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Neonatal diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168367/neonatal-cerebral-sinovenous-thrombosis-two-cases-two-different-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-factors
#1
Özden Turan, Deniz Anuk-İnce, Lale Olcay, Taner Sezer, Kaan Gülleroğlu, Zerrin Yılmaz-Çelik, Ayşe Ecevit
Turan Ö, Anuk-İnce D, Olcay L, Sezer T, Gülleroğlu K, Yılmaz-Çelik Z, Ecevit A. Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: Two cases, two different gene polymorphisms and risk factors. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 71-75. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare disease in the neonatal period and also the greatest risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In this report, we presented two cases with CSVT and different risk factors. One of these cases had methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T homozygous polymorphism and the other case had both MTHFR A1298C homozygous polymorphism, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/ 5G polymorphism and elevated lipoprotein a...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168351/complement-5a-mediated-trophoblasts-dysfunction-is-involved-in-the-development-of-pre-eclampsia
#2
Yu Ma, Ling-Ran Kong, Qian Ge, Yuan-Yuan Lu, Mo-Na Hong, Yu Zhang, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Ping-Jin Gao
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening multisystem disorder leading to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Emerging evidence showed that activation of the complement system is implicated in the pathological processes of PE. However, little is known about the detailed cellular and molecular mechanism of complement activation in the development of PE. In this study, we reported that complement 5a (C5a) plays a pivotal role in aberrant placentation, which is essential for the onset of PE. We detected an elevated C5a deposition in macrophages and C5a receptor (C5aR) expression in trophoblasts of pre-eclamptic placentas...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168218/the-clinical-epidemiology-of-sickle-cell-anemia-in-africa
#3
Alex W Macharia, George Mochamah, Sophie Uyoga, Carolyne M Ndila, Gideon Nyutu, Johnstone Makale, Metrine Tendwa, Emily Nyatichi, John Ojal, Mohammed Shebe, Kennedy O Awuondo, Neema Mturi, Norbert Peshu, Benjamin Tsofa, J Anthony G Scott, Kathryn Maitland, Thomas N Williams
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the commonest severe monogenic disorders of humans. The disease has been highly characterized in high-income countries but not in sub-Saharan Africa where SCA is most prevalent. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children 0-13 years admitted from within a defined study area to Kilifi County Hospital in Kenya over a five-year period. Children were genotyped for SCA retrospectively and incidence rates calculated with reference to population data. Overall, 576 of 18,873 (3...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168012/cost-effectiveness-of-rule-based-immunoprophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infections-in-preterm-infants
#4
Maarten O Blanken, Geert W Frederix, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Hendrik Koffijberg, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Maroeska M Rovers, Louis Bont
The objective of the paper is to assess the cost-effectiveness of targeted respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis based on a validated prediction rule with 1-year time horizon in moderately preterm infants compared to no prophylaxis. Data on health care consumption were derived from a randomised clinical trial on wheeze reduction following RSV prophylaxis and a large birth cohort study on risk prediction of RSV hospitalisation. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of targeted RSV prophylaxis vs...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166972/long-term-sex-differential-effects-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-in-vitro-cytokine-responses
#5
Kristoffer J Jensen, Mia J Søndergaard, Andreas Andersen, Cesario Martins, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Aaby, Katie L Flanagan, Christine Stabell Benn
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166948/cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-in-brazil-and-states-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#6
Elisabeth B França, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Bruce B Duncan, Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro, Mark D C Guimarães, Daisy M X Abreu, Ana Maria N Vasconcelos, Mariângela Carneiro, Renato Teixeira, Paulo Camargos, Ana Paula S Melo, Bernardo L Queiroz, Maria Inês Schmidt, Lenice Ishitani, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Otaliba L Morais-Neto, Maria Tereza Bustamante-Teixeira, Maximiliano R Guerra, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo, Meghan Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on cause of death (COD) are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states...
November 22, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166819/pregnancy-outcomes-among-women-with-asthma
#7
Haitham Baghlaf, Andrea R Spence, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between maternal asthma and pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study using the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from 2003 to 2011. Among women who delivered during this time period, we compared pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes in asthmatics versus non-asthmatics. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166461/presumed-zika-virus-related-congenital-brain-malformations-the-spectrum-of-ct-and-mri-findings-in-fetuses-and-newborns
#8
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165157/the-hokkaido-birth-cohort-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health-cohort-profile-updated-2017
#9
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Machiko Minatoya, Tomoyuki Hanaoka, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Yu Ait Bamai, Keiko Yamazaki, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura, Kumiko Ito, Houman Goudarzi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165149/association-of-excessive-mobile-phone-use-during-pregnancy-with-birth-weight-an-adjunct-study-in-kumamoto-of-japan-environment-and-children-s-study
#10
Xi Lu, Masako Oda, Takashi Ohba, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Shota Masuda, Takahiko Katoh
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been shown to be closely associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases later in life. Some studies have also shown that excessive mobile phone use in the postnatal period may lead to behavioral complications in the children during their growing years; however, the relationship between mobile phone use during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight is not clear. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations of excessive mobile phone use with neonatal birth weight and infant health status...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164142/pathogenesis-molecular-genetics-and-genomics-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-the-etiologic-agent-of-johne-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K Zinniel, John P Bannantine, Judith R Stabel, Yrjö T Gröhn, Michael T Collins, Raúl G Barletta
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163461/factors-affecting-the-fcrn-mediated-transplacental-transfer-of-antibodies-and-implications-for-vaccination-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Christopher R Wilcox, Beth Holder, Christine E Jones
At birth, neonates are particularly vulnerable to infection and transplacental transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to fetus provides crucial protection in the first weeks of life. Transcytosis of IgG occurs via binding with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the placental synctiotrophoblast. As maternal vaccination becomes an increasingly important strategy for the protection of young infants, improving our understanding of transplacental transfer and the factors that may affect this will become increasingly important, especially in low-income countries where the burden of morbidity and mortality is highest...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163364/telomere-length-in-preterm-infants-a-promising-biomarker-of-early-adversity-and-care-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#13
Livio Provenzi, Giunia Scotto di Minico, Roberto Giorda, Rosario Montirosso
Preterm infants present an immature neurobehavioral profile at birth, even in absence of severe brain injuries and perinatal complications. As such, they require a long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), which is thought to grant at-risk newborns' survival, but still entails a number of physical, painful, and socio-emotional stressors. Hence, preterm birth and NICU stay represent an early adverse experience, which has been linked to detrimental consequences for neurological, neuro-endocrinal, behavioral, and socio-emotional development, as well as to disease later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163151/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-quality-and-efficiency-of-medicine-use-within-the-public-healthcare-system-in-south-africa-a-preliminary-study
#14
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#15
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162434/oxytocin-inhibited-stress-induced-visceral-hypersensitivity-enteric-glial-cells-activation-and-release-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-maternal-separated-rats
#16
Shaoxian Xu, Bin Qin, Ameng Shi, Jing Zhao, Xiaoyan Guo, Lei Dong
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a significant contributor to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Oxytocin (OT) possesses analgesic effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and attenuates microglial activation, however, little is known about its peripheral effects and involvement in VH of IBS. Reactive enteric glial cells (EGCs) contributes to abnormal motility in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripheral use of OT to maintain VH and activation of EGCs through involvement of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160643/antithrombotic-treatment-in-neonates-and-children
#17
Cornelia H van Ommen
Despite the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolic disease in pediatric patients, it remains a rare complication in childhood. Particularly neonates and adolescents are at risk for development of venous thrombosis. Spontaneous thrombotic events are sporadic, the majority of children have multiple co-existing risk factors, including central venous catheter, asphyxia, congenital heart disease, infection, malignancy, surgery and hypovolemia. Most thrombi are diagnosed by ultrasonography. Recommendations for management of pediatric thrombosis are typically extrapolated from adult studies, despite many differences between adults and children, including developmental hemostasis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#18
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157486/nouveaut%C3%A3-s-dans-l%C3%A2-hyperplasie-cong%C3%A3-nitale-des-surr%C3%A3-nales-new-insights-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#19
L Dumeige, C Bouvattier, M Lombès
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an autosomal recessive disease due to functional abnormalities of adrenal steroid enzymes. The most common form of the disease is due to a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The classical forms (most severe) are characterized by a deficiency in cortisol and sometimes in aldosterone, which may compromise the vital prognosis of neonates, and by an increase in androgen synthesis, leading to the virilization of girls' external genitalia at birth, followed by clinical signs of hyperandrogenism during childhood and adolescence...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157049/small-for-gestational-age-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-long-term-pediatric-gastrointestinal-morbidity-of-the-offspring
#20
N Steiner, T Wainstock, E Sheiner, I Segal, D Landau, A Walfisch
OBJECTIVE: The concept of neonatal programing has begun to emerge as an important component of adult health. Scarce data exist regarding perinatal risk factors for long-term gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity of the offspring. We aimed to evaluate the association between birthweight (BW) at term and long-term pediatric GI morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed, comparing the risk of long-term GI morbidity (up to the age of 18 years) in children delivered at term according to their BW...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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