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Liancheng Bing, Aixiu Tian, Fang Wang, Kaifeng Yi, Xingyuan Sun, Guangjian Wang
Hierarchical SSZ-13 microspheres with abundant mesoporous channels have been successfully synthesized by addition of calcined SSZ-13 crystals in the starting gel in the absence of any organic templates. This strategy not only remarkably reduces the production cost and environmental pollution but also significantly decreases the crystallization time as well as evidently reducing the zeolite crystal sizes in many cases. The synthesized sample was characterized by XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, TG, and NH3-TPD, which indicates that the organic template free synthesized SSZ-13 exhibits high crystallinity, textural properties, and acidity...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anna-Lena Heins, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Population heterogeneity is omnipresent in all bioprocesses even in homogenous environments. Its origin, however, is only so well understood that potential strategies like bet-hedging, noise in gene expression and division of labour that lead to population heterogeneity can be derived from experimental studies simulating the dynamics in industrial scale bioprocesses. This review aims at summarizing the current state of the different parts of single cell studies in bioprocesses. This includes setups to visualize different phenotypes of single cells, computational approaches connecting single cell physiology with environmental influence and special cultivation setups like scale-down reactors that have been proven to be useful to simulate large-scale conditions...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Diego Martin-Sanchez, Olga Ruiz-Andres, Jonay Poveda, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Lara Valiño-Rivas, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Alberto Ortiz, Ana Belén Sanz
Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression patterns not caused by an altered nucleotide sequence, and includes non-coding RNAs and covalent modifications of DNA and histones. This review focuses on functional evidence for the involvement of DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and the potential therapeutic implications. There is evidence of activation of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the AKI-to-CKD transition of diverse aetiologies, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, nephrotoxicity, ureteral obstruction, diabetes, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease...
March 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Sonia Ramin
In the present work, a novel magnetic chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite (MCGON) was synthesized for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was composed of graphene oxide (GO) modified by ethylenediamine (ED), Fe3 O4 nanoparticles and chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) copolymer. The composition and structure of adsorbents were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, VSM and BET analysis. The magnetic MCGON with a high specific surface area of (132...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eranezhuth Wasan Awin, Abhijeet Lale, Kollamala Chellappan Nair Hari Kumar, Umit Bilge Demirci, Samuel Bernard, Ravi Kumar
Titania (TiO₂) is considered to have immense potential as a photocatalyst, the anatase phase in particular. There have been numerous attempts to push the limits of its catalytic activity to higher wavelengths to harness the visible electromagnetic radiation. Most of the investigations till date have been restricted to fine-tuning the bandgap by doping, control of defect chemistry at the surface and several to first principle simulations either with limited success or success at the cost of complexities in processing...
March 1, 2018: Materials
Grant R Campbell, Rachel S Bruckman, Shayna D Herns, Shweta Joshi, Donald Durden, Stephen A Spector
In this study, we investigated the effect of the dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/MTOR) inhibitor dactolisib (NVP-BEZ235), the PI3K/ MTOR/bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor SF2523 and the BET inhibitor JQ1 on the productive infection of primary macrophages with human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV). These inhibitors did not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, dactolisib, JQ1 and SF2523 all decreased HIV replication in macrophages in a dose dependent manner via degradation of intracellular HIV through autophagy...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Keiya Takahashi, Hyun Yi, Ching-Hang Liu, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Dennis J Patin, Shuanglin Hao
The symptoms of HIV-sensory neuropathy are dominated by neuropathic pain. Recent data show that repeated use of opiates enhances the chronic pain states in HIV patients. Limited attention has so far been devoted to exploring the exact pathogenesis of HIV painful disorder and opiate abuse in vivo, for which there is no effective treatment. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein (BET) family and functions as a chromatin 'reader' that binds acetylated lysines in histones in brain neurons to mediate the transcriptional regulation underlying learning and memory...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Yu-Cheng Lin, Matthew D Sekedat, William Cole Cornell, Gustavo M Silva, Chinweike Okegbe, Alexa Price-Whelan, Christine Vogel, Lars E P Dietrich
Microbes in biofilms face the challenge of substrate limitation. In particular, cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing in the laboratory or during host colonization often become limited for oxygen. Previously we found that phenazines, antibiotics produced by P. aeruginosa , balance the intracellular redox state for cells in biofilms. Here, we show that genes involved in denitrification are induced in phenazine-null (Δ phz ) mutant biofilms grown under an aerobic atmosphere, even in the absence of nitrate...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Kaitlyn D LaCourse, S Brook Peterson, Hemantha D Kulasekara, Matthew C Radey, Jungyun Kim, Joseph D Mougous
Bacteria in polymicrobial habitats contend with a persistent barrage of competitors, often under rapidly changing environmental conditions1 . The direct antagonism of competitor cells is thus an important bacterial survival strategy2 . Towards this end, many bacterial species employ an arsenal of antimicrobial effectors with multiple activities; however, the benefits conferred by the simultaneous deployment of diverse toxins are unknown. Here we show that the multiple effectors delivered to competitor bacteria by the type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa display conditional efficacy and act synergistically...
February 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Yi Xu, Roberto Romero, Derek Miller, Pablo Silva, Bogdan Panaitescu, Kevin R Theis, Afrah Arif, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
PROBLEM: Pathological inflammation is causally linked to preterm labor and birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our aims were to investigate whether (i) the newly described family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) was present at the human maternal-fetal interface and (ii) ILC inflammatory subsets were associated with the pathological process of preterm labor. METHODS OF STUDY: Decidual leukocytes were isolated from women with preterm or term labor as well as from gestational age-matched non-labor controls...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Ulrike Tontsch-Grunt, Dorothea Rudolph, Irene Waizenegger, Anke Baum, Daniel Gerlach, Harald Engelhardt, Melanie Wurm, Fabio Savarese, Norbert Schweifer, Norbert Kraut
Interactions between a new potent Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor BI 894999 and the polo-like kinase (PLK) inhibitor volasertib were studied in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We provide data for the distinct mechanisms of action of these two compounds with a potential utility in AML based on gene expression, cell cycle profile and modulation of PD biomarkers such as MYC and HEXIM1. In contrast to BI 894999, volasertib treatment neither affects MYC nor HEXIM1 expression, but augments and prolongs the decrease of MYC expression caused by BI 894999 treatment...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
Jonathan M Fahey, Jennifer S Stancill, Brian C Smith, Albert W Girotti
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion, and also plays a key role in glioblastoma resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Non-ionizing photodynamic therapy (PDT) has anti-tumor advantages over conventional glioblastoma therapies. Our previous studies revealed that glioblastoma U87 cells upregulate iNOS after a photodynamic challenge and that resulting NO not only increased resistance to apoptosis, but rendered surviving cells more proliferative and invasive...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Federico Pacei, Luca Quilici, Stephen Mullin, Alessandro Innocenti, Luca Valvassori, Raffaele Nardone, Luciano Bet
Ischemic stroke has rarely been reported in association with a web of the carotid artery. We describe here an additional case of ischemic stroke caused by a carotid web in a young healthy woman. Detection of this vascular abnormality required the use of CT angiography and cerebral digital subtraction angiography. Although there is little evidence regarding the optimal management of this condition, under medical treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy our patient remained free of recurrent stroke events. This case report study illustrates that the web of the carotid artery is an uncommon cause of stroke which should always be considered and ruled out, especially in young patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Craig Ferguson, Jonathan Lewin
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether chemical thromboprophylaxis was a safe early intervention in patients with solid organ injury that is being managed non-operatively. Eight papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that there is inadequate evidence assessing safety of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) within 24 hours of trauma...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Joshua Badour, Matt Singh, Jeffrey Jones
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether the addition of irrigation of the abscess cavity improved outcomes after incision and drainage of a cutaneous abscess. One paper presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of this paper are tabulated. It is concluded that in adult patients with cutaneous abscesses routine irrigation during incision and drainage does not improve clinical outcomes...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Milena Vesković, Milica Labudović-Borović, Ivan Zaletel, Jelena Rakočević, Dušan Mladenović, Bojan Jorgačević, Danijela Vučević, Tatjana Radosavljević
The effects of betaine on hepatocytes chromatin architecture changes were examined by using fractal and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into groups: (1) Control: standard diet; (2) BET: standard diet and betaine supplementation through drinking water (solution 1.5%); (3) MCD group: MCD diet for 6 weeks; (4) MCD+BET: fed with MCD diet + betaine for 6 weeks. Liver tissue was collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and determination of fractal dimension and GLCM parameters...
January 19, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
James J Morrow, Ian Bayles, Alister P W Funnell, Tyler E Miller, Alina Saiakhova, Michael M Lizardo, Cynthia F Bartels, Maaike Y Kapteijn, Stevephen Hung, Arnulfo Mendoza, Gursimran Dhillon, Daniel R Chee, Jay T Myers, Frederick Allen, Marco Gambarotti, Alberto Righi, Analisa DiFeo, Brian P Rubin, Alex Y Huang, Paul S Meltzer, Lee J Helman, Piero Picci, Henri Versteeg, John Stamatoyannopolus, Chand Khanna, Peter C Scacheri
Metastasis results from a complex set of traits acquired by tumor cells, distinct from those necessary for tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the contribution of enhancer elements to the metastatic phenotype of osteosarcoma. Through epigenomic profiling, we identify substantial differences in enhancer activity between primary and metastatic human tumors and between near isogenic pairs of highly lung metastatic and nonmetastatic osteosarcoma cell lines. We term these regions metastatic variant enhancer loci (Met-VELs)...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
Øystein Nordeide Kielland, Claus Bech, Sigurd Einum
Diversified bet-hedging (DBH) by production of within-genotype phenotypic variance may evolve to maximize fitness in stochastic environments. Bet-hedging is generally associated with parental effects, but phenotypic variation may also develop throughout life via developmental instability (DI). This opens for the possibility of a within-generation mechanism creating DBH during the lifetime of individuals. If so, DI could in fact be a plastic trait itself; if a fluctuating environment indicates uncertainty about future conditions, sensing such fluctuations could trigger DI as a DBH response...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Américo H López-Yglesias, Elise Burger, Alessandra Araujo, Andrew T Martin, Felix Yarovinsky
Coordinated production of IFN-γ by innate and adaptive immune cells is central for host defense, but can also trigger immunopathology. The investigation of the lymphoid cell-specific contribution to the IFN-γ-mediated intestinal pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection identified CD4+ T cells as a key cell population responsible for IFN-γ-dependent intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell loss, where T-bet-dependent group 1 innate lymphoid cells have a minor role in driving the parasite-induced immunopathology...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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