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Brain based psychotherapy

Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Aurelio Cortese, Toshinori Chiba, J D Knotts, Mitsuo Kawato, Hakwan Lau
Can "hardwired" physiological fear responses (e.g., for spiders and snakes) be reprogramed unconsciously in the human brain? Currently, exposure therapy is among the most effective treatments for anxiety disorders, but this intervention is subjectively aversive to patients, causing many to drop out of treatment prematurely. Here we introduce a method to bypass the subjective unpleasantness in conscious exposure, by directly pairing monetary reward with unconscious occurrences of decoded representations of naturally feared animals in the brain...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Moon-Jong Kim, Hong-Seop Kho
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterised by a persistent burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. BMS most commonly occurs in middleaged and elderly women. Various local and systemic factors can cause oral burning symptoms. When all possible local and systemic factors are excluded, burning mouth symptoms can be diagnosed as BMS. Psychophysical tests and histopathological data suggest the involvement of peripheral and central neuropathic mechanisms in BMS etiopathogenesis...
2018: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
Savita Malhotra, Swapnajeet Sahoo
Brain has been the most fascinating and mysterious organ of the human body. Researchers have tried to explore into each and every function of different parts of the human brain linking it up with various mental and neural processes, some of which are phylogenetically shared and many are unshared. It has been hypothesized that brain is built during development and can be rebuilt during psychotherapy. Recent research in neuroscience of socioemotional cognition, developmental neuroscience, coupled with advances in investigative techniques of brain functions has provided tremendous opportunities for the study of brain and the mind...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Sean J Belouin, Jack E Henningfield
The purpose of this commentary is to provide an introduction to this special issue of Neuropharmacology with a historical perspective of psychedelic drug research, their use in psychiatric disorders, research-restricting regulatory controls, and their recent emergence as potential breakthrough therapies for several brain-related disorders. It begins with the discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its promising development as a treatment for several types of mental illnesses during the 1940s. This was followed by its abuse and stigmatization in the 1960s that ultimately led to the placement of LSD and other psychedelic drugs into the most restrictively regulated drug schedule of the United States Controlled Substances Act (Schedule I) in 1970 and its international counterparts...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Tokiko Hamasaki, René Pelletier, Daniel Bourbonnais, Patrick Harris, Manon Choinière
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. INTRODUCTION: Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Laurie Keefer, Olafur S Palsson, John E Pandolfino
Chronic digestive diseases including irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease and inflammatory bowel diseases cannot be disentangled from their psychological context-the substantial burden of these diseases is co-determined by symptom and disease severity and the ability of patients to cope with their symptoms without significant interruption to daily life. The growing field of psychogastroenterology focuses on the application of scientifically-based psychological principles and techniques to the alleviation of digestive symptoms...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. AIM: To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897)...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ho-Yan Yvonne Chun, Richard Newman, William N Whiteley, Martin Dennis, Gillian E Mead, Alan J Carson
OBJECTIVE: There is little randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence to guide treatment for anxiety after stroke. We systematically reviewed RCTs of anxiety interventions in acquired brain injury (ABI) conditions including stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to summarize efficacy and key aspects of trial design to help guide future RCTs. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane trial register, Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL systematically up to August 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
M Soledad Cepeda, Jenna Reps, Daniel Fife, Clair Blacketer, Paul Stang, Patrick Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression that does not respond to antidepressants is treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD definitions include assessments of treatment response, dose and duration, and implementing these definitions in claims databases can be challenging. We built a data-driven TRD definition and evaluated its performance. METHODS: We included adults with depression, ≥1 antidepressant, and no diagnosis of mania, dementia, or psychosis. Subjects were stratified into those with and without proxy for TRD...
December 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
R Andrew Chambers, Sue C Wallingford
Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lana Donse, Frank Padberg, Alexander T Sack, A John Rush, Martijn Arns
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered an efficacious non-invasive neuromodulation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the clinical outcome of combined rTMS and psychotherapy (rTMS + PT). Through common neurobiological brain mechanisms, rTMS + PT may exert enhanced antidepressant effects compared to the respective monotherapies. OBJECTIVE: The current naturalistic study aimed to evaluate feasibility and clinical outcome of rTMS + PT in a large group of MDD patients...
March 2018: Brain Stimulation
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
Gunther Meinlschmidt, Marion Tegethoff
Background: The science and practice of psychotherapy is continuously developing. The goal of this article is to describe new impulses, guiding current advancements in the field. Methods: This paper provides a selective narrative review, synthesizing and condensing relevant literature identified through various sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and "Web of Science", as well as citation tracking, to elaborate key developments in the field of psychotherapy Results: We describe several dynamics: 1) Following up the so-called "third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy", new interventions arise that have at their core fostering interpersonal virtues, such as compassion, forgiveness, and gratitude; 2) Based on technological quantum leaps, new interventions arise that exploit current developments in the field of new media, information, and communication technologies, as well as brain imaging, such as digital interventions for mental disorders and new forms of neurofeedback; 3) Inspired by the field of positive psychology, there is a revival of the promotion of strength and resilience in therapeutic contexts; 4) In light of the new paradigm "precision medicine", the issue of differential and adaptive indication of psychotherapy, addressed with new methods, regains relevance and drives a new field of "precision psychotherapy"...
August 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Sarah Lahey, Cynthia Beaulieu, Karen Sandbach, Angela Colaiezzi, Staci Balkan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The psychologist in an inpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation setting provides a vital role in the assessment, treatment, and management of pediatric patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). Competencies are drawn from several specialty areas of professional psychology, including rehabilitation psychology, pediatric neuropsychology, and pediatric psychology. This specialized knowledge forms the basis for tailoring assessment and treatment plans specific to the individual brain injury profile, with the goals of enhancing diagnosis, prognosis, and care transition decision...
August 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
Jonathan P Stange, Annmarie MacNamara, Amy E Kennedy, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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