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neuromyelitis optic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030418/short-delay-to-initiate-plasma-exchange-is-the-strongest-predictor-of-outcome-in-severe-attacks-of-nmo-spectrum-disorders
#1
Mickael Bonnan, Rudy Valentino, Stéphane Debeugny, Harold Merle, Jean-Louis Fergé, Hossein Mehdaoui, Philippe Cabre
INTRODUCTION: Severe attacks of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO-SD) are improved by plasma exchange (PLEX) given as an adjunctive therapy. Initial studies failed to demonstrate a delay of PLEX treatment influenced clinical outcome; however PLEX was always used late. We examine the clinical consequences of delay in PLEX initiation on severe optic neuritis and spinal cord attacks in NMO-SD. METHODS: All of our patients who suffered attacks of NMO-SD, treated in our centre by PLEX, were retrospectively considered for inclusion...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026864/gastroparesis-as-the-sole-presenting-feature-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#2
Ahmed Salahudeen, Tejal Mistry
A 33-year-old African-American woman recently diagnosed with severe idiopathic gastroparesis was readmitted for hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to aspiration pneumonia. A fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallow study revealed severe pharyngeal dysphagia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an ill-defined lesion in the posterior aspect of the medulla concerning for a demyelinating process. Serum neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G returned positive. Neuromyelitis optica treatment resulted in the patient's clinical improvement...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#3
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021839/diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-multilevel-assessment-of-the-visual-pathway-possibilities-for-personalized-outcome-prediction-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
Joseph Kuchling, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
The afferent visual pathway represents the most frequently affected white matter pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal microstructural or non-overt brain tissue damage and quantify pathological processes. DTI facilitates the reconstruction of major white matter fiber tracts allowing for the assessment of structure-function and damage-dysfunction relationships. In this review, we outline DTI studies investigating the afferent visual pathway in idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), NMOSD, and MS...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991690/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-with-antibodies-to-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-or-aquaporin-4-clinical-and-paraclinical-characteristics-in-algerian-patients
#5
Melissa Bouzar, Smail Daoudi, Samira Hattab, Amel A Bouzar, Kumaran Deiva, Brigitte Wildemann, Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. NMO and its abortive forms are referred to as NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD). NMOSD are mostly associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). However, recent studies have demonstrated antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) in a subset of patients. Data on NMOSD in North Africa are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG among patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis in Algeria as well as the clinical and paraclinical features associated with these antibodies...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970675/role-of-low-plasma-volume-treatment-on-clinical-efficacy-of-plasmapheresis-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#6
Akshay Batra, Sundar Periyavan
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease preferentially targeting the optic nerves and spinal cord. Plasmapheresis (PP) is an effective adjunct therapy in severe NMO attacks. The recommended minimum plasma volume to be treated per session of PP is equivalent to total plasma volume (TPV) of the patient. AIM: To study the effect of lower plasma volume treated in patients with NMO on clinical efficacy of plasmapheresis in comparison to minimum recommended volume...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955716/muscle-damage-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#7
Hong-Xi Chen, Qin Zhang, Zhi-Yun Lian, Ju Liu, Zi-Yan Shi, Xiao-Hui Miao, Hui-Ru Feng, Qin Du, Jing-Lu Xie, Shao-Li Yao, Hong-Yu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has shown that skeletal muscle damage plays a role in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The objective of this study was to compare the serum creatine kinase (sCK) levels in NMOSD patients with different clinical statuses. METHODS: In the observational study, levels of sCK were measured during the acute and stable phases for patients with NMOSD and healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: We enrolled 168 patients with NMOSD (female:male ratio, 153:15; age: 43...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946890/increased-frequency-of-il-6-producing-non-classical-monocytes-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
Byung Soo Kong, Yeseul Kim, Ga Young Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, Su-Hyun Kim, Aeran Jeong, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that preferentially affects the optic nerves, spinal cord, and area postrema. A series of evidence suggested that B cells play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of NMOSD. However, there are still gaps left to be answered in NMOSD pathogenesis suggesting the roles of other immune cells. This study aimed to investigate the monocyte inflammatory characteristics, monocyte subset frequency and cytokine production, and cell-surface molecule expression in NMOSD, multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy controls (HC)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941527/pediatric-optic-neuritis
#9
Melinda Y Chang, Stacy L Pineles
Optic neuritis is rare in children in comparison to adults, but accounts for approximately 25% of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. Features of pediatric optic neuritis that differ from adults include a higher rate of bilaterality, poor visual acuity on presentation, and papillitis. Diagnostic work-up includes brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and blood tests to exclude infectious and inflammatory disorders. Pediatric optic neuritis may occur following infection or vaccination, or in association with a systemic demyelinating process such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, or multiple sclerosis...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932609/neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-nepalese-man
#10
Yogesh Subedi, Utsav Joshi, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Ashbina Pokharel, Ashbita Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system of autoimmune etiology that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Here, we present a case report detailing a patient with tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs who was neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G-positive. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old Nepalese man presented to the hospital with a history of tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs that developed over a period of two months...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926419/peduncular-hallucinosis-and-autonomic-dysfunction-in-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-syndrome
#11
Renee Berry, Peter K Panegyres
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare, severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, previously described as affecting only the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a highly specific autoantibody, anti-aquaporin-4, lesions are now recognized outside these regions. We report a man with severe, debilitating symptoms resulting from a symptomatic lesion within the diencephalon, manifesting with abnormal circadian rhythms, autonomic dysfunction, behavioral disturbance, and complex visual hallucinations...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904454/rituximab-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-our-experience
#12
Jui Dilip Jade, Srishti Bansi, Bhim Singhal
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease, with recurrent attacks of severe bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Aggressive immunosuppression is essential to prevent clinical relapses and permanent disability. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody to CD20, has been found effective in several reports and small uncontrolled studies. There is a paucity of data regarding its use in Indian patients...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903961/paediatric-optic-neuritis-factors-leading-to-unfavourable-outcome-and-relapses
#13
Delphine Averseng-Peaureaux, Marie Mizzi, Helene Colineaux, Laurence Mahieu, Maria Carmela Pera, David Brassat, Yves Chaix, Emilie Berard, Kumaran Deiva, Emmanuel Cheuret
OBJECTIVES: To identify prognostic factors associated with poor visual recovery and chronic relapsing diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis (MS), in children with optic neuritis (ON) at onset. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective study included 102 children with a first ON episode between 1990 and 2012. The primary criterion was poor visual recovery determined by visual acuity, and the secondary was relapses following ON. RESULTS: Median age was 11 years, 66% were girls and mean follow-up was 24 months...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879451/prognostic-factors-and-disease-course-in-aquaporin-4-antibody-positive-chinese-patients-with-acute-optic-neuritis
#14
Hao Kang, Tingjun Chen, Hongyang Li, Quangang Xu, Shanshan Cao, Shihui Wei
The objective is to assess the frequency of AQP4-Ab in Chinese patients with optic neuritis (ON) and to investigate the prognostic implications of AQP4-Ab seropositivity in such patients. The presence of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in human AQP4-transfected cells was determined by indirect immunofluorescence, and the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of AQP4 antibodies in 215 Chinese patients with optic neuritis was evaluated. The patients were enrolled from the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (PLAGH) and followed up to 1-228 months...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872108/induction-of-paralysis-and-visual-system-injury-in-mice-by-t-cells-specific-for-neuromyelitis-optica-autoantigen-aquaporin-4
#15
Sharon A Sagan, Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Collin M Spencer, Peggy P Ho, Lawrence Steinman, Ari J Green, Raymond A Sobel, Scott S Zamvil
While it is recognized that aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific T cells and antibodies participate in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disease, creation of an AQP4-targeted model with both clinical and histologic manifestations of CNS autoimmunity has proven challenging. Immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with AQP4 peptides elicited T cell proliferation, although those T cells could not transfer disease to naïve recipient mice. Recently, two novel AQP4 T cell epitopes, peptide (p) 135-153 and p201-220, were identified when studying immune responses to AQP4 in AQP4-deficient (AQP4(-/-)) mice, suggesting T cell reactivity to these epitopes is normally controlled by thymic negative selection...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863861/neuromyelitis-optica-atypical-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-and-heterozygous-perforin-a91v-mutation
#16
Boaz Palterer, Francesca Brugnolo, Elena Sieni, Alessandro Barilaro, Paola Parronchi
Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a severe systemic inflammatory syndrome that can present in a genetic primary form or secondarily to infective, neoplastic or autoimmune diseases. Our case discusses the first reported case of atypical late-onset hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with neuromyelitis optica, with multiple triggering factors and carrying the common A91V hypomorphic perforin mutation, that blurs the distinction between primary and secondary forms...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843390/a-mathematical-model-of-cellular-swelling-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#17
Simão Laranjeira, Mkael Symmonds, Jacqueline Palace, Stephen J Payne, Piotr Orlowski
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a severe neuro-inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by predominant damage to the optic nerve and of the spinal cord. The pathogenic antibody found in the majority of patients targets the AQP4 channels on astrocytic endfeet and causes the cells to swell. Although, the pathophysiology of the disease is broadly known, there are no specific targeted treatments for this process clinically available nor accurate prognostic markers both during attacks and for predicting long term neuronal damage...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834867/cortical-blindness-and-not-optic-neuritis-as-a-cause-of-vision-loss-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss-patient-with-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-challenges-of-ascribing-demyelinating-syndromes-to-ss-a-case-report
#18
Aliya Lalji, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#19
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770374/mog-antibody-related-disorders-common-features-and-uncommon-presentations
#20
Álvaro Cobo-Calvo, Anne Ruiz, Hyacintha D'Indy, Anne-Lise Poulat, Maryline Carneiro, Nicolas Philippe, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Kumaran Deiva, Sandra Vukusic, Vincent Desportes, Romain Marignier
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) have been reported in acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), optic neuritis (ON), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in adults and pediatrics. We aimed to delineate the common features of MOG-Ab-related disorders in children and adults, and report uncommon presentations. Twenty-seven consecutive pediatric and adult patients testing positive for MOG-Ab, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, were included. Comprehensive epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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