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Cecal slurry

James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Kristen C Allison, Viola Neudecker, Christopher M Evans, Vanessa L Richardson, Kelley Brodsky, Sarah Faubel, Holger K Eltzschig, Eric P Schmidt, Adit A Ginde
Sepsis outcomes are heavily dependent on the development of septic organ injury, but no interventions exist to interrupt or reverse this process. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) is known to be involved in both inflammatory gene regulation and host-pathogen interactions key to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The goal of this study was to determine the role of miR-223 as a mediator of septic kidney injury. Using miR-223 knockout mice and multiple models of experimental sepsis, we found that miR-223 differentially influences acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the model used...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jessica R White, Huiyu Gong, Brock Pope, Patrick Schlievert, Steven J McElroy
OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Both human surgical specimens and animal models suggest a potential involvement of Paneth cells in NEC pathogenesis. Paneth cells play critical roles in epithelial homeostasis, innate immunity, and host-microbial interactions. Yet, the complex interplay between Paneth cell disruption, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and microbial-driven inflammation remains unclear in the immature intestine...
April 27, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Laura W Hansen, Weng Lang Yang, Alexandra C Bolognese, Asha Jacob, Tracy Chen, Jose M Prince, Jeffrey M Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of infant death worldwide. It is characterized by uncontrolled inflammatory responses due to proven bacterial infection. Despite improvement in supportive care and the availability of effective antibiotics, no specific therapy targeting the dysregulated inflammatory response is available for neonatal sepsis. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein abundantly present in human milk. MFG-E8 suppresses the systemic inflammatory responses in adult murine injury models by improving the clearance of dying cells...
March 23, 2017: Surgery
Whitney A Young, Eleanor A Fallon, Daithi S Heffernan, Philip A Efron, William G Cioffi, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and the ensuing immune dysfunction continue to be major contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Neonatal sepsis also is associated with profound immune dysfunction. We have recently identified a role for a family of coinhibitory molecules that are altered in murine sepsis and in critically ill adult patients, which may be a target for development of novel therapies. There is, however, a paucity of data pertaining to the role of coinhibitory checkpoint proteins in the control and modulation of neonatal sepsis...
May 2017: Surgery
Min Ji Lee, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji Eun Hwang
BACKGROUND: The cecal slurry model was introduced as an alternative method for creating an animal sepsis model. This study was performed to evaluate dose-dependent mortality and organ injury in a sepsis model of cecal slurry peritonitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5.0, 7.5, 10, or 15 mL/kg groups, according to the volume of cecal slurry administered into the peritoneal cavity. In the survival study, rats were observed for 14 d after sepsis induction...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Allison M Steele, Marlene E Starr, Hiroshi Saito
Current animal models of sepsis often incorporate antibiotics to be consistent with clinical standards for treatment of patients in the intensive care unit. However, such experimental intervention is commonly initiated very early after infectious insult, which likely blunts the progression of systemic inflammation and downstream pathology. The objective of this study was to establish an animal model of sepsis with delayed therapeutic intervention, allowing a longer disease course and downstream pathology, but still resulting in a high survival rate...
June 2017: Shock
Min Ji Lee, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Hoyoung Yune, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji Eun Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Hammad A Ganatra, Brian M Varisco, Kelli Harmon, Patrick Lahni, Amy Opoka, Hector R Wong
Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified...
November 7, 2016: Innate Immunity
Sarah J Atkinson, Brian M Varisco, Mary Sandquist, Meghan N Daly, Lindsey Klingbeil, Joshua W Kuethe, Emily F Midura, Kelli Harmon, Amy Opaka, Patrick Lahni, Giovanna Piraino, Paul Hake, Basilia Zingarelli, Joel E Mortenson, James L Wynn, Hector R Wong
Genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) improves survival in an adult murine sepsis model. Because developmental age influences the host inflammatory response, we hypothesized that developmental age influences the role of MMP8 in sepsis. First, we compared sepsis survival between wild type (WT, C57BL/6) and MMP8 null juvenile-aged mice (12-14 days) after intraperitoneal injection of a standardized cecal slurry. Second, peritoneal lavages collected at 6 and 18 hours after cecal slurry injection were analyzed for bacterial burden, leukocyte subsets, and inflammatory cytokines...
August 8, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Kazumichi Fujioka, Flora Kalish, Hui Zhao, Sabrina Lu, Stephanie Wong, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
Preterm sepsis is characterized by systemic bacterial invasion and inflammatory response. Its pathogenesis is unclear due to lack of proper animal models. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can affect physiologic and pathologic conditions through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-apoptotic properties. Since HO-1 is developmentally regulated, it may play a role in the pathogenesis of preterm sepsis. For this study, sepsis was induced using the non-surgical "cecal slurry" (CS) model. CS was given intraperitoneally at various doses to 4-day-old newborn mice to determine dose-dependent effects...
February 2017: Shock
Marlene E Starr, Allison M Steele, Donald A Cohen, Hiroshi Saito
OBJECTIVES: Visceral adipose tissue is a major site for expression of proinflammatory and procoagulant genes during acute systemic inflammation. In this study, we tested whether the loss of fat mass by dietary restriction would remove the major source of these factors resulting in improved tolerance to sepsis and endotoxemia. DESIGN: Prospective, laboratory controlled experiments. SETTING: Aging and critical care research laboratory in a university hospital...
July 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Sarah J Atkinson, Meghan Nolan, Lindsey Klingbeil, Kelli Harmon, Patrick Lahni, Basilia Zingarelli, Hector R Wong
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-8 improves survival following cecal ligation and puncture in mice, making it a potential therapeutic target. In the current study, we expand our understanding of the role of matrix metalloproteinase-8 in sepsis by using an adoptive transfer approach and alternative sepsis models. DESIGN: We used three different sepsis models: cecal ligation and puncture, cecal slurry, and intestinal implantation. In our first model, adoptive transfer experiments were followed by cecal ligation and puncture to test the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase-8-containing myeloid cells are a critical factor in sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture...
April 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Marlene E Starr, Allison M Steele, Mizuki Saito, Bill J Hacker, B Mark Evers, Hiroshi Saito
Sepsis, a life-threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by infection, is widely studied using laboratory animal models. While cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard model for sepsis research, it may not be preferable for experiments comparing animals of different size or under different dietary regimens. By comparing cecum size, shape, and cecal content characteristics in mice under different experimental conditions (aging, diabetes, pancreatitis), we show that cecum variability could be problematic for some CLP experiments...
2014: PloS One
Lori F Gentile, Dina C Nacionales, M Cecilia Lopez, Erin Vanzant, Angela Cuenca, Benjamin E Szpila, Alex G Cuenca, Anna Joseph, Frederick A Moore, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Henry V Baker, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
INTRODUCTION: Animal models for the study of sepsis are being increasingly scrutinized, despite their essential role for early translational research. In particular, recent studies have suggested that at the level of the leukocyte transcriptome, murine models of burns, trauma and endotoxemia markedly differ from their human equivalents, and are only weakly similar amongst themselves. We compared the plasma cytokine and leukocyte transcriptome responses between two different low-lethality murine models of polymicrobial intra-abdominal sepsis...
2014: PloS One
Lori F Gentile, Dina C Nacionales, M Cecilia Lopez, Erin Vanzant, Angela Cuenca, Alex G Cuenca, Ricardo Ungaro, Ben E Szpila, Shawn Larson, Anna Joseph, Frederick A Moore, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Henry V Baker, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
Populations encompassing extremes of age, including neonates and elderly, have greater mortality from sepsis. We propose that the increased mortality observed in the neonatal and elderly populations after sepsis is due to fundamental differences in host-protective immunity and is manifested at the level of the leukocyte transcriptome. Neonatal (5-7 d), young adult (6-12 wk), or elderly (20-24 mo) mice underwent a cecal slurry model of intra-abdominal sepsis. Both neonatal and elderly mice exhibited significantly greater mortality to sepsis (p < 0...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Eloy Argañaraz-Martínez, Jaime D Babot, María C Apella, Adriana Perez Chaia
The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical tests...
October 2013: Anaerobe
Alastair J O'Brien, Deepti Terala, Nelson N Orie, Nathan A Davies, Parjam Zolfaghari, Mervyn Singer, Lucie H Clapp
Nitric oxide-mediated activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels is considered an important underlying mechanism of sepsis-induced hypotension. Indeed, the nonselective K-channel inhibitor, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), has been proposed as a potential treatment to raise blood pressure in septic shock by virtue of its ability to inhibit BK channels. As experimental evidence has so far relied on pharmacological inhibition, we examined the effects of channel deletion using BKα subunit knockout (α, Slo) mice in two mouse models of polymicrobial sepsis, namely, intraperitoneal fecal slurry and cecal ligation and puncture...
May 2011: Shock
Keith E Greenawalt, M Jude Colt, Rubina L Corazzini, Megan C Krauth, Lena Holmdahl
BACKGROUND: Sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) membrane is an effective barrier material for limiting postoperative adhesions, but can be difficult to apply in certain situations due to its physical properties. We tested whether HA-CMC membrane hydrated in saline (slurry) is an effective alternative to HA-CMC membrane for preventing surgical adhesions in rat models of abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All studies were performed in rat cecal abrasion or sidewall defect models of adhesion formation...
June 1, 2011: Journal of Surgical Research
M J Lorenzo-Pisarello, M L Gultemirian, C Nieto-Peñalver, A Perez Chaia
Different attempts have been made to improve the health status of humans and animals by increasing the intestinal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from non-digestible carbohydrates fermentation. In this paper we investigate the in vitro production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after addition of inulin, propionibacteria or a combination of both in an experimental model of mice cecal slurries. The development of bacterial genera which are usually stimulated by inulin addition was also investigated...
August 2010: Anaerobe
Emiko Iwata, Hisako Hotta, Masahiro Goto
Total dietary fiber (DF) was extracted from the inedible parts of vegetables such as peel of taro and Chinese yam, pea pod, broad bean pod, and broad bean testa. Effects of these fibers on the growth of bifidobacteria were determined by two kinds of experiments: one was to determine the increase of Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217 (B. longum) in medium containing DF, the other was an in vitro fermentation of the DF by anaerobic slurries of mixed human fecal or rat cecal microbiota. Anaerobic culture was carried out for 48 h in both experiments...
August 2009: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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