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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168840/mother-s-age-and-hatching-phenology-strategy-of-heterocypris-incongruens-crustacea-ostracoda-in-unpredictable-environment
#1
Valeria Rossi, Andrea Gandolfi, Paolo Menozzi
We report experimental evidence of egg polyphenism in clonal lineages of Heterocypris incongruens from an ephemeral pond on a Mediterranean Island (Lampedusa, Italy). In controlled laboratory conditions, clonal females produced three different kinds of eggs: (i) resting and desiccation-resistant eggs, (ii) nonresting eggs that hatched gradually within 2 month hydroperiod, and (iii) nonresting delayed development eggs that hatched synchronously. Clonal females showed a diversified bet-hedging strategy to spread risk of reproduction in ponds with unpredictable hydroperiod...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152187/clinal-population-divergence-in-an-adaptive-parental-environmental-effect-that-adjusts-seed-banking
#2
Christian Lampei, Johannes Metz, Katja Tielbörger
Bet-hedging via between-year seed dormancy is a costly strategy for plants in unpredictable environments. Theoretically, fitness costs can be reduced through a parental environmental effect when the environment is partly predictable. We tested whether populations from environments that differ in predictability diverged in parental effects on seed dormancy. Common garden-produced seeds of the two annual plant species Biscutella didyma and Bromus fasciculatus collected along an aridity gradient were grown under 12 irrigation treatments...
February 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145999/short-term-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-math-productivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-mediated-by-symptom-improvements-evidence-from-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre M Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies report positive effects of methylphenidate on academic performance, the mechanism behind these improvements remains unclear. This study investigates the effects of methylphenidate on academic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mediating and moderating influence of ADHD severity, academic performance, and ADHD symptom improvement. METHODS: Sixty-three children with ADHD participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study comparing the effects of long-acting methylphenidate and placebo...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109308/semaphorin-7a-as-a-potential-immune-regulator-and-promising-therapeutic-target-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Jianmin Xie, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) is expressed by several different classes of lymphoid and myeloid cells and is a potent immunomodulator. We examined the role of Sema7A in modulating cellular immune responses and to provide experimental data validating the therapeutic potential of Sema7A in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Soluble Sema7A (sSema7A) levels in the serum and synovial fluid from patients with RA or osteoarthritis, as well as cytokine secretions, were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 21, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974431/bet-2-ice-water-immersion-other-vagal-manoeuvres-or-adenosine-for-svt-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Marion Campbell, Silvia Ruiz Buitrago
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether a vagal manoeuvre was better than or as good as adenosine at safely terminating supraventricular tachycardia in children. Forty unique papers were found in Medline and Embase using the reported searches, of which five were relevant. A hand search of the forty unique citations identified a further nine relevant papers. Thus, 14 papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated...
January 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974430/towards-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary
#6
Kevin Mackway-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974429/bet-1-lateral-chest-radiography-and-the-diagnosis-of-pneumonia-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Louis-David Audette
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether a standard frontal view CXR as good as standard frontal and lateral views at diagnosing pneumonia in children with a clinical suspicion of that diagnosis. Three papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the addition of a lateral view does not appear to significantly improve the accuracy of pneumonia diagnosis in children by emergency physicians, when compared with frontal view alone...
January 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973545/myopic-loss-aversion-under-ambiguity-and-gender-effects
#8
Iñigo Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Giovanni Ponti, Josefa Tomás
Experimental evidence suggests that the frequency with which individuals get feedback information on their investments has an effect on their risk-taking behavior. In particular, when they are given information sufficiently often, they take less risks compared with a situation in which they are informed less frequently. We find that this result still holds when subjects do not know the probabilities of the lotteries they are betting upon. We also detect significant gender effects, in that the frequency with which information is disclosed mostly affects male betting behavior, and that males become more risk-seeking after experiencing a loss...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966183/electro-acupuncture-at-acupoint-st36-ameliorates-inflammation-and-regulates-th1-th2-balance-in-delayed-type-hypersensitivity
#9
Zhigang Wang, Tao Chen, Man Long, Longyun Chen, Lei Wang, Nina Yin, Zebin Chen
Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham...
December 13, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935867/the-bromodomain-inhibitor-otx015-mk-8628-exerts-anti-tumor-activity-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-models-as-single-agent-and-in-combination-with-everolimus
#10
Ramiro Vázquez, María E Riveiro, Lucile Astorgues-Xerri, Elodie Odore, Keyvan Rezai, Eugenio Erba, Nicolò Panini, Andrea Rinaldi, Ivo Kwee, Luca Beltrame, Mohamed Bekradda, Esteban Cvitkovic, Francesco Bertoni, Roberta Frapolli, Maurizio D'Incalci
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous subgroup of breast tumors clinically defined by the lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors, limiting the use of the targeted therapies employed in other breast malignancies. Recent evidence indicates that c-MYC is a key driver of TNBC. The BET-bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 (MK-8628) has potent antiproliferative activity accompanied by c-MYC down-regulation in several tumor types, and has demonstrated synergism with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in different models...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927733/participant-and-public-involvement-in-refining-a-peer-volunteering-active-aging-intervention-project-ace-active-connected-engaged
#11
Janet Withall, Janice L Thompson, Kenneth R Fox, Mark Davis, Selena Gray, Jolanthe de Koning, Liz Lloyd, Graham Parkhurst, Afroditi Stathi
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle among older adults is strong, yet only a small proportion of older people meet physical activity recommendations. A synthesis of evidence identified "best bet" approaches, and this study sought guidance from end-user representatives and stakeholders to refine one of these, a peer-volunteering active aging intervention. METHODS: Focus groups with 28 older adults and four professional volunteer managers were conducted...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#12
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886644/oral-administration-with-diosgenin-enhances-the-induction-of-intestinal-t-helper-1-like-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-food-allergy
#13
Chung-Hsiung Huang, Chia-Chi Wang, Yu-Chin Lin, Masatoshi Hori, Tong-Rong Jan
Although the development of T helper (Th)1-like regulatory T (Treg) cells under Th1 inflammatory conditions has been reported, the role of Th1-like Treg cells in Th2 allergic responses remains mostly unclear. We previously demonstrated that diosgenin, the major sapogenin contained in the Chinese yam, attenuated food allergy and augmented Th1 and Treg immune responses. In this study, we hypothesized that diosgenin may enhance the induction of Th1-like Treg cells in the gut of mice with food allergy. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice were gavaged daily with diosgenin and received repeatedly intragastric ovalbumin challenges to induce intestinal allergic responses...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864394/bet-2-low-dose-ketamine-for-acute-pain-in-the-ed
#14
REVIEW
Colby Duncan, Brad Riley
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether low-dose ketamine is better than morphine at safely and effectively reducing pain scores in ED patients with acute pain who do not respond to conventional therapies. One hundred and thirty-two papers were found using the reported searches, of these three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated...
December 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864393/towards-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary
#15
Kevin C Mackway-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864392/bet-1-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-uncomplicated-skin-abscess
#16
REVIEW
Reece Baker, Jason Seamon
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether incision and drainage followed by treatment with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is better than incision and drainage alone at treating patients with uncomplicated skin abscesses. One hundred and ninety-seven papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated...
December 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835928/population-based-national-prevalence-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-spain-and-associated-factors-di-bet-es-study
#17
Sergio Valdés, Cristina Maldonado-Araque, Ana Lago-Sampedro, J Antonio Lillo, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes, Vidal Perez-Valero, Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Pilar Ocon-Sanchez, Albert Goday, Ines Urrutia, Laura Peláez, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Elena Bordiú, Luis Castaño, Conxa Castell, Elias Delgado, Edelmiro Menendez, Josep Franch, Sonia Gaztambide, Joan Girbés, Emilio Ortega, Alfonso Lopez-Alba, Felipe J Chaves, Joan Vendrell, Matilde R Chacón, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Spain and its association with various clinical, environmental, and demographic variables. METHODS: The study included 4554 subjects (42.4% men) with a mean age of 50 years (range 18-93 years), who were participants in a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood sampling...
February 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810538/optimum-reaction-ratio-of-coal-fly-ash-to-blast-furnace-cement-for-effective-removal-of-hydrogen-sulfide
#18
Satoshi Asaoka, Hideo Okamura, Kyunghoi Kim, Yuzuru Hatanaka, Kenji Nakamoto, Kazutoshi Hino, Takahito Oikawa, Shinjiro Hayakawa, Tetsuji Okuda
Reducing hydrogen sulfide concentration in eutrophic marine sediments is crucial to maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems. Managing fly ash, 750 million tons of which is generated annually throughout the world, is another serious environmental problem. In this study, we develop an approach that addresses both these issues by mixing coal fly ash from coal-fired power plants with blast furnace cement to remediate eutrophic sediments. The purpose of this study is to optimize the mixing ratio of coal fly ash and blast furnace cement to improve the rate of hydrogen sulfide removal based on scientific evidence obtained by removal experiments and XAFS, XRD, BET, and SEM images...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803105/bet-inhibitors-suppress-aldh-activity-by-targeting-aldh1a1-super-enhancer-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Yuhki Yokoyama, Hengrui Zhu, Jeong Heon Lee, Andrew V Kossenkov, Sherry Y Wu, Jayamanna M Wickramasinghe, Xiangfan Yin, Katherine C Palozola, Alessandro Gardini, Louise C Showe, Kenneth S Zaret, Qin Liu, David Speicher, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, James E Bradner, Zhiguo Zhang, Anil K Sood, Tamas Ordog, Benjamin G Bitler, Rugang Zhang
The emergence of tumor cells with certain stem-like characteristics, such as high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity due to ALDH1A1 expression, contributes to chemotherapy resistance and tumor relapse. However, clinically applicable inhibitors of ALDH activity have not been reported. There is evidence to suggest that epigenetic regulation of stem-related genes contributes to chemotherapy efficacy. Here, we show that bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitors suppress ALDH activity by abrogating BRD4-mediated ALDH1A1 expression through a super-enhancer element and its associated enhancer RNA...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803062/rescue-of-tolerant-cd8-t-cells-during-cancer-immunotherapy-with-il2-antibody-complexes
#20
Lauryn E Klevorn, Melissa M Berrien-Elliott, Jinyun Yuan, Lindsey M Kuehm, Gregory D Felock, Sean A Crowe, Ryan M Teague
Interleukin-2 (IL2) was among the earliest reagents used for cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to support the survival and function of tumor-reactive T cells. However, treatment with IL2 is accompanied by off-target toxicity and low response rates in patients. In mouse models, these issues are largely overcome when IL2 is administered as a cytokine/antibody complex (IL2c). The complex has a longer serum half-life and can be designed for preferential cytokine delivery to specific cells of interest. Early studies showed IL2c could boost antitumor immunity in mice by activating tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
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