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Sterilization and disinfection

Christiane Marita Nyhsen, Hilary Humphreys, Carlos Nicolau, Gerhard Mostbeck, Michel Claudon
OBJECTIVES: Although ultrasound (US) is considered one of the safest imaging modalities, concerns have been raised regarding potential infection transmission risks through US procedures. A survey was undertaken by the European Society of Radiology (ESR) to establish infection prevention and control measures in US and to highlight the importance of good medical practice. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all 22,000 full ESR members. RESULTS: The response rate of completed surveys was 4...
October 24, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Elizabeth A Gonzalez, Poulomi Nandy, Anne D Lucas, Victoria M Hitchins
Cleaning reusable medical devices removes organic and inorganic soil, which allows for effective disinfection and sterilization. However, it is not always clear what variables to consider when validating cleaning. This study compared the ability of 3 different cleaning agents (ie, water, alcohol, and bleach) to remove bacteria (ie, vegetative and spores) and artificial blood test soil from 2 common device materials: polypropylene and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. There was a complex interaction between bacteria, soil, and surface roughness...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Flávia Morais Gomes Pinto, Camila Quartim de Moraes Bruna, Tamara Carolina Camargo, Maíra Marques, Cely Barretos Silva, Suzete M Sasagawa, Lycia Maria Jenné Mimica, Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano
A high-speed handpiece is used in several dental procedures and the official recommendation for safe decontamination consists of rinsing with water, washing with detergent, mechanical friction, and sterilization; however, many professionals only apply 70% w/v alcohol without also cleaning the tool between patients. We performed an analysis of high-speed handpieces reprocessed only with 70% w/v alcohol and found that the methods used in clinical practice are not safe.
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Alondra Escudero-Castellanos, Blanca E Ocampo-García, Ma Victoria Domínguez-García, Jaime Flores-Estrada, Miriam V Flores-Merino
Hydrogels are suitable materials to promote cell proliferation and tissue support because of their hydrophilic nature, porous structure and sticky properties. However, hydrogel synthesis involves the addition of additives that can increase the risk of inducing cytotoxicity. Sterilization is a critical process for hydrogel clinical use as a proper scaffold for tissue engineering. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (PEG-CH) and multi-arm PEG hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization and sterilized by gamma irradiation or disinfected using 70 % ethanol...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Li Ni, Weichao Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Wei Cao, Baoming Li
The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurim, Staphylococcus aureus or bacterial mixtures on stainless steel surfaces was evaluated and compared its efficacy with composite phenol solution for reducing total aerobic bacteria in animal transport vehicles. Stainless steel surfaces were inoculated with these strains individually or in a mixture, and sprayed with SAEW, composite phenol, or alkaline electrolyzed water for 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2min...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Yuichi Yamaguchi, Takahito Shimodo, Noriyasu Chikamori, Sho Usuki, Yoshihiro Kanai, Takeshi Endo, Ken-Ichi Katsumata, Chiaki Terashima, Masahiko Ikekita, Akira Fujishima, Tomonori Suzuki, Hideki Sakai, Kazuya Nakata
Bacteria that cause serious food poisoning are known to sporulate under conditions of nutrient and water shortage. The resulting spores have much greater resistance to common sterilization methods, such as heating at 100 °C and exposure to various chemical agents. Because such bacteria cannot be inactivated with typical alcohol disinfectants, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) often is used, but PAA is a harmful agent that can seriously damage human health. Furthermore, concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is also dangerous, must be used to prepare PAA...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
J Mohr, M Germain, M Winters, S Fraser, A Duong, A Garibaldi, N Simunovic, D Alsop, D Dao, R Bessemer, O R Ayeni
Musculoskeletal allografts are typically disinfected using antibiotics, irradiation or chemical methods but protocols vary significantly between tissue banks. It is likely that different disinfection protocols will not have the same level of microorganism kill; they may also have varying effects on the structural integrity of the tissue, which could lead to significant differences in terms of clinical outcome in recipients. Ideally, a disinfection protocol should achieve the greatest bioburden reduction with the lowest possible impact on tissue integrity...
September 24, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Sindhuja Gogineni, Kiranmai Ganipineni, Suresh Babburi, Aparna Venigalla, Soujanya Pinnisetti, Ajay Benarji Kotti, Lavanya Kalapala
INTRODUCTION: In dentistry, extracted human teeth are routinely used to learn technical and preclinical skills. Since human teeth harbour many pathogens these should be disinfected before use to minimize the risk of infections. Some commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), 70% alcohol and normal saline which have their own disadvantages like carcinogenicity, toxicity, cost effectiveness etc. Many studies have been conducted using these solutions but there is no evidence to suggest a suitable alternative for disinfecting extracted teeth...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
A J Phipps, D S Beggs, A J Murray, P D Mansell, M A Stevenson, M F Pyman
One of the major challenges for dairy producers is to produce, harvest, and store high-quality colostrum and feed it to their replacement heifer calves. Limited published data are available in Australia regarding the relationship between colostrum management, hygiene, and quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the colostrum storage and handling practices carried out on farm; (2) the immunoglobulin concentration and bacterial composition of colostrum being fed to replacement dairy heifer calves; (3) the percentage of colostrum being fed to replacement dairy heifer calves that meet industry recommendations; and (4) risk factors for bacterial contamination of colostrum...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Anke Podhorsky, Sven Putzier, Peter Rehmann, Philipp Streckbein, Eugen Domann, Bernd Wöstmann
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of two sealants (Kiero Seal, Kuss Dental, and Berutemp 500, Carl-Bechem) and a disinfectant agent (Chlorhexamed gel, GlaxoSmithKline) on bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface. Implants were pretreated with the substances or left without sealing before standard abutments were fixed. Half the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading, and the others were not loaded. Following 7 days of incubation in a bacterial solution, bacterial counts of the internal part of the implants were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 2016: International Journal of Prosthodontics
Wei Zheng, Yonghe Hu, Hai Xin
BACKGROUND: After receiving the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake relief mission, a fully self-sufficient Rescue Center of Trauma set up quickly in downtown Kathmandu by Chengdu Military Medical Team of PLA P. R. China. METHODS: The medical team consisted of 68 members and 40 tons of supplies, which was equivalent to a small hospital. The medical area and living area were constructed with tents. Operating areas were converted from eight simple bungalows. The main purpose of the Rescue Center of Trauma was to save those earthquake survivors who needed surgery...
September 2, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Sahajal Dhooria, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Nalini Gupta, Babu Ram, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) requires a dedicated needle for aspiration of mediastinal lesions. There is no data on reuse of these needles. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA with either new or reused EBUS-TBNA needles. The needles were reused after thorough cleaning with filtered water and organic cleaning solution, disinfection with 2.4% glutaraldehyde solution followed by ethylene oxide sterilization...
July 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
J Sylvia Western, Daniel Devaprakash Dicksit
AIM OF THIS STUDY: The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of different sterilization methods on extracted human teeth (EHT) by a systematic review of in vitro randomized controlled trials. METHODOLOGY: An extensive electronic database literature search concerning the sterilization of EHT was conducted. The search terms used were "human teeth, sterilization, disinfection, randomized controlled trials, and infection control." Randomized controlled trials which aim at comparing the efficiency of different methods of sterilization of EHT were all included in this systematic review...
July 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Silvia Piva, Monica Caffara, Frédérique Pasquali, Carolina Castagnetti, Eleonora Iacono, Elisa Massella, Renato Giulio Zanoni, Roberta Galuppi
The presence of Cryptosporidium in institutions such as veterinary teaching hospitals, where students and staff are in frequent contact with animals, could represent a serious public health risk. In this study the detection and quantification of the Cryptosporidium oocysts present on the environmental surfaces of an Equine Perinatology Unit (EPU) were investigated. During 3 foaling seasons 175 samples obtained by swabbing an area of the floor and walls of boxes and utility rooms of EPU with sterile gauze, in 3 different moments...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
William A Rutala, David J Weber
When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization...
September 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Benjamin Ley, Edward Silverman, Kara Peery, Delfina Dominguez
Nosocomial infections are a concern of growing interest in veterinary medicine. Clipper blades have been confirmed as fomites for numerous potential pathogens and, as such, may be associated with wound and surgical site infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the disinfectant capabilities of several commonly used clipper blade cleaning products. Seventy sterile clipper blades were inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Blades were then subjected to one of seven treatment groups for disinfecting...
September 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Tetsuyou Watanabe, Toshio Koyama, Takeshi Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi Nakada
This paper presents a novel force-sensing silicone retractor that can be attached to a surgical suction pipe to improve the usability of the suction and retraction functions during neurosurgery. The retractor enables simultaneous utilization of three functions: suction, retraction, and retraction-force sensing. The retractor also reduces the number of tool changes and ensures safe retraction through visualization of the magnitude of the retraction force. The proposed force-sensing system is based on a force visualization mechanism through which the force is displayed in the form of motion of a colored pole...
2016: Sensors
Joshua S Will, Shawn M Alderman, Robert C Sawyer
Special Operations Forces medical providers are often deployed far beyond traditional military supply chains, forcing them to rely on alternative methods for field sterilization of medical equipment. This literature review proposes several alternative methods for both sterilization and disinfection of medical instruments after use and cleaning of skin and wounds before procedures. This article reviews recommendations from sources like the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Special Operations Forces Medical Handbook, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Susan Klacik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: OR Manager
Jialing Lin, Dongxin Lin, Ping Xu, Ting Zhang, Qianting Ou, Chan Bai, Zhenjiang Yao
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), survives in dry conditions and can persist for long periods on surfaces touched by humans. Studies that estimate the proportions and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA contamination in non-hospital environments are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a proportion meta-analysis and reviewed the features of antibiotic resistance and molecular genetics. METHODS: Articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 that studied proportions of S...
October 2016: Environmental Research
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