which in circulating blood is caused by Hb autoxidation or reactions with nitrite. We describe an assay for determining metHb reductase activity in intact RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence of counteracting oxidation...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129689/ascorbic-acid-attenuates-endothelial-permeability-triggered-by-cell-free-hemoglobin
#7
Jamie L Kuck, Julie A Bastarache, Ciara M Shaver, Joshua P Fessel, Sergey I Dikalov, James M May, Lorraine B Ware
BACKGROUND: Increased endothelial permeability is central to shock and organ dysfunction in sepsis but therapeutics targeted to known mediators of increased endothelial permeability have been unsuccessful in patient studies. We previously reported that cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is elevated in the majority of patients with sepsis and is associated with organ dysfunction, poor clinical outcomes and elevated markers of oxidant injury. Others have shown that Vitamin C (ascorbate) may have endothelial protective effects in sepsis...
November 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127105/epor2-%C3%A3-cr2-independendent-effects-of-low-dose-epoetin-a-in-porcine-liver-transplantation
#8
Linus Kebschull, Leon Franz Christoph Theilmann, Annika Mohr, Wencke Uennigmann, Sandra Stoeppeler, Barbara Heitplatz, Hans-Ullrich Spiegel, Ralf Bahde, Daniel Michael Palmes, Felix Becker
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains the key component of graft damage during transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects via the EPOR2/ßcR2-complex, with the potential risk of thrombosis. Previous work indicates that EPO has EPOR2/ßcR2-independent protective effects via direct effects on the endothelium. As the EPOR2/ßcR2-receptor has a very low affinity for EPO, we aimed to test the hypothesis that EPO doses below the level that stimulate this receptor elicit cytoprotective effects via endothelial stimulation in a porcine liver transplantation model...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118026/carbon-monoxide-in-lung-cell-physiology-and-disease
#9
Stefan W Ryter, Kevin C Ma, Augustine M K Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas that has gained recognition as a biological signal transduction effector with properties similar, but not identical, to that of nitric oxide (NO). CO, which binds primarily to heme iron, may activate the hemoprotein guanylate cyclase (sGC), although with lower potency than NO. Furthermore, CO can modulate the activities of several cellular signaling molecules such as p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT, NF-κB, and others. Emerging studies suggest that mitochondria, the energy-generating organelle of cells, represent a key target of CO action in eukaryotes...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112633/2017-military-supplement-current-challenges-in-the-development-of-acellular-hemoglobin-oxygen-carriers-by-protein-engineering
#10
Andres S Benitez Cardenas, Premila P Samuel, John S Olson
This article reviews the key biochemical mechanisms that govern O2 transport, NO scavenging, and oxidative degradation of acellular hemoglobin and how these ideas have been used to try to develop strategies to engineer safer and more effective hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). Significant toxicities due to acellular hemoglobin (Hb) have been observed after the administration of HBOCs or after the lysis of red cells, and include: (a) rapid clearance and kidney damage due to dissociation into dimers, haptoglobin binding, and macrophage activation; (b) early O2 release leading to decreased tissue perfusion in capillary beds; (c) interference with endothelial and smooth muscle signaling due to nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; (d) autooxidization of heme iron followed by production of reactive oxygen species; and (e) iron overload symptoms due to hemin loss, globin denaturation, iron accumulation, and further inflammation...
November 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112106/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-modulation-of-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-hbocs
#11
Abdu I Alayash
Several adverse events have been associated with the infusion of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) including transient hypertension, gastrointestinal, pancreatic/liver enzyme elevation, and cardiac/renal injury in humans. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the basis of HBOC toxicity is still poorly understood. Scavenging of vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and heme-mediated oxidative side reactions are thought to be the major causes of toxicity. However, based on more recent preclinical studies, oxidative pathways (driven by the heme prosthetic group) appear to play a more prominent role in the overall toxicity of free Hb or HBOCs...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111443/derivation-of-endogenous-equivalent-values-to-support-risk-assessment-and-risk-management-decisions-for-an-endogenous-carcinogen-ethylene-oxide
#12
C R Kirman, S M Hays
An approach is presented for ethylene oxide (EO) to derive endogenous equivalent (EE) values, which are endogenous levels normally found within the body expressed in terms of exogenous exposures. EE values can be used to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for chemicals such as EO that have both endogenous and exogenous exposure pathways. EE values were derived using a meta-analysis of data from the published literature characterizing the distribution for an EO biomarker of exposure, hemoglobin N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-valine (HEV), in unexposed populations...
October 28, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110607/serum-carotenoids-and-risks-of-diabetes-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-a-chinese-population-sample
#13
C She, F Shang, K Zhou, N Liu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are associated with oxidative stress and carotenoids have antioxidant properties. This study aimed to test the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and the risk for DM and DR. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of the Chinese urban population. A total of 747 subjects, consisting of 272 DR patients, 190 diabetic patients without retinopathy, and 285 non-diabetes mellitus healthy controls, were recruited to this study...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107115/heme-and-hemolysis-in-innate-immunity-adding-insult-to-injury
#14
REVIEW
Rui Martins, Sylvia Knapp
Heme is a vital, iron-containing prosthetic molecule present in a variety of proteins, of which hemoglobin is the most abundant. While the reactivity afforded by its central iron ion is essential for many cellular processes, it renders heme a potentially damaging molecule upon its release from hemeproteins, as it can catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. Severe intravascular hemolysis results in the leakage of vast amounts of hemoglobin, and subsequently, heme into the plasma. As such, heme is increasingly recognized as a major driving force for hemolysis-associated pathology including an increased risk for bacterial infections, due to its pro-oxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects...
October 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102848/characterization-of-non-covalent-binding-of-6-hydroxyflavone-and-5-7-dihydroxyflavone-with-bovine-hemoglobin-multi-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-analyses
#15
Sourav Das, Alka Karn, Rubi Sarmah, Mostofa Ataur Rohman, Sudipta Koley, Pooja Ghosh, Atanu Singha Roy
Flavonoids are biologically imperative compounds used as anti-oxidants, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial agents etc. The current work reports comprehensive binding studies of two important flavonoids, 6-hydroxyflavone and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) at 298K and 308K, in aqueous medium using UV-vis spectroscopy, steady state fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) measurements, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking studies. Both 6-hydroxyflavone and chrysin can quench the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of BHb via static quenching mechanism...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101807/6-shogaol-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-through-anti-inflammatory-hyperlipidemic-anti-oxidative-activity-in-db-db-mice
#16
Yun Xu, Liwei Bai, Xuehui Chen, Yan Li, Yan Qin, Xiangyu Meng, Qinggui Zhang
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide and more than two thirds of the patients may develop diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the efficiency of existing approaches on DN progression is limited. 6-Shogaol (6-SG), a major dehydrated derivative of gingerols, possesses various biological properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible effects of 6-SG on DN in db/db mice and to investigate the mechanisms. We revealed that 6-SG reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and systolic blood pressure...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101705/hematological-hepatic-enzymes-activity-and-oxidative-stress-responses-of-gray-mullet-mugil-cephalus-after-sub-acute-exposure-to-copper-oxide
#17
Paria Akbary, Sahar Sartipi Yarahmadi, Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi
Given the importance of assessing potential toxicity of heavy metals in valuable species of aquatic animals, the goal of the present research was to assess the sub-acute effects of copper oxide on hematological, enzymological, and oxidative stress responses of gray mullet to measure toxicity of copper oxide pollution in this significant fish. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value of copper oxide to gray mullet was detected at 3.15 ± 0.039 mg/L for 96 h, and 25 and 50% of the 96-h LC50 values were selected as sub-acute concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101239/hri-coordinates-translation-by-eif2%C3%AE-p-and-mtorc1-to-mitigate-ineffective-erythropoiesis-in-mice-during-iron-deficiency
#18
Shuping Zhang, Alejandra Macias-Garcia, Jason Velazquez, Elena Paltrinieri, Randal J Kaufman, Jane-Jane Chen
Iron deficiency anemia is a prevalent disease, yet molecular mechanisms by which iron and heme regulate erythropoiesis are not completely understood. HRI, heme-regulated eIF2α kinase, is a key hemoprotein in erythroid precursors sensing intracellular heme concentrations to balance globin synthesis with the amount of heme available for hemoglobin production. HRI is activated by heme deficiency and oxidative stress, and phosphorylates eIF2α (eIF2αP), which inhibits the translation of globin mRNAs as well as enhances selectively the translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA to induce stress response genes...
November 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100946/the-interaction-of-phospholipase-a2-with-oxidized-phospholipids-at-the-lipid-water-surface-with-different-structural-organization
#19
N M Litvinko, L A Skorostetskaya, D O Gerlovsky
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 IB) activity towards UV-irradiated (λ=180-400nm) phospholipids in comparison to non-irradiated ones was investigated using phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes and mixed micelles of phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate as a membrane model. PLA2 activity, determined by spectral changes of hemoglobin (Hb) under the interaction with fatty acids (product of the phospholipolysis), correlated well with the phospholipid peroxidation degree. The present work is the first study that determines the degree of oxidation of non-fragmented OxPCs, on the base of PLA2 activity...
October 31, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097214/mechanisms-of-myeloperoxidase-catalyzed-oxidation-of-h2s-by-h2o2-or-o2-to-produce-potent-protein-cys-polysulfide-inducing-species
#20
Dorottya Garai, Bessie B Ríos-González, Paul G Furtmüller, Jon M Fukuto, Ming Xian, Juan López-Garriga, Christian Obinger, Péter Nagy
The interaction of heme proteins with hydrogen sulfide is gaining attention as an important element in sulfide-mediated protection against oxidative stress and in regulation of redox signaling. In our previous study we reported the efficient reversible inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by sulfide and the kinetics of the reactions of sulfide with ferric MPO, Compound I and Compound II. Here we provide several lines of evidence that a central intermediate species in the turnover of MPO by sulfide is the Compound III state...
October 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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