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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#1
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770374/mog-antibody-related-disorders-common-features-and-uncommon-presentations
#2
Álvaro Cobo-Calvo, Anne Ruiz, Hyacintha D'Indy, Anne-Lise Poulat, Maryline Carneiro, Nicolas Philippe, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Kumaran Deiva, Sandra Vukusic, Vincent Desportes, Romain Marignier
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) have been reported in acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), optic neuritis (ON), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in adults and pediatrics. We aimed to delineate the common features of MOG-Ab-related disorders in children and adults, and report uncommon presentations. Twenty-seven consecutive pediatric and adult patients testing positive for MOG-Ab, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, were included. Comprehensive epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750658/complement-regulator-cd59-prevents-peripheral-organ-injury-in-rats-made-seropositive-for-neuromyelitis-optica-immunoglobulin-g
#3
Xiaoming Yao, Alan S Verkman
Pathogenesis in aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity initiated by AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4. We recently reported that rats lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59 were highly susceptible to development of NMO pathology in brain and spinal cord following direct AQP4-IgG administration (Yao and Verkman, Acta Neuropath Commun 2017, 5:15). Here, we report evidence that CD59 is responsible for protection of peripheral, AQP4-expressing tissues in seropositive NMO...
July 27, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716289/devic-s-disease-before-devic-on-the-contribution-of-friedrich-albin-schanz-1863-1923
#4
S Jarius, B Wildemann
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's disease) is an autoimmune disorder of the CNS that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord and, if not treated, can leave patients blind and wheelchair-bound. NMO was long considered a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). While the history of MS has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the early history of NMO. A dissertation written by Fernand Gault (1873-1936), a doctoral student to Eugène Devic (1858-1930), a Lyon-based neurologist after whom the disease would later be named, is considered by many the first review of NMO...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684532/longitudinal-analysis-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-cns-inflammatory-diseases
#5
Jae-Won Hyun, Mark R Woodhall, Su-Hyun Kim, In Hye Jeong, Byungsoo Kong, Gayoung Kim, Yeseul Kim, Min Su Park, Sarosh R Irani, Patrick Waters, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the seroprevalence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G1 (MOG-IgG) and associated clinical features of patients from a large adult-dominant unselected cohort with mainly relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. We also investigate the clinical relevance of MOG-IgG through a longitudinal analysis of serological status over a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: Serum samples from 505 patients with CNS inflammatory diseases at the National Cancer Center were analysed using cell-based assays for MOG-IgG and aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674367/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-recurrent-intracranial-hemorrhage
#6
Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito, Ikkei Ohashi, Taichi Nomura, Ichiro Yabe, Yasutaka Tajima
The patient was a woman without hypertension who had previously experienced intracranial hemorrhage twice at 48 and 56 years of age. At 59 years of age, she was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) based on the presence of a brain stem lesion and the detection of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies. After 5 months of continuous treatment with prednisolone (15 mg/day), she presented with optic neuritis and intracranial bleeding. A recurrent attack of NMOSD and intracranial hemorrhage were concurrently diagnosed...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670343/differential-diagnosis-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Sung-Min Kim, Seong-Joon Kim, Haeng Jin Lee, Hiroshi Kuroda, Jacqueline Palace, Kazuo Fujihara
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly manifesting as optic neuritis and/or myelitis, which are frequently recurrent/bilateral or longitudinally extensive, respectively. As the autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) can mediate the pathogenesis of NMOSD, testing for the AQP4-Ab in serum of patients can play a crucial role in diagnosing NMOSD. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis of NMOSD in clinical practice is often challenging despite the phenotypical and serological characteristics of the disease because: (1) diverse diseases with autoimmune, vascular, infectious, or neoplastic etiologies can mimic these phenotypes of NMOSD; (2) patients with NMOSD may only have limited clinical manifestations, especially in their early disease stages; (3) test results for AQP4-Ab can be affected by several factors such as assay methods, serologic status, disease stages, or types of treatment; (4) some patients with NMOSD do not have AQP4-Ab; and (5) test results for the AQP4-Ab may not be readily available for the acute management of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638708/citation-classics-in-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-demyelinating-disease
#8
Jee-Eun Kim, Kang M Park, Yerim Kim, Dae Y Yoon, Jong S Bae
OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637379/neuropsychological-outcomes-of-pediatric-demyelinating-diseases-a-review
#9
Alexander Tan, Cole Hague, Benjamin M Greenberg, Lana Harder
Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases impact various areas of the brain, optic nerves, and/or spinal cord and can result in a wide range of neurologic symptoms including adverse cognitive outcomes. Neuropsychological outcomes in adult multiple sclerosis (MS) are well documented, while literature on such outcomes in pediatric cohorts is more limited. Furthermore, literature on neuropsychological outcomes in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and transverse myelitis (TM) is even more limited...
June 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632021/neuromyelitis-optica-application-of-computer-diagnostics-to-historical-case-reports
#10
Pablo Garcia Reitboeck, Peter Garrard, Timothy Peters
The retrospective diagnosis of illnesses by medical historians can often be difficult and prone to bias, although knowledge of the medical disorders of historical figures is key to the understanding of their behavior and reactions. The recent application of computer diagnostics to historical figures allows an objective differential diagnosis to be accomplished. Taking an example from clinical neurology, we analyzed the earliest reported cases of Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica) that commonly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord and was previously often confused with multiple sclerosis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619428/neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-with-horner-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
İrem Fatma Uludağ, Alp Sarıteke, Levent Öcek, Yaşar Zorlu, Ufuk Şener, Figen Tokuçoğlu, Burhanettin Uludağ
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. We describe a 19 years old woman with left Horner syndrome (HS), who was diagnosed as NMO with characteristic longitudinally extensive myelitis and positive serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Our report describes one of the very rare ocular motor symptoms in NMO patients.
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615429/diagnostic-algorithm-for-relapsing-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#12
Yael Hacohen, Kshitij Mankad, W K Chong, Frederik Barkhof, Angela Vincent, Ming Lim, Evangeline Wassmer, Olga Ciccarelli, Cheryl Hemingway
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether children with relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes (RDS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) show distinctive clinical and radiologic features and to generate a diagnostic algorithm for the main RDS for clinical use. METHODS: A panel reviewed the clinical characteristics, MOG-Ab and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Ab, intrathecal oligoclonal bands, and Epstein-Barr virus serology results of 110 children with RDS. A neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis scored the MRI scans...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608315/effectiveness-of-low-dose-of-rituximab-compared-with-azathioprine-in-chinese-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-an-over-2-year-follow-up-study
#13
Meini Zhang, Chuntao Zhang, Peng Bai, Huiru Xue, Guilian Wang
Neuromyelitis optical (NMO) and neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are inflammatory autoimmune demyelination diseases affecting the central nervous system. We investigated the efficiency of low-dose rituximab treatment in 31 Chinese patients with NMO/NMOSD across a median period of 2.29 ± 0.97 years and azathioprine combined with corticosteroid treatment in 34 Chinese patients with NMO/NMOSD across a median period of 2.61 ± 0.94 years. Among the rituximab-treated patients, the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was 5...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601290/suspected-bacterial-meningomyelitis-the-first-presenting-clinical-feature-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#14
Xiang Li, Jie Lin, Sipei Pan, Yiyun Weng, Jia Li, Xu Zhang, Junhui Xia, Qiaowen Tong
A rare case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, suspected to be bacterial meningomyelitis as the initial manifestation, is reported. The patient presented with initial symptoms of meningomyelitis and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis (1280×10(6)/L [98% lymphocytes]) and glucose level of 1.8mmol/L. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed >3 vertebral, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and area postrema lesions. Right optic neuritis was experienced 20months after the first attack...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571193/recurrent-longitudinally-extensive-myelitis-and-aquaporin-4-seronegativity-the-expanding-spectrum-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#15
Ravi Anadure, Coimbatore Sivasubramanian Narayanan, Govindaraj Varadraj
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a recently proposed unifying term for Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease and related syndromes. It is a relapsing inflammatory demyelinating disease that most commonly affects optic nerves and the spinal cord, leading to sudden vision loss or weakness in one or both eyes, and loss of sensation and bladder function. Though inflammation may also involve the brain, the lesions seen in NMO are different from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) which has a similar clinical course...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471902/recurrent-optic-neuritis-associated-with-mog-antibody-seropositivity
#17
Thashi Chang, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Angela Vincent
INTRODUCTION: Optic neuritis (ON) can be the first manifestation of autoimmune central nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, but it can also occur as an isolated monophasic or relapsing disease. A proportion of these patients have antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We report a case of recurrent ON with MOG antibodies in a South Asian patient. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old Sri Lankan female with a previous history of 2 episodes of steroid-responsive ON presented with a 20/120 visual impairment of her right eye...
May 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465700/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disease-characteristics-in-isfahan-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Fereshte Ashtari, Ali Safaei, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mohammad Amin Najafi, Sahar Vesal
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD) is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that throughout epidemiological data, it has not been completely determined. The aim of this study was to assess characteristics of NMOSD patients in Isfahan as one of the most prevalent cities for multiple sclerosis in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients diagnosed as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) disease through 5 years enrolled in this study...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458709/efficacy-and-safety-of-rituximab-in-neuromyelitis-optica-review-of-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Masoud Etemadifar, Mehri Salari, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Mehdi Serati, Roham Nikkhah, Mozhde Askari, Emad Fayyazi
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with preferential involvement in the optic nerve and spinal cord with a widespread spectrum of clinical features; multiple therapeutic agents have been used with different results. Recent evidence points to B-cell-mediated humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of NMO. Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen on B-cells. Treatment leads to profound B-cell depletion, principally over an antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity mechanism...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440255/clinical-profile-and-neuroimaging-in-pediatric-optic-neuritis-in-indian-population-a-case-series
#20
Rutika Khadse, Meenakshi Ravindran, Neelam Pawar, Padmavathy Maharajan, Ramakrishnan Rengappa
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to report clinical features, neuroimaging, and visual outcome in pediatric optic neuritis (ON) in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children up to the age of 16 years, diagnosed with ON, that presented at pediatric and neuroophthalmology clinic of a tertiary eye care center, in South India, within the period of 2010-2015. RESULTS: We identified 62 eyes of 40 children diagnosed as ON within the study period...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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