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Laura Magrini, Achille Cappiello, Giorgio Famiglini, Pierangela Palma
This article describes a nano-scale method for the determination and quantification of five benzodiazepines (BDZ) in an alcoholic grappa drink (chlordiazepoxide; lorazepam; diazepam; oxazepam; medazepam). BDZ are typically used in drug-facilitated crimes (DFC) for their accessibility and synergistic effects with alcohol. Specimens collected on the crime scene must be rapidly analyzed to prove the crime, though, in most cases, a very small amount is available. Off-line MEPS extraction of diluted grappa samples proved to be an efficient and reliable method for the recovery of the selected compounds...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ilona Oledzka, Zofia Kulińska, Adam Prahl, Tomasz Baczek
A novel approach for the simultaneous quantification of eight benzodiazepines (BZDs) using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) combined with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was investigated and evaluated in the context of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, linearity, detection and limits of quantification (LOQ). The absolute recovery rates of BZDs were above 90.65%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 20 ng/mL for chlordiazepoxide, estazolam, temazepam and midazolam, and 30 ng/mL for clonazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and medazepam, while the LOQ was set at 50 ng/mL for chlordiazepoxide, estazolam, temazepam and midazolam, and 100 ng/mL for clonazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and medazepam...
July 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Bılal Yılmaz, Alı Fuat Erdem
A simple and sensitive GC/MS method for the determination of tramadol and its metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol) in human plasma was developed and validated. Medazepam was used as an internal standard. The calibration curves were linear (r=0.999) over tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ng/mL and 7.5 to 300 ng/mL, respectively. The method had an accuracy of >95% and intra- and interday precision (RSD%) of ≤4.83% and ≤4.68% for tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol, respectively...
January 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Usman Iqbal, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Chih-Wei Huang, Wen-Shan Jian, Min-Huei Hsu, Yun Yen, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
The carcinogenicity of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is still unclear. We aimed to assess whether long-term benzodiazepines use is risk for cancer.We conducted a longitudinal population-based case-control study by using 12 years from Taiwan National Health Insurance database and investigated the association between BZDs use and cancer risk of people aged over 20 years. During the study period, 42,500 cases diagnosed with cancer were identified and analyzed for BZDs use. For each case, six eligible controls matched for age, sex, and the index date (ie, free of any cancer in the date of case diagnosis) by using propensity score...
February 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bilal Yilmaz, Ali Fuat Erdem
A sensitive and efficient method was developed for determination of tramadol and its metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol) in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and medazepam (internal standard) were extracted from human urine with a mixture of ethylacetate and diethylether mixture (1 : 1, v/v) at basic pH with liquid-liquid extraction. The calibration curves were linear (r = 0.99) over tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ng/mL and 7...
August 2015: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Zeynel Abidin Sayiner, Zeynel Abidin Ozturk
An 84-year-old female patient was admitted to our internal medicine outpatient clinic complaining of stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting. She had hepatitis C infection for 10 years that was managed with antiviral treatment. On the second day of admission, she developed anxiety and complained about dysuria. Medazepam and hyoscine butylbromide combined tablet was administered. The day after medazepam and hyoscine butylbromide administration, patient's creatinine level increased to 2.3 mg/dL (0.57-1.11 mg/dL)...
May 2014: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Antonio Doménech-Carbó, Mariele Martini, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Carine Viana, María Teresa Doménech-Carbó, Miguel Silva
A solid state electrochemical method for screening different families of adulterant chemicals illegally added to commercial phytotherapuetic formulations is described. The proposed method, based on the voltammetry of microparticles approach, permits a fast and sensitive way to distinguish between anorexics (amfepramone, fenproporex, sibutramine), benzozodiazepinic anxiolytics (clonazepam, flurazepam, alprazolam, midazolam, medazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam), antidepressants (bupropione, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, chlortalidone, amiloride, spironolactone), and hypoglycemics (glimepiride, chlorpropamide, glibenclamide) based on characteristic voltammetric signals recorded on solid micro- or nanosamples attached to graphite electrodes immersed into aqueous electrolytes...
February 23, 2013: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Muneyoshi Okada, Wataru Mizuno, Ryu Nakarai, Takashi Matada, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Yukio Hara
The anticholinergic effects of 7 benzodiazepines, bromazepam, camazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, lorazepam, medazepam and triazolam, were compared by examining their inhibitory effects on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (I(K).(ACh)) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes. All of these benzodiazepines (0.3-300 µM) inhibited carbachol (1 µM)-induced I(K).(ACh) in a concentration-dependent manner. The ascending order of IC(50) values for carbachol-induced I(K).(ACh) was as follows; medazepam, diazepam, camazepam, triazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam and chlordiazepoxide (>300 µM)...
July 2012: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Bethan L Richards, Samuel L Whittle, Rachelle Buchbinder
BACKGROUND: Pain management is a high priority for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Muscle relaxants include drugs that reduce muscle spasm (for example benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan) and non-benzodiazepines such as metaxalone (Skelaxin) or a combination of paracetamol and orphenadrine (Muscol)) and drugs that prevent increased muscle tone (baclofen and dantrolene). Despite a paucity of evidence supporting their use, antispasmodic and antispasticity muscle relaxants have gained widespread clinical acceptance as adjuvants in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Eduardo Costa Figueiredo, Regina Sparrapan, Gustavo Braga Sanvido, Mariane Gonçalves Santos, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin
The association of solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is applied to the direct extraction and quantitation of benzodiazepines in human plasma. The target analytes are sequestered by MIP and directly analyzed by ESI-MS. Due to the MIP highly selective extraction, ionic suppression during ESI is minimized; hence no separation is necessary prior to ESI-MS, which greatly increases analytical speed. Benzodiazepines (medazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam and midazolam) in human plasma were chosen as a proof-of-principle case of drug analyses by MIP-ESI-MS in a complex matrix...
September 21, 2011: Analyst
Nobumasa Hayase, Kuninori Iwayama, Ko-Ichi Ohtaki, Yasunori Yamashita, Toshio Awaya, Kazuo Matsubara
Drugs are sometimes covered with oblate or agar jelly. It is said that the medicinal effect of drugs covered with oblate is slow, but no studies have reported results confirming this. Therefore, we examined the dissolution behavior when the drug was covered with oblate or agar jelly. Three types of commercially available formulations of benzodiazepine were used: medazepam sugarcoated tablets, prazepam uncoated tablets, and clorazepate dipotassium capsules. Dissolution tests were performed using solutions of pH 1...
January 2011: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Leandro M de Carvalho, Daniele Correia, Solange C Garcia, André V de Bairros, Paulo C do Nascimento, Denise Bohrer
The use of synthetic pharmaceuticals in phytotherapeutics can be defined as an illegal practice, since these compounds are normally present as non-declared compounds in the phytotherapeutical formulations. This work aims to show the development of an analytical method based on adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) for the simultaneous determination of 1,4-benzodiazepines and amfepramone. The developed method was used to measure seven benzodiazepines (clonazepam, flurazepam, alprazolam, midazolam, medazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and diazepam) and amfepramone in slimming formulations that have been commercialized in Brazil...
October 10, 2010: Forensic Science International
Salvatore Millefiori, Andrea Alparone
Vertical ionization energies (VIEs) of medazepam, nordazepam and their molecular subunits have been calculated using the electron propagator method in the P3/CEP-31G* approximation. Vertical electron affinities (VEAs) have been obtained with a ∆SCF procedure at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory. Excellent correlations have been achieved between IE(calc) and IE(exp), allowing reliable assignment of the ionization processes. Our proposed assignment differs in many instances from that previously reported in the literature...
February 2011: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Ioannis I Papoutsis, Sotirios A Athanaselis, Panagiota D Nikolaou, Constantinos M Pistos, Chara A Spiliopoulou, Constantinos P Maravelias
Benzodiazepines are used widely in daily clinical practice, due to their multiple pharmacological actions. The frequent problems associated with the wide use of benzodiazepines, as well as the multiple incidents of poisonings, led to the necessity for the development of a precise, sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of the 23 most commonly used benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, medazepam, flurazepam, fludiazepam, tetrazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, midazolam, flunitrazepam, 7-amino-flunitrazepam, triazolam, prazepam, nimetazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, lormetazepam, clonazepam, camazepam) in blood...
August 1, 2010: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Radim Vrzal, Katerina Kubesova, Petr Pavek, Zdenek Dvorak
Benzodiazepines have wide-spread used in pharmacotherapy for their anxiolytic, myorelaxant, hypnotic, amnesic and anticonvulsive properties. Despite benzodiazepines are used in clinics over 50 years, they have not been surprisingly tested for capability to induce major drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. In the current study, we have examined the potency of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Clonazepam, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Medazepam, Midazolam, Nitrazepam, Oxazepam, Tetrazepam and Triazolam to induce CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes...
March 15, 2010: Toxicology Letters
Nicolas Creusot, Saïd Kinani, Patrick Balaguer, Nathalie Tapie, Karyn LeMenach, Emmanuelle Maillot-Maréchal, Jean-Marc Porcher, Hélène Budzinski, Sélim Aït-Aïssa
Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells) to screen a panel of environmental chemicals and to assess PXR-active chemicals in (waste) water samples...
January 2010: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
S M Sultan, A H El-Mubarak
An accurate high performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantification of a solution mixture of nitrazepam, diazepam and medazepam and medazepam was developed. The modified simplex program has been utilized for the optimization of the chemical and chromatographic parameters using the chromatographic response function as the quality criterion and a photodiode array as a detector. The separation was achieved in 2 min using a 20 cm long, 4.6 mm diameter Lichrosorb C18 reverse phase column...
April 1996: Talanta
J Gidai, N Acs, F Bánhidy, A E Czeizel
The purpose of this article is to report an evaluation of the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of medezepam in humans based on pregnant women who used very large doses of medazepam for a suicide attempt. All self-poisoned patients were cared for at the Department of Toxicology Internal Medicine, Koranyi Hospital, a toxicological inpatients clinic in Budapest, Hungary, between 1960 and 1993. Pregnant women were identified from self-poisoned subjects admitted from a population base of three million people of Budapest and the surrounding region...
February 2008: Toxicology and Industrial Health
A A Zozulia, G G Neznamov, T S Siuniakov, N V Kost, M V Gabaeva, O Iu Sokolov, E V Serebriakova, O A Siranchieva, A V Andriushenko, E S Telesheva, S A Siuniakov, A B Smulevich, N F Miasoedov, S B Seredenin
Sixty-two patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and neurasthenia were studied. The effect of selank (30 patients) was compared to that of medazepam (32 patients). Patient's state was assessed with psychometric scales (Hamilton, Zung, CGI). Enkephalin activity in the blood serum was measured as well. The anxiolytic effects of both drugs were similar but selank had also antiasthenic and psychostimulant effects. The clinical-biological study revealed that patients with GAD and neurasthenia had the decreased level of tau(1/2) leu-enkephalin which was correlated with disease duration, severity of symptoms related to anxiety and asthenia and autonomic disorders...
2008: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Gabriel Hancu, Attila Gáspár, Arpád Gyéresi
In this work the applicability of micellar elektrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) for the determination of benzodiazepines (BZD) has been studied. The applied method was used for the simultaneous separation of 8 BZDs (alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, flunitrazepam, medazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam), and also for the study of stability in acidic medium. A fast and reliable method has been developed; using a separation buffer composed of sodium tetraborate 25 mM (pH 9.5), SDS (50 mM) and methanol (at least 12%) as an organic modifier...
January 10, 2007: Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods
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