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Sterilization and disinfection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750600/exploring-respiratory-protection-practices-for-prominent-hazards-in-healthcare-settings
#1
Kerri Wizner, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Edward Fisher, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
The use of respiratory protection, an important component of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare, is dependent on the hazard and environmental conditions in the workplace. This requires the employer and healthcare worker (HCW) to be knowledgeable about potential exposures and their respective protective measures. However, the use of respirators is inconsistent in healthcare settings, potentially putting HCWs at risk for illness or injury. To better understand respirator use, barriers, and influences, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers provided an opportunity to examine self-reported use of respirators and surgical masks for targeted hazards...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747467/electrochemical-detection-of-e-coli-o157-h7-in-water-after-electrocatalytic-and-ultraviolet-treatments-using-a-polyguanine-labeled-secondary-bead-sensor
#2
Michael G Beeman, Ugochukwu C Nze, Himanshu J Sant, Hammad Malik, Swomitra Mohanty, Bruce K Gale, Krista Carlson
The availability of clean drinking water is a significant problem worldwide. Many technologies exist for purifying drinking water, however, many of these methods require chemicals or use simple methods, such as boiling and filtering, which may or may not be effective in removing waterborne pathogens. Present methods for detecting pathogens in point-of-use (POU) sterilized water are typically time prohibitive or have limited ability differentiating between active and inactive cells. This work describes a rapid electrochemical sensor to differentially detect the presence of active Escherichia coli (E...
May 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741921/how-variable-are-achilles-allografts-used-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-biomechanical-study
#3
Alexander E Weber, Erik N Mayer, Amit Nathani, Dan X Chen, Anne M Kelly, Scott A Rodeo, Asheesh Bedi
BACKGROUND: Allograft tendon used in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) requires sterilization before implantation. Low-dose gamma irradiation is a means of sterilization that may minimize tissue damage. PURPOSE: To quantify the variability in mechanical properties between low-dose irradiated Achilles tendon allografts used for ACLR. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 15 intact outer-third Achilles tendon allograft specimens were collected from the remains of full Achilles allografts used for intraoperative ACLR at a single hospital...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739319/characterization-of-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-resistance-to-sanitizers-of-a-range-of-e-coli-o26-pathotypes-from-clinical-cases-and-cattle-in-australia
#4
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation...
May 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684387/duodenoscope-reprocessing-practice-patterns-in-u-s-endoscopy-centers-a-survey-study
#5
Adarsh M Thaker, V Raman Muthusamy, Alireza Sedarat, Rabindra R Watson, Michael L Kochman, Andrew S Ross, Stephen Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After recent outbreaks of duodenoscope-related infections from multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended implementing one or more of four enhanced reprocessing measures in addition to updated manual cleaning methods and high-level disinfection (HLD). The implementation of these techniques in endoscopy facilities and provider opinions regarding reprocessing priorities remain unknown. METHODS: Physicians, nurse managers, nurses, and infection control staff at endoscopy units performing ERCP in the United States were surveyed to assess current institutional practices and individual opinions regarding future reprocessing solutions...
April 20, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674830/efficacy-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-spray-to-disinfect-mobile-phones-used-by-endodontist-a-bacteriological-study
#6
Udayakumar Palaniswamy, Aisha Habeeb, Mohammed Mohsin
Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the bacterial contamination of the mobile phones that were used by the endodontist in comparison with the general dentist and also to determine the usefulness of titanium dioxide nanospray (TiO2 NS) in mobile phone decontamination. Materials and Methods: Samples from the 60 mobile phones were taken using moist sterile swabs before, 10 min, and 1 week after the use of TiO2 NS. Before collection of the swabs, the participants' informed consent was obtained...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672240/national-survey-of-operating-room-nurses-aseptic-techniques-and-interventions-for-patient-preparation-to-reduce-surgical-site-infections
#7
Camilla Wistrand, Karin Falk-Brynhildsen, Ulrica Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI), the third most common type of nosocomial infection in Sweden, is a patient injury that should be prevented. Methods of reducing SSIs include, for instance, disinfecting the skin, maintaining body temperature, and ensuring an aseptic environment. Guidelines for most of these interventions exist, but there is a lack of studies describing to what extent the preventive interventions have been implemented in clinical practice. We describe the daily clinical interventions Swedish operating room (OR) nurses performed to prevent SSIs following national guidelines...
April 19, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649965/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-sprinkling-powdered-slaked-lime-on-microorganisms-for-the-prevention-of-domestic-animal-infectious-diseases
#8
Miho Mori, Yoshikazu Sakagami, Yousuke Hamazaki, Toru Jojima
When infectious diseases arise in domestic animals, a large amount of slaked lime is sprinkled on cattle sheds and their surroundings for disinfection and prevention. However, optimal sprinkling methods, standard and upper limit of slaked lime, and influence of slaked lime on non-target microorganisms remain unclear. In this study, we clarified detailed microbicidal effects of slaked lime via in vitro experiments and the influence of sprinkling powdered slaked lime (PSL) in field soil on microorganisms. In vitro disinfection tests assessing the appropriate amount of water and ventilation conditions were also performed in sterilized glass bottles with soil and Salmonella enterica subsp...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629273/korean-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-preventing-the-transmission-of-infections-in-hemodialysis-facilities
#9
Hayne Cho Park, Young-Ki Lee, Kyung Don Yoo, Hee Jung Jeon, Seung Jun Kim, Ajin Cho, Jacob Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Sang-Oh Lee
Patients receiving hemodialysis are vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their impaired immunity and high risk of exposure to pathogens. To protect patients, staff, and visitors from potential infections, each hemodialysis unit should establish and follow standard infection control and prevention measures. Therefore, clinical practice guidelines were developed by a working group of nephrologists and infection control specialists to provide evidence-based guidance for dialysis physicians and nurses, with the aim of preventing infection transmission and controlling infection sources in hemodialysis facilities...
March 2018: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609850/effect-of-a-training-programme-on-blood-culture-contamination-rate-in-critical-care
#10
M M Sánchez-Sánchez, S Arias-Rivera, P Fraile-Gamo, R Jareño-Collado, S López-Román, P Vadillo-Obesso, S García-González, M T Pulido-Martos, E I Sánchez-Muñoz, J Cacho-Calvo, A Martín-Pellicer, L Panadero-Del Olmo, F Frutos-Vivar
Blood culture contamination can occur from extraction to processing; its rate should not exceed 3%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a training programme on the rate of contaminated blood cultures after the implementation of sample extraction recommendations based on the best evidence. METHOD: Prospective before-after study in a polyvalent intensive care unit with 18 beds. Two phases were established (January-June 2012, October 2012-October 2015) with a training period between them...
March 30, 2018: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606197/study-on-a-new-ultraviolet-sterilizer-to-the-surface-disinfection-of-the-ultrasound-probe
#11
Gui Qiu Chen, Yu Hao Chen, Liang Yi, Jin Yin, Qiong Gao, Jiang Nan Song, Shi Kang Li, Pei Hou Chen, Gui Ping Guo
We studied the disinfection effect of a new ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer and its utilization on ultrasound probe surfaces. Carrier quantitative germicidal tests, simulated on-the-spot trials, and organic substance influence tests were used to carry out experimental observation. Artificially infected probes were disinfected using the sterilizer or a germicidal lamp for comparison. The total number and types of bacteria were determined and identified. Our results demonstrated the sterilizer had the best disinfection effect among three different disinfection methods in hospital...
February 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578101/diagnostic-accuracy-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-approaches-in-compared-with-cultivation-based-detection-methods-monitoring-the-endopathogenic-microbiota-pre-and-post-photo-activated-disinfection
#12
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Several microbial species that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of endodontic diseases colonize the infected root canal system. Since the complete removal of endopathogenic agents is essential in endodontic infections therapy, photo-activated disinfection (PAD) is suggested as an alternative method to traditional antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies reported that the molecular methods with low sensitivity and high efficiency to identify fastidious anaerobic endopathogenic microbiota can be replaced by the cultivation-based approaches...
March 22, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556882/bioburden-in-transport-solutions-of-human-cardiovascular-tissues-a-comparative-evaluation-of-direct-inoculation-and-membrane-filter-technique
#13
Letícia Kraft, Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Paula Hansen Suss, Felipe Francisco Tuon
All cardiac allograft tissues are under potential contamination, requiring a validated terminal sterilization process or a minimal bioburden. The bioburden calculation is important to determine the bacterial burden and further decontamination and disinfection strategies for the valve processing. The aim of this study was to determine the bioburden from transport solution (TS) of heart valves obtained from non-heart-beating and heart-beating donors in different culture methods. The bioburden from TS was determined in 20 hearts donated for valve allograft tissue using membrane filter (MF) and direct inoculation...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551648/disinfection-of-artificially-contaminated-gloved-hands-reduces-transmission-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-to-catheter-valves
#14
O Assadian, P N Humphreys, K J Ousey
Disinfection of gloved hands is advocated increasingly in situations where visibly unsoiled gloves are used during multiple clinical activities on the same patient. As there are no data demonstrating that such practice attributes to lower bacterial transfer during clinical care, a standardized experimental study was conducted. Gloved hands touched chicken breasts contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis with or without disinfection before touching sterile catheter valves. Contaminated gloves transferred 5...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540339/acupuncture-at-bl67-for-mild-postpartum-depression-a-prospective-case-series
#15
Chen Bin Tian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acupuncture on mild postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: 15 patients diagnosed with PPD were enrolled in the study. Patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria received acupuncture therapy eight times over 4 weeks in the form of two 20-min treatment sessions per week. The treatment site was the BL67 acupuncture point (on the outside of the fifth toenail). After disinfecting the skin on the toes, sterile steel needles were gently inserted into the acupuncture point until the patient started to feel numb or swollen, a sensation known as de qi ...
March 14, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480932/effectiveness-and-clinical-implications-of-the-use-of-topical-antibiotics-in-regenerative-endodontic-procedures-a-review
#16
REVIEW
P Montero-Miralles, J Martín-González, O Alonso-Ezpeleta, M C Jiménez-Sánchez, E Velasco-Ortega, J J Segura-Egea
Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are biologically based procedures planned to replace damaged tissues, including dentinee and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentine complex. Effective sterilization of the root canal is essential in REPs, and antibiotics have been widely used to disinfect root canals. The aim of this paper was to review the scientific literature on (i) Effectiveness of antibiotics used in REPs against bacteria implicated in endodontic disease; (ii) Scientific evidence supporting the use of topical antibiotics in REPs; (iii) Clinical implications of the use of antibiotics in REPs and the possible side effects; (iv) Effect of antibiotics on dental pulp stem cells; and (v) Ongoing research on the use of antibiotics in REPs...
February 26, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475861/inactivation-efficacy-of-nonthermal-plasma-activated-solutions-against-newcastle-disease-virus
#17
Xia Su, Ying Tian, Hongzhuan Zhou, Yinglong Li, Zhenhua Zhang, Beiyu Jiang, Bing Yang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
In recent years, plasma-activated solutions (PASs) have made good progress in the disinfection of medical devices, tooth whitening, and fruit preservation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of Newcastle disease virus by PASs. Water, 0.9% NaCl, and 0.3% H2 O2 were excited by plasma to obtain the corresponding solutions PAS(H2 O), PAS(NaCl), and PAS(H2 O2 ). The complete inactivation of virus after PAS treatment for 30 min was confirmed by the embryo lethality assay (ELA) and hemagglutination (HA) test...
May 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468053/apsic-guidelines-for-disinfection-and-sterilization-of-instruments-in-health-care-facilities
#18
Moi Lin Ling, Patricia Ching, Ammar Widitaputra, Alison Stewart, Nanthipha Sirijindadirat, Le Thi Anh Thu
Background: The Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control launched its revised Guidelines for Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments in Health Care Facilities in February 2017. This document describes the guidelines and recommendations for the reprocessing of instruments in healthcare setting. It aims to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist healthcare facilities at Asia Pacific region in achieving high standards in sterilization and disinfection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454864/inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-on-contaminated-perilla-leaves-by-dielectric-barrier-discharge-dbd-plasma-treatment
#19
Sang Hye Ji, Se Hoon Ki, Ji Ho Ahn, Jae Ho Shin, Eun Jeong Hong, Yun Ji Kim, Eun Ha Choi
This study focused on sterilization methods for the reduction of microorganisms on perilla leaves by cylinder type Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma with underwater bubbler treatment. S. aureus and E. coli in a suspension were reduced to less than 3.4 and 0.5 log CFU/ml after the plasma treatment for 3 min, respectively. On the perilla leaves, they were also reduced to 4.8 and 1.6 log CFU/ml after the plasma treatment, respectively. The S. aureus and E. coli bacterial cell wall was damaged by the plasma treatment evident by scanning electron microscopic analysis...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416571/a-systematic-review-regarding-tonometry-and-the-transmission-of-infectious-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Nicole Atkins, William Hodge, Bruce Li
Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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