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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#1
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#2
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608744/methylphenidate-related-improvements-in-math-performance-cannot-be-explained-by-better-cognitive-functioning-or-higher-academic-motivation-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether improvements in working memory, reaction time, lapses of attention, interference control, academic motivation, and perceived competence mediated effects of methylphenidate on math performance. METHOD: Sixty-three children (ADHD diagnosis; methylphenidate treatment; age 8-13; IQ > 70) were randomly allocated to a 7-day methylphenidate or placebo treatment in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and compared with 67 controls...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583499/the-effect-of-blocking-notch-signaling-by-%C3%AE-secretase-inhibitor-on-allergic-rhinitis
#4
Le Shi, Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Qingzhao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of blocking Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) on allergic rhinitis. METHOD: GSI, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butylester (DAPT) was administered to ovalbumin-induced AR mice models intranasally. We observed symptoms of sneezing and nose rubbing. To detect the inflammatory state, the serum OVA-specific-IgE, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were analyzed by ELISA, and Th cell cytokines in nasal mucosa were analyzed by RT-PCR, including T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA-3, IL-4, and IL-5...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576977/monoclonal-invariant-nkt-inkt-cell-mice-reveal-a-role-for-both-tissue-of-origin-and-the-tcr-in-development-of-inkt-functional-subsets
#5
Eleanor Clancy-Thompson, Gui Zhen Chen, Paul M Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Marta Barisa, Patrick J Brennan, Hidde L Ploegh, Stephanie K Dougan
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cell functional subsets are defined by key transcription factors and output of cytokines, such as IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-10. To examine how TCR specificity determines iNKT function, we used somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate three lines of mice cloned from iNKT nuclei. Each line uses the invariant Vα14Jα18 TCRα paired with unique Vβ7 or Vβ8.2 subunits. We examined tissue homing, expression of PLZF, T-bet, and RORγt, and cytokine profiles and found that, although monoclonal iNKT cells differentiated into all functional subsets, the NKT17 lineage was reduced or expanded depending on the TCR expressed...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573508/crossover-subsets-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria-of%C3%A2-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Ji Li, Aito Ueno, Marietta Iacucci, Miriam Fort Gasia, Humberto B Jijon, Remo Panaccione, Gilaad G Kaplan, Paul L Beck, Joanne Luider, Herman W Barkema, Jiaming Qian, Xianyong Gui, Subrata Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Hovhannisyan et al. first showed evidence of plasticity between Treg and Th17 in the inflamed intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Our previous report suggests that the inflammatory cytokine milieu generates IL-17(+) Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes which is a crossover population converting Treg subset to Th17 in the peripheral blood of IBD patients. This is considered as an evidence of Treg/Th17 plasticity. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize a variety of helper T cell crossover population, not limited to IL-17(+) Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes, in the lamina propria (LP) of IBD patients...
June 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572910/a-supramolecular-tr%C3%A3-ger-s-base-derived-coordination-zinc-polymer-for-fluorescent-sensing-of-phenolic-nitroaromatic-explosives-in-water
#7
Sankarasekaran Shanmugaraju, Charlyne Dabadie, Kevin Byrne, Aramballi J Savyasachi, Deivasigamani Umadevi, Wolfgang Schmitt, Jonathan A Kitchen, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson
A V-Shaped 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide derived tetracarboxylic acid linker (L; bis-[N-(1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid)]-9,18-methano-1,8-naphthalimide-[b,f][1,5]diazocine) comprising the Tröger's base (TB) structural motif was rationally designed and synthesised to access a nitrogen-rich fluorescent supramolecular coordination polymer. By adopting the straight forward precipitation method, a new luminescent nanoscale Zn(ii) coordination polymer (TB-Zn-CP) was synthesized in quantitative yield using Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and tetraacid linker L (1 : 0...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553123/the-hiv-protease-inhibitor-nelfinavir-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-pediatric-leukemia
#8
Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Justin Riemer, Aru Narendran
PURPOSE: Refractory pediatric leukemia remains one of the leading causes of death in children. Intensification of current chemotherapy regimens to improve the outcome in these children is often limited by the effects of drug resistance and cumulative toxicity. Hence, the search for newer agents and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to formulate the next-generation early-phase clinical trials for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive library of antimicrobials, including eight HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir [NFV], saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir), was tested against a panel of pediatric leukemia cells by in vitro growth inhibition studies...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548665/enhanced-photocatalytic-degradation-of-amaranth-dye-on-mesoporous-anatase-tio2-evidence-of-c-n-n-double-bond-length-as-m-dash-n-bond-cleavage-and-identification-of-new-intermediates
#9
Amarja P Naik, Akshay V Salkar, Mahesh S Majik, Pranay P Morajkar
The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Amaranth, a recalcitrant carcinogenic azo dye, was investigated using mesoporous anatase TiO2 under sunlight. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 of a high photocatalytic activity has been synthesized using a sol-gel method and its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Amaranth dye has been evaluated with respect to Degussa P25. The effect of bi-dentate complexing agents like oxalic acid, ethylene glycol and urea on the surface properties of TiO2 catalyst has been investigated using TG-DTA, FTIR, HR-TEM, SAED, PXRD, EDS, UV-DRS, PL, BET N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm studies and BJH analysis...
May 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539459/social-bet-hedging-in-vampire-bats
#10
Gerald G Carter, Damien R Farine, Gerald S Wilkinson
Helping kin or nonkin can provide direct fitness benefits, but helping kin also benefits indirect fitness. Why then should organisms invest in cooperative partnerships with nonkin, if kin relationships are available and more beneficial? One explanation is that a kin-limited support network is too small and risky. Even if additional weaker partnerships reduce immediate net cooperative returns, individuals extending cooperation to nonkin can maintain a larger social network which reduces the potential costs associated with losing a primary cooperation partner...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539374/bet-3-in-septic-patients-requiring-fluid-resuscitation-can-the-bedside-lung-ultrasound-be-used-to-assess-the-pulmonary-fluid-status
#11
Alain Judith, Maude St-Onge
A short cut review was carried out to see if the presence of 'B lines' detected on lung ultrasound could be used to guide the volume of fluid replacement necessary in the resuscitation of the patient with sepsis. Four papers with some degree of relevance were found in the literature search. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Although a promising concept, the remains a paucity of good quality evidence sufficient to recommend this approach...
June 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539372/toward-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary
#12
Craig Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493742/effects-of-alcohol-initial-gambling-outcomes-impulsivity-and-gambling-cognitions-on-gambling-behavior-using-a-video-poker-task
#13
William R Corbin, Jessica M Cronce
Drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, and concurrent gambling and drinking may lead to greater negative consequences than either behavior alone. Building on prior research on the effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behaviors using a chance-based (nonstrategic) slot-machine task, the current study explored the impact of these factors on a skill-based (strategic) video poker task. We anticipated larger average bets and greater gambling persistence under alcohol relative to placebo, and expected alcohol effects to be moderated by initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493312/minor-allergen-patterns-in-birch-pollen-allergen-products-a-question-of-pollen
#14
J Zimmer, S Döring, D Strecker, J H Trösemeier, K M Hanschmann, F Führer, S Vieths, S Kaul
BACKGROUND: Contrary to the scientific differentiation between major and minor allergens, the regulatory framework controlling allergen products in the EU distinguishes relevant and non-relevant allergens. Given the lack of knowledge on their clinical relevance, minor allergens are usually not controlled by allergen product specifications. Especially in birch pollen (BP) allergen products, minor allergens are commonly disregarded. OBJECTIVES: To quantify three minor allergens in BP allergen products from different manufacturers and to assess the influence of the utilized BP on minor allergen patterns...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#15
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465523/the-mechanism-of-iron-binding-processes-in-erionite-fibres
#16
Alessandro Pacella, Carlo Cremisini, Elisa Nardi, Maria Rita Montereali, Ida Pettiti, Paolo Ballirano
Fibrous erionite-Na from Rome (Oregon, USA) was K-exchanged and characterized from the structural point of view. In addition, the modifications experienced after contact with a Fe(II) source were investigated for evaluating if the large potassium ions, blocking off nearly all the erionite cavity openings, might prevent the Fe(II) binding process, which is currently assumed to be one of the reasons of the toxicity of erionite. The K-exchanged sample had a 95% reduction of the BET surface area indicating that it behaves as a mesoporous material...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428437/bet-2-striking-the-right-balance-anticoagulation-and-isolated-distal-deep-vein-thrombosis
#17
Tom Jones, Dan Horner
A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether treatment of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis with therapeutic anticoagulation can reduce adverse clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis from 2011 and 11 subsequent directly relevant papers were found using the reported search strategy. Of these, 7 in total presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428435/bet-1-a-glass-half-full-thrombolysis-for-the-treatment-of-submassive-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Liam Barrett, Dan Horner
A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether thrombolysis in addition to therapeutic anticoagulation could be of benefit in submassive (intermediate risk) pulmonary embolism (PE). 64 directly relevant papers were found using the reported search strategy. Of these, three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of adjuvant thrombolytic therapy at any dose for patients with submassive PE...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426517/effects-of-betaine-supplementation-on-muscle-strength-and-power-a-systematic-review
#19
Ahmed Ismaeel
Betaine has recently gotten much attention for its potential role as an ergogenic aid and has become a common ingredient in peri-workout dietary supplements. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to investigate the effects of betaine supplementation on muscular strength and power. A computerized literature search of 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was performed. Included in the review were randomized controlled trials that measured muscle strength, power, and/or endurance in healthy participants...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405920/effector-functions-of-memory-ctls-can-be-affected-by-signals-received-during-reactivation
#20
Yingjun Lv, Elliot Mattson, Anjuli Bhadurihauck, Karla Garcia, Lei Li, Zhengguo Xiao
Memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are able to provide protections to the host against repeated insults from intracellular pathogens. However, it has not been completely understood how the effector functions of memory CTLs are induced upon antigen challenge, which is directly related to the efficacy of their protection. Third signal cytokines, such as IL-12 and type I interferon, have been suggested to be involved in the protective function of memory CTLs, but direct evidence is warranted. In this report, we found that memory CTLs need to be reactivated to exert effector functions...
April 12, 2017: Immunologic Research
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