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Hypercalcemia post renal transplant

Jun Jie Benjamin Seng, Ying Lin Cheryl Tan, Rou Wei Lim, Hui Ting Sarah Ng, Puay Hoon Lee, Jiunn Wong
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors for hypercalcemia among non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with mineral and bone disorder (MBD). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Singapore General Hospital, involving all CKD stage 4 and 5 pre-dialysis patients who were on treatment for MBD in June 2016. Each patient was followed up for 1 year and screened for hypercalcemia episodes. Mild, moderate and severe hypercalcemia were defined as corrected calcium of 2...
June 7, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Erol Demir, Cagla Karaoglan, Gulcin Yegen, Betul Sair, Halil Yazici, Aydin Turkmen, Mehmet Sukru Sever
Post-transplant hypercalcemia is a major problem in renal transplant recipients, which may negatively affect both graft and patient survival. In this paper, we present a 66-year-old male kidney transplant recipient, who was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of fever, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Laboratory data showed good renal function; however, a serum calcium level of 22.1 mg/dL. The patient was treated by isotonic saline together with furosemide and methylprednisolone. Because of treatment resistance, subcutaneous calcitonin and ibandronate were added to the treatment protocol as well...
April 28, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Aaron R Huber, Brandon S Sprung, John Miller, Jennifer J Findeis-Hosey
BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal tract mucosal calcinosis (MC) tends to affect the gastric mucosa, while esophageal involvement is rare. Gastric MC may be seen with solid organ transplantation, use of aluminum-containing antacids or sucralfate, malignancy, and chronic renal failure. While the incidence of gastric MC in renal transplant patients undergoing gastric biopsy is common (between 15-29%), to our knowledge esophageal MC has only been previously reported 3 times. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old male dialysis-dependent end stage renal disease status-post deceased donor kidney transplant underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for dysphagia and diffuse esophageal wall thickening seen on imaging studies...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Agne Laucyte-Cibulskiene, Evelina Boreikaite, Gediminas Aucina, Migle Gudynaite, Ilona Rudminiene, Sigita Anisko, Loreta Vareikiene, Liutauras Gumbys, Dileta Valanciene, Ligita Ryliskyte, Kestutis Strupas, Laurynas Rimsevicius, Marius Miglinas
Vascular calcification (VC) is linked to post-transplant cardiovascular events and hypercalcemia which may influence kidney graft function in the long term. We aimed to evaluate whether pretransplant aortic arch calcification (AoAC) can predict post-transplant cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (CVEs), and to assess its association with post-transplant plasma calcium levels and renal function in one-year follow-up. Our single-center observational prospective study enrolled 37 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) without previous history of vascular events...
November 2018: Renal Failure
N Pertica, L Cicciarella, A Carraro, U Montin, P Violi, A Lupo, G Zaza
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after liver transplantation (LT) is a frequent and serious complication. The incidence of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) ranges from 10% to 30%. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines indicate the use of citrate as a locoregional anticoagulant drug for CRRT regardless of the patient's hemorrhagic risk. Despite this indication, however, the use of citrate is still under debate in patients with liver failure and/or LT owing to the potential risk of plasmatic citrate accumulation due to reduced liver clearance...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Z Al-Moasseb, E Aitken
BACKGROUND: Hyperparathyroidism is common in end-stage renal disease. It often persists following renal transplantation (RTx) and remains elusive to manage due to the lack of evidence base. We therefore present observational data describing the natural history and management of hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism following RTx. METHODS: Single-center experience of 216 adult patients undergoing kidney transplantation between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Francesco Fontana, Gianni Cappelli
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) following KT is a rare and often fatal complication of the early post-transplant period. Common causative factors for AP are rare after KT; anti-rejection drugs as CyA, prednisone and MMF have been implicated, although evidence is not strong and we found no reports on possible causative role for mTOR inhibitors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Caucasian man with end-stage renal disease due to idiopathic membrano-prolipherative glomerulonephritis underwent single kidney transplantation (KT) from cadaveric donor...
October 28, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Larissa Kruger Gomes, Melani Ribeiro Custódio, Fabiana Loss de Carvalho Contieri, Miguel C Riella, Marcelo Mazza do Nascimento
Introduction: The persistence of mineral metabolism disorders after renal transplant (RT) appears to possess a negative impact over graft and patient's survival. Objectives: To evaluate the parameters of mineral metabolism and the persistence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in transplanted patients for a 12-month period after the procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 41 transplants (18 women- 44%, mean age of 39 ± 15 years) performed in a University Hospital, evaluating changes of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the prevalence of persistent HPT...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Pahnwat T Taweesedt, Sinee Disthabanchong
After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels...
December 24, 2015: World Journal of Transplantation
Ramón Alberto Tamayo-Isla, Mauro Cuba de la Cruz
INTRODUCTION: Calciphylaxis is a rare medical condition that is usually diagnosed in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease who are already receiving renal replacement therapy and in those post-transplantation. The pathogenesis still remains to be fully elucidated; hence, the treatment is not uniform. The prognosis is generally poor. The ulcerative stage exhibits a worse prognosis than the nonulcerative one. Calciphylaxis presenting in terminal kidney disease prior to dialytic treatment has only rarely been reported...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Lindel C Dewberry, Sudha Tata, Sharon Graves, Collin J Weber, Jyotirmay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3°HPT) is hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. With unclear guidelines for parathyroidectomy (PTX), this study aims to determine which renal transplant patients develop 3°HPT and would benefit from PTX. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients who received a renal transplant between 1994 and 2013; 105 patients who underwent near total PTX (NTPTX) were compared with 180 renal transplant control patients who did not undergo NTPTX...
December 2014: Surgery
Lindel Krige Dewberry, Collin Weber, Jyotirmay Sharma
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3°HPT) is defined as persistent hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. Near total parathyroidectomy (NTPTX) is the current standard for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify outcomes of NTPTX. A retrospective review was conducted of surgeries performed between 1994 and 2013. NTPTX resulted in resolution of 96.9 per cent of patients' hypercalcemia at a median follow-up of three years (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 8). However, 3...
July 2014: American Surgeon
Cristiana Bagnis, S Berutti, C Vitale, N Ravarino, M Marangella
We report a case of hypercalcemia in a female patient who was restarted on hemodialysis 22 years after renal transplantation. Graft biopsy showed chronic post-transplant nephropathy. Treatment with immunosuppressants and steroids was maintained owing to residual graft function. She was then given oral paracalcitol 1 µg/d for secondary hyperparathyroidism (iPTH 850 pg/mL) and her transplant medication was reduced and then discontinued. After this, the patient referred widespread joint pain, especially in the hips and subsequently presented with erythema nodosum...
September 2013: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
N Muirhead, J S Zaltman, J S Gill, D N Churchill, M Poulin-Costello, V Mann, E H Cole
Hypercalcemia, occurring in up to 25% of patients within 12 months following renal transplantation, and persistent hyperparathyroidism were evaluated following renal transplantation, by retrospective chart review of 1000 adult patients transplanted between January 1, 2003 and January 31, 2008 with at least six months follow-up. Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and phosphate levels were recorded at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. Average follow-up was 766 (535) d (mean (SD); median 668 d). Majority were first transplants (85%); deceased donor 57%...
February 2014: Clinical Transplantation
José-Vicente Torregrosa, Xoana Barros
Post-transplant hypercalcemia due to persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) has a high prevalence in the first 3 months after surgery and decreases during the first year, but it persists over time in around 5-10% of renal transplant patients. The increased bone resorption and tubular reabsorption of calcium due to the action of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) appear to be the main mechanisms involved in hypercalcemia. At the time of the renal transplantation (RT), PTH is the factor that determines the development of post-RT hypercalcemia, although it is sometimes masked in patients who are well controlled with medical treatment...
November 13, 2013: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Walter Guillermo Douthat, Carlos Raul Chiurchiu, Pablo Ulises Massari
The persistence and severity of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) post-renal transplantation is relatively frequent and primarily associated with the timing and its magnitude in the pre-transplant period and with the presence of parathyroid adenomas. HPT after renal transplantation is clinically manifested with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone pain, fractures, and in more serious cases with cardiovascular calcifications that affect the survival. The primary clinical objective for patients with secondary HPT after renal transplantation is to obtain a level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) adequate to the renal transplanted function and to normalize levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D...
June 24, 2012: World Journal of Transplantation
Michio Nakamura, Kiho Tanaka, Yuhji Marui, Shinji Tomikawa
Deceased donor kidney transplantation in long-term dialysis patients in Japan has been increasing because of a severe lack of donors. Parathyroid glands of long-term dialysis patients often show qualitative morphological changes from diffuse to nodular hyperplasia. Only a few studies have reported the clinicopathological analysis of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation in long-term (>10 years) dialysis patients. This study on consecutive deceased donor kidney transplantation performed from 2002 to 2010 measured biochemical parameters related to bone and mineral disorders and examined parathyroid tissues in parathyroidectomy cases...
October 2013: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Hironobu Nobata, Yoshihiro Tominaga, Hirokazu Imai, Kazuharu Uchida
BACKGROUND: After renal transplantation (RTX), hypercalcemia, mainly due to persistent hyperparathyroidism, and hypophosphatemia, caused by the improved ability to excrete phosphorus in the renal tubules, are expected. However, immediately after RTX, a transient reduction in serum calcium (Ca) levels has been previously reported, the reason for which is not clear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 21 patients receiving ABO compatible living donor kidney transplants, serum levels of Ca, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and tacrolimus were measured within three wk after RTX, along with urinary Ca and phosphorus excretion...
November 2013: Clinical Transplantation
Catherine M Seager, Titte R Srinivas, Stuart M Flechner
BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism often accompanies chronic kidney disease, which can result in severe bone abnormalities and nephrolithiasis. Renal transplantation can correct the mineral abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease, but one year after transplantation many recipients continue to exhibit persistent hyperparathyroidism. CASE REPORT: Cinacalcet, a second-generation calcimimetic, has been shown to be effective in decreasing serum calcium levels in post kidney transplant patients with hyperparathyroidism...
January 22, 2013: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Sartaj Alam, Asrar Hussain, Rajendra Daiwajna, Jackson Tan
INTRODUCTION: Sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel) is frequently used as a second-line phosphate binder in patients on renal replacement therapy. Many studies have shown that sevelamer can improve vascular calcification, serum uric acid and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The main objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of sevelamer against calcium-based phosphate binders, as well as its tolerability and side-effect profile. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that included all patients on renal replacement therapy (between 2008 and 2011) who had previously received calcium-based binders for ≥ 6 months and were subsequently switched to sevelamer...
May 2013: Singapore Medical Journal
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