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Mateusz P Karwowski, Suzette A Morman, Geoffrey S Plumlee, Terence Law, Mark Kellogg, Alan D Woolf
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm)...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Joanne McManus Kuller
BACKGROUND: Infant skin is susceptible to dryness and irritation from external factors, including topical skin care products not formulated for the infant's skin. This may increase the risk of contact dermatitis. Parents frequently express concern regarding potential harm from ingredients in skin care products and seek information. This is complicated by several skin care myths. PURPOSE: The purpose of this literature review was to provide evidence-based information to educate parents on the use of products for preterm and term infants...
October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Deanna E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The skin of extremely preterm infants is underdeveloped and has poor barrier function. Skin maintenance interventions initiated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have immediate and lifelong implications when the potential for infection, allergen sensitization, and altered aesthetic outcomes are considered. In addition, the high-level medical needs of extremely preterm infants demand skin-level medical interventions that too often result in unintended skin harm. PURPOSE: We describe the use of a harm prevention, or consequence-centered, approach to skin care, which facilitates safer practice for extremely premature infants...
October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Media Esser
Diaper dermatitis is a major issue among hospitalized infants, leading to increased medical costs, pain, risk for infection, and distress among patients and caregivers. An evidence-based algorithm for prevention and treatment of diaper dermatitis was developed and introduced in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Two cases are discussed as examples of severe diaper dermatitis. The first case demonstrates the final case of severe diaper dermatitis since the introduction of the algorithm. The second case demonstrates a less severe, but equally frustrating, case of diaper dermatitis that occurred after the practice of using the algorithm was established...
October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
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October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Sher Singh Yadav, Neeraj Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar, Vinay Tomar, Nachiket Vyas, Ramdayal Teli, Mohit Kumar Badgurjar, Manoj Kumar Bamaniya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of infrasymphyseal bladder neck plication and suspension from the pubic bone along with urethrogenitoplasty as a single-stage procedure for treating isolated cases of female epispadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with female epispadias having grade 3 urinary incontinence were treated through bladder neck plication and suspension from the pubic bone along with urethrogenitoplasty from December 2013 to March 2016. RESULTS: Of the 6 patients with a mean age of 5...
September 14, 2016: Urology
R Pijnacker, L Mughini-Gras, M Heusinkveld, J Roelfsema, W van Pelt, T Kortbeek
Giardia lamblia is a major cause of diarrhoea in children, especially those attending day-care centres (DCCs). Only Giardia assemblages A and B infect humans. Given the lack of assemblage-specific epidemiological data, we aimed to identify risk factors for infection by assemblages A and B in DCC attendees. During 2010-2013, 5,015 faecal samples from ≤4-year-old children attending 40 DCCs participating in laboratory surveillance in the Netherlands were tested for Giardia using RT-PCR. Giardia-positive samples were typed for identification of assemblages A and B...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Swatee Dey, Mike Purdon, Taryn Kirsch, HansMartin Helbich, Kenny Kerr, Lijuan Li, Shaoying Zhou
Modern disposable diapers are complex products and ubiquitous globally. A robust safety assessment for disposable diapers include two important exposure parameters, i) frequency of diaper use & ii) constituent transfer from diaper to skin from direct and indirect skin contact materials. This article uses published information and original studies to quantify the exposure parameters for diapers. Using growth tables for the first three years of diapered life, an average body weight of 10-11 kg can be calculated, with a 10th percentile for females (8...
August 28, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Hyun-Seung Yoo, Young-Ho Cho, Young-Soo Byun, Min-Guek Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether we have to stop the antiplatelet agents prior to hemiarthroplasty surgery in patients with displaced femur neck fractures to reduce postoperative complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled forty-three patients with displaced femur neck fractures who were treated by bipolar hemiarthroplasty and were taking antiplatelet agents. Group I included 21 patients who discontinued antiplatelet agents and had delayed operations at an average 5...
September 2015: Hip Pelvis
J Kaarme, R A Hickman, T Nevéus, J Blomberg, C Öhrmalm
OBJECTIVES: Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and has a considerable impact on health and socio-economy. Day care centres are high-risk environments for infections. The aim of this study was to investigate if asymptomatic preschool children constitute a reservoir for potential enteropathogens. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 438 individual diapers were collected from day care centres in Uppsala, Sweden, during spring and autumn, and molecular techniques were used to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of multiple enteropathogens...
August 12, 2016: Public Health
Cruz E Garcia-Rodriguez, Josune Olza, Maria D Mesa, Concepcion M Aguilera, Elizabeth A Miles, Paul S Noakes, Maria Vlachava, Lefkothea-Stella Kremmyda, Norma D Diaper, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Angel Gil
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the maternal and newborn status of erythrocyte fatty acids and the antioxidant defense system after the intake of two portions of salmon per week during late pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women (N = 123) were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet, which was low in oily fish (control group, n = 61) or to consume two 150-g salmon portions per week (salmon group, n = 62) beginning at 20 wk of gestation and lasting until delivery...
June 8, 2016: Nutrition
Sabrina MacDuff, Joanne Sun, Derek E Bell, Christoper W Lentz, Steven A Kahn
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to present a case report and review the relevant literature on laxative-induced dermatitis being mistaken for scald injury and child abuse. CASE: A 33-month-old girl presented with partial thickness burn to the buttocks and perineum, which were suspected to be caused by child abuse. On further investigation, the parents had been administering large doses of laxatives to the child for chronic constipation. DISCUSSION: Child abuse by burning has characteristic physical examination findings, which differ from the pattern of laxative-induced dermatitis that has been reported in the literature...
August 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Abdollah Keshavarz, Ali Akbar Zeinaloo, Manoochehr Mahram, Navid Mohammadi, Omid Sadeghpour, Mohammad Reza Maleki
BACKGROUND: Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder in infants, including newborns. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the effects of a traditional medicine product (containing natural henna oil 25%) and hydrocortisone 1% cream on DD in infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a triple-blind, randomized trial, 82 children aged two years or less were randomly divided into two groups of 41 children each to receive either hydrocortisone ointment or henna medicinal product...
May 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Frances Jackson, Nancy Georgakopoulou, Manuja Kaluarachchi, Michael Kyriakides, Nicholas Andreas, Natalia Przysiezna, Matthew J Hyde, Neena Modi, Jeremy K Nicholson, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Elaine Holmes
Numerous metabolic profiling pipelines have been developed to characterize the composition of human biofluids and tissues, the vast majority of these being for studies in adults. To accommodate limited sample volume and to take into account the compositional differences between adult and infant biofluids, we developed and optimized sample handling and analytical procedures for studying urine from newborns. A robust pipeline for metabolic profiling using NMR spectroscopy was established, encompassing sample collection, preparation, spectroscopic measurement, and computational analysis...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Xianglan Zhang, Rose Devasia, Glenn Czarnecki, Jan Frechette, Sarah Russell, Bruce Behringer
Objectives Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important modifiable risk factor for poor birth outcomes. We evaluated whether participation in a statewide incentive-based smoking cessation program for pregnant women, the Baby & Me-Tobacco Free (BMTF) program, was associated with improved birth outcomes. Methods Linked program and birth certificate data from 866 pregnant smokers who participated in the BMTF program and 11,568 pregnant smokers who were eligible for but did not enroll in the program were analyzed...
July 29, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Nasser A Dhayat, Bernhard Dick, Brigitte M Frey, Claudia H d'Uscio, Bruno Vogt, Christa E Flück
The steroid profile changes dramatically from prenatal to postnatal life. Recently, a novel backdoor pathway for androgen biosynthesis has been discovered. However, its role remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated androgen production from birth to one year of life with a focus on minipuberty and on production of androgens through the backdoor pathway. Additionally, we assessed the development of the specific steroid enzyme activities in early life. To do so, we collected urine specimens from diapers in 43 healthy newborns (22 females) at 13 time points from birth to one year of age in an ambulatory setting, and performed in house GC/MS steroid profiling for 67 steroid metabolites...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tyler A Rice, Noah W Palm
Dirty diapers do not often come to mind when thinking about cutting-edge biomedical research. However, in a recent Nature paper, Planer et al. (2016) report results from a longitudinal study examining gut microbiota maturation and corresponding intestinal immune responses in healthy twin pairs over the first 3 years of life.
July 13, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Werner Keenswijk, Johan Vande Walle
A 4-year-old boy was referred to the nephrologist with daytime urinary incontinence and suspicion of an overactive bladder. At the age of 17 months he had been referred to the pediatric endocrinologist because of polyuria and polydipsia in order to exclude diabetes insipidus. Repeated water deprivation tests and a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain were normal. Diabetes insipidus was excluded, and primary polydipsia was thought to be most likely since diabetes mellitus also had been excluded. At the current presentation, he drank up to 3 L a day and quite often had wet diapers...
June 27, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Swatee Dey, Dianna Kenneally, Mauricio Odio, Ioannis Hatzopoulos
A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit...
July 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Alfons Krol
BACKGROUND: While most common diaper-related conditions are easily resolved, the diaper region may be the site of a variety of tumors (either benign or malignant) and other abnormalities that may require completely unique treatment approaches. OBJECTIVES: This review sought to catalogue the various conditions and complications that may arise in the diaper area during the first few years of life. METHODS: To identify studies included in this review, computerized searches were undertaken in the PubMed and Medline databases using the term tumors of the diaper region with the following terms: tumors, malformations, diaper region, and infant...
July 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
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