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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#1
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734727/treatment-of-pharyngotympanic-tube-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Holger H Sudhoff, Stefan Mueller
Eustachian tube dysfuntion intends to describe a variety of signs, symptoms, and physical findings that result from the impairment of ET function. A large variety of methods have been employed to assess ET function in the literature. Due to the lack of high level evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of medical and surgical treatments. There are various medical and surgical interventions available for chronic obstructive ET dysfunction including balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) and laser or microdebrider tuboplasty...
July 19, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729226/solanum-paniculatum-l-decreases-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-by-reducing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-t-bet-and-gata3-gene-expression-in-vitro
#3
Raimon Rios, Hugo Bernardino Ferreira da Silva, Norma Vilany Queiroz Carneiro, Anaque de Oliveira Pires, Tamires Cana Brasil Carneiro, Ryan Dos Santos Costa, Cintia Rodrigues Marques, Marta Santos Serafim Machado, Eudes da Silva Velozo, Telma M G da Silva, Tania M S da Silva, Adilva de Souza Conceição, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves, Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Solanum paniculatum L., popularly known as jurubeba, is a common subtropical plant from Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina, that is used in folk medicine for the treatment of anemia, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions in general. In addition to that, an ethnobotanical survey in "Todos os Santos" Bay have pointed out S. paniculatum as an herb to treat asthma. Previous publications have shown that S. paniculatum possesses antibiotic, antioxidant and modulatory effects on gastric acid secretion; however, its anti-inflammatory potential remains unexplored...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728039/cognitive-restructuring-of-gambling-related-thoughts-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Maxime Chrétien, Isabelle Giroux, Annie Goulet, Christian Jacques, Stéphane Bouchard
Gamblers' thoughts have a fundamental influence on their gambling problem. Cognitive restructuring is the intervention of choice to correct those thoughts. However, certain difficulties are noted in the application of cognitive restructuring techniques and the comprehension of their guidelines. Furthermore, the increase of skill game players (e.g. poker) entering treatment creates a challenge for therapists, as these gamblers present with different thoughts than those of the gamblers usually encountered in treatment (e...
July 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724568/bet-2-poor-evidence-on-whether-teaching-cognitive-debiasing-or-cognitive-forcing-strategies-lead-to-a-reduction-in-errors-attributable-to-cognition-in-emergency-medicine-students-or-doctors
#5
Govind Oliver, Gopal Oliver, Rick Body
A short review was carried out to see if teaching cognitive forcing strategies reduces cognitive error in the practice of emergency medicine. Two relevant papers were found using the described search strategy. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. There is currently little evidence that teaching cognitive forcing strategies reduces cognitive error in the practice of emergency medicine.
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724567/towards-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary
#6
Janos Baombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724566/bet-1-lidocaine-with-propofol-to-reduce-pain-on-injection
#7
Janos P Baombe, Laura Howard
A short review was carried out to see if mixing lidocaine with propofol is a safe and effective method in reducing the commonly reported pain at the injection site. Four relevant papers were found using the described search strategy. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Although a promising idea, a paucity of good quality evidence suggests further needed research.
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#8
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639827/the-effects-of-alcohol-expectancy-and-intake-on-slot-machine-gambling-behavior
#9
Dominic Sagoe, Rune Aune Mentzoni, Tony Leino, Helge Molde, Sondre Haga, Mikjel Fredericson Gjernes, Daniel Hanss, Ståle Pallesen
Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC] < 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#10
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#11
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608744/methylphenidate-related-improvements-in-math-performance-cannot-be-explained-by-better-cognitive-functioning-or-higher-academic-motivation-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether improvements in working memory, reaction time, lapses of attention, interference control, academic motivation, and perceived competence mediated effects of methylphenidate on math performance. METHOD: Sixty-three children (ADHD diagnosis; methylphenidate treatment; age 8-13; IQ > 70) were randomly allocated to a 7-day methylphenidate or placebo treatment in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and compared with 67 controls...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583499/the-effect-of-blocking-notch-signaling-by-%C3%AE-secretase-inhibitor-on-allergic-rhinitis
#13
Le Shi, Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Qingzhao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of blocking Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) on allergic rhinitis. METHOD: GSI, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butylester (DAPT) was administered to ovalbumin-induced AR mice models intranasally. We observed symptoms of sneezing and nose rubbing. To detect the inflammatory state, the serum OVA-specific-IgE, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were analyzed by ELISA, and Th cell cytokines in nasal mucosa were analyzed by RT-PCR, including T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA-3, IL-4, and IL-5...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576977/monoclonal-invariant-nkt-inkt-cell-mice-reveal-a-role-for-both-tissue-of-origin-and-the-tcr-in-development-of-inkt-functional-subsets
#14
Eleanor Clancy-Thompson, Gui Zhen Chen, Paul M Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Marta Barisa, Patrick J Brennan, Hidde L Ploegh, Stephanie K Dougan
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cell functional subsets are defined by key transcription factors and output of cytokines, such as IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-10. To examine how TCR specificity determines iNKT function, we used somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate three lines of mice cloned from iNKT nuclei. Each line uses the invariant Vα14Jα18 TCRα paired with unique Vβ7 or Vβ8.2 subunits. We examined tissue homing, expression of PLZF, T-bet, and RORγt, and cytokine profiles and found that, although monoclonal iNKT cells differentiated into all functional subsets, the NKT17 lineage was reduced or expanded depending on the TCR expressed...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573508/crossover-subsets-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria-of%C3%A2-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Ji Li, Aito Ueno, Marietta Iacucci, Miriam Fort Gasia, Humberto B Jijon, Remo Panaccione, Gilaad G Kaplan, Paul L Beck, Joanne Luider, Herman W Barkema, Jiaming Qian, Xianyong Gui, Subrata Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Hovhannisyan et al. first showed evidence of plasticity between Treg and Th17 in the inflamed intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Our previous report suggests that the inflammatory cytokine milieu generates IL-17(+) Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes which is a crossover population converting Treg subset to Th17 in the peripheral blood of IBD patients. This is considered as an evidence of Treg/Th17 plasticity. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize a variety of helper T cell crossover population, not limited to IL-17(+) Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes, in the lamina propria (LP) of IBD patients...
June 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572910/a-supramolecular-tr%C3%A3-ger-s-base-derived-coordination-zinc-polymer-for-fluorescent-sensing-of-phenolic-nitroaromatic-explosives-in-water
#16
Sankarasekaran Shanmugaraju, Charlyne Dabadie, Kevin Byrne, Aramballi J Savyasachi, Deivasigamani Umadevi, Wolfgang Schmitt, Jonathan A Kitchen, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson
A V-Shaped 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide derived tetracarboxylic acid linker (L; bis-[N-(1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid)]-9,18-methano-1,8-naphthalimide-[b,f][1,5]diazocine) comprising the Tröger's base (TB) structural motif was rationally designed and synthesised to access a nitrogen-rich fluorescent supramolecular coordination polymer. By adopting the straight forward precipitation method, a new luminescent nanoscale Zn(ii) coordination polymer (TB-Zn-CP) was synthesized in quantitative yield using Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and tetraacid linker L (1 : 0...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553123/the-hiv-protease-inhibitor-nelfinavir-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-pediatric-leukemia
#17
Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Justin Riemer, Aru Narendran
PURPOSE: Refractory pediatric leukemia remains one of the leading causes of death in children. Intensification of current chemotherapy regimens to improve the outcome in these children is often limited by the effects of drug resistance and cumulative toxicity. Hence, the search for newer agents and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to formulate the next-generation early-phase clinical trials for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive library of antimicrobials, including eight HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir [NFV], saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir), was tested against a panel of pediatric leukemia cells by in vitro growth inhibition studies...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548665/enhanced-photocatalytic-degradation-of-amaranth-dye-on-mesoporous-anatase-tio2-evidence-of-c-n-n-double-bond-length-as-m-dash-n-bond-cleavage-and-identification-of-new-intermediates
#18
Amarja P Naik, Akshay V Salkar, Mahesh S Majik, Pranay P Morajkar
The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Amaranth, a recalcitrant carcinogenic azo dye, was investigated using mesoporous anatase TiO2 under sunlight. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 of a high photocatalytic activity has been synthesized using a sol-gel method and its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Amaranth dye has been evaluated with respect to Degussa P25. The effect of bi-dentate complexing agents like oxalic acid, ethylene glycol and urea on the surface properties of TiO2 catalyst has been investigated using TG-DTA, FTIR, HR-TEM, SAED, PXRD, EDS, UV-DRS, PL, BET N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm studies and BJH analysis...
July 1, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539459/social-bet-hedging-in-vampire-bats
#19
Gerald G Carter, Damien R Farine, Gerald S Wilkinson
Helping kin or nonkin can provide direct fitness benefits, but helping kin also benefits indirect fitness. Why then should organisms invest in cooperative partnerships with nonkin, if kin relationships are available and more beneficial? One explanation is that a kin-limited support network is too small and risky. Even if additional weaker partnerships reduce immediate net cooperative returns, individuals extending cooperation to nonkin can maintain a larger social network which reduces the potential costs associated with losing a primary cooperation partner...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539374/bet-3-in-septic-patients-requiring-fluid-resuscitation-can-the-bedside-lung-ultrasound-be-used-to-assess-the-pulmonary-fluid-status
#20
Alain Judith, Maude St-Onge
A short cut review was carried out to see if the presence of 'B lines' detected on lung ultrasound could be used to guide the volume of fluid replacement necessary in the resuscitation of the patient with sepsis. Four papers with some degree of relevance were found in the literature search. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Although a promising concept, the remains a paucity of good quality evidence sufficient to recommend this approach...
June 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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