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Sterilization and disinfection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919336/staphylococcus-aureus-dry-surface-biofilms-are-more-resistant-to-heat-treatment-than-traditional-hydrated-biofilms
#1
A Almatroudi, S Tahir, H Hu, D Chowdhury, I B Gosbell, S O Jensen, G S Whiteley, A K Deva, T Glasbey, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realised. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. AIM: To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry heat and wet heat treatments. METHODS: S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918989/improper-positioning-of-the-elevator-lever-of-duodenoscopes-may-lead-to-sequestered-bacteria-that-survive-disinfection-by-automated-endoscope-reprocessors
#2
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Donald R Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
BACKGROUND: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing. METHODS: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906501/impact-of-cleaning-procedures-on-adhesion-of-living-cells-to-three-abutment-materials
#3
Christian Mehl, Matthias Kern, Anna Zimmermann, Sönke Harder, Steven Huth, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
PURPOSE: To test the adhesion properties of live gingival fibroblasts to three different implant abutment materials after five different cleaning procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Highly polished discs of lithium disilicate (LS), zirconium dioxide (Zr), and titanium alloy (Ti) were fabricated. The specimens were cleaned by one of five different methods: steam (S), argon plasma (AP), ultrasound and disinfection (UD), ultrasound and sterilization in an autoclave (UA), or photofunctionalization with high-intensity ultraviolet light (PF)...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892888/role-of-herbal-agents-tea-tree-oil-and-aloe-vera-as-cavity-disinfectant-adjuncts-in-minimally-invasive-dentistry-an-in-vivo-comparative-study
#4
Gaurav Patri, Aliva Sahu
INTRODUCTION: The prevention and control of caries necessitates the elimination of cariogenic bacteria and cavity disinfectants have proved to play a major role in achieving the goal. The use of phytotherapy is trending and many natural products have shown anti-microbial properties which can be used as cavity disinfectant in the field of dentistry. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of herbal antibacterial agents (Tea Tree Oil (TTO) and Aloe vera) with commercially available 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as cavity disinfectant for use in minimally invasive dentistry...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865936/effectiveness-of-a-shielded-ultraviolet-c-air-disinfection-system-in-an-inpatient-pharmacy-of-a-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital
#5
Don Guimera, Jean Trzil, Joy Joyner, Nicholas D Hysmith
Viable air particles pose a risk in areas where sterile preparations are compounded. This study investigated the efficacy of an innovative air purification technology that uses a shielded ultraviolet C light lamp to continuously purify the air in an inpatient pharmacy. Mean airborne fungal and bacterial colony forming units were obtained preinstallation and again in 6 months. A statistically significant decrease of 78% and 62% was observed for fungal and bacterial particles, respectively. This study demonstrates a potential role for this novel technology in decreasing the spread of airborne pathogens...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855761/effect-of-conventional-irrigation-and-photoactivated-disinfection-on-enterococcus-faecalis-in-root-canals-an-in-vitro-study
#6
Niyati Balakrishna, Prashant Moogi, G Vinay Kumar, B R Prashanth, Nithin Kumar Shetty, Kaushal R Rao
AIMS: A study was done to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and photoactivated disinfection (PAD) on Enterococcus faecalis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Random sampling, in-vitro study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Access opening and biomechanical preparation were performed on fifty freshly extracted mandibular second premolars. The specimens were sterilized; 15 μm of E. faecalis was inoculated into each canal and incubated at 36°C for 24 h...
March 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818480/-infection-control-practices-while-performing-prostate-biopsies-in-france-a-ciafu-survey
#7
P Leduc, J D Doublet, F Bruyère, S Malavaud
In 2008, the French Public Health Committee admitted that associating ultrasound probe protection, and related precautions, and low-level disinfection would be equivalent to the intermediate level disinfection. In 2010, the French Urology Association (AFU) updated guidelines regarding trans-rectal prostate biopsies, namely preventive measures related to cross-transmission of infections. We report an evaluation of compliance to them, driven in 2016 by AFU's infection committee. Although not recommended, almost one third of the urologists still perform biopsies under general anesthesia, and two thirds of them ask for a urine culture before biopsies...
August 14, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756961/efficacy-of-photon-induced-photoacoustic-streaming-in-the-reduction-of-enterococcus-faecalis-within-the-root-canal-different-settings-and-different-sodium-hypochlorite-concentrations
#8
Barbara Skrlj Golob, Giovanni Olivi, Mirijam Vrabec, Rita El Feghali, Steven Parker, Stefano Benedicenti
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laser-activated irrigation by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) in the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal disinfection, varying laser energy output, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentration. For effective removal of the smear layer, the sequence and resting time of the final irrigation steps were modified compared with the standard PIPS protocol. METHODS: Eighty-six extracted single-rooted teeth were mechanically prepared, sterilized, and inoculated with E...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753701/reprocessing-of-single-use-endoscopic-variceal-band-ligation-devices-a-pilot-study
#9
Kavel Visrodia, Abdul Haseeb, Yuri Hanada, Kelly M Pennington, Magdalen Clemens, Paul J Pearce, Pritish K Tosh, Bret T Petersen, Mark D Topazian
Background and study aims The preferred management of bleeding esophageal varices includes endoscopic band ligation. Endoscopic ligation devices (ELDs) are expensive and designed for single use, limiting their uptake in developing countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of reprocessing ELDs using terminal microbial cultures and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing. Materials and methods ELDs were recovered after clinical use and their components (cap, handle, and cord) were subjected to reprocessing...
July 28, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752736/influence-of-skin-disinfection-prior-removal-of-perineural-catheter-on-bacterial-colonization-contamination-and-local-inflammation-a-prospective-randomized-study
#10
Stephan Blumenthal, Reinhard Zbinden, Sascha Mandic, Christoph A Rüst, José Aguirre, Alain Borgeat
BACKGROUND: There is a wide variation of perineural catheter (PNC) colonization rates in the literature. The impact of skin disinfection on PNC colonization and inflammation is not clear. The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to investigate the influence of alcoholic skin disinfection before PNC removal on the detection of bacteria on PNC. METHODS: Two hundred patients receiving a PNC for orthopaedic surgery were random- ized to receive (with-group) or not (without-group) a skin disinfection with a sprayed alcoholic solution before removal of the PNC...
July 28, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740247/inactivation-mechanism-of-escherichia-coli-induced-by-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#11
Zhangying Ye, Shuo Wang, Tao Chen, Weishan Gao, Songming Zhu, Jinsong He, Zhiying Han
Foodborne disease outbreak caused by food microbiological contamination is a serious public health problem. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a new ultra-high effect and wide-spectrum disinfectant that is colourless, odourless, and harmless to humans and the environment, is directly used on food surfaces in Japan and America. However, the underlying inactivation mechanism remains unknown. In this study, biochemical and cellular changes were observed to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SAEW against Escherichia coli (E...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727911/ultrasound-processing-of-liquid-system-s-and-its-antimicrobial-mechanism-of-action
#12
D Spiteri, C Chot-Plassot, J Sclear, K A Karatzas, C Scerri, V P Valdramidis
Ultrasound creates cavitation phenomena, resulting in the formation of several free radicals, namely OH˙ and H˙, due to the breakdown of the H2 O molecule. These radicals affect the cellular integrity of the bacteria, causing the inactivation of several processes, and thus it is important to unravel the mechanism of action of this technology. This research looks into the application and mechanism of action of ultrasound technology as a means of disinfection by acoustic cavitation. Sterile water and synthetic waste water were inoculated with different mutants of Escherichia coli K12 strains containing deletions in genes affecting specific functional properties of E...
July 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722122/wet-work-exposure-and-hand-eczema-among-healthcare-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
N Hamnerius, C Svedman, O Bergendorff, J Björk, M Bruze, A Pontén
BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is more common in healthcare workers compared to the general population. The hands are subject to changing occupational exposures due to mandatory hygiene regulations for health care workers. OBJECTIVES: To describe the exposure due to hygiene procedures and investigate the associations between occupational hand washing, use of non-sterile gloves, and hand disinfectant and self-reported hand eczema. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with an electronic questionnaire distributed to 28 762 hospital employees in southern Sweden...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711629/randomized-comparison-of-3-high-level-disinfection-and-sterilization-procedures-for-duodenoscopes
#14
Graham M Snyder, Sharon B Wright, Anne Smithey, Meir Mizrahi, Michelle Sheppard, Elizabeth B Hirsch, Ram Chuttani, Riley Heroux, David S Yassa, Lovisa B Olafsdottir, Roger B Davis, Anastasiou Jiannis, Vijay Bapat, Kiran Bidari, Douglas K Pleskow, Daniel Leffler, Benjamin Lane, Alice Chen, Howard S Gold, Anthony Bartley, Aleah D King, Mandeep S Sawhney
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Duodenoscopes have been implicated in the transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRO). We compared the frequency of duodenoscope contamination with MDRO or any other bacteria after disinfection or sterilization by 3 different methods. METHODS: We performed a single-center prospective randomized study in which duodenoscopes were randomly reprocessed by standard high-level disinfection (sHLD), double high-level disinfection (dHLD), or standard high-level disinfection followed by ethylene oxide gas sterilization (HLD/ETO)...
July 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687186/evaluation-of-a-new-packaging-process-for-non-autoclavable-endoscopes-results-for-the-first%C3%A2-100%C3%A2-microbiological-samples
#15
C Minebois, P Saviuc, J Shum, P Tuvignon, I Pelloux, M-P Brenier-Pinchart, C Landelle, M-R Mallaret
BACKGROUND: A new process for packaging endoscopes (SureStore(®), Medical Innovations Group) immediately after they exit from washing and disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) allows for endoscopes to be stored for up to 15 days. AIM: To describe the microbiological quality of samples from gastrointestinal endoscopes following this process. METHODS: Three-month prospective study using microbiological sampling from a stock of 38 gastrointestinal endoscopes carried out in a French University Hospital...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681083/a-novel-protocol-obviates-endoscope-sampling-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-experience-of-a-center-with-a-prior-outbreak
#16
Zachary L Smith, Arshish Dua, Kia Saeian, Nathan A Ledeboer, Mary Beth Graham, Murad Aburajab, Darren D Ballard, Abdul H Khan, Kulwinder S Dua
BACKGROUND: Numerous published outbreaks, including one from our institution, have described endoscope-associated transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Individual centers have adopted their own protocols to address this issue, including endoscope culture and sequestration. Endoscope culturing has drawbacks and may allow residual bacteria, including MDROs, to go undetected after high-level disinfection. AIM: To report the outcome of our novel protocol, which does not utilize endoscope culturing, to address our outbreak...
July 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677080/comparison-of-impact-of-two-decontamination-solutions-on-the-viability-of-the-cells-in-human-amnion
#17
Ingrida Smeringaiova, Peter Trosan, Miluse Berka Mrstinova, Jan Matecha, Jan Burkert, Jan Bednar, Katerina Jirsova
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is used as an allograft in regenerative medicine or as a source of pluripotent cells for stem cell research. Various decontamination protocols and solutions are used to sterilize HAM before its application, but little is known about the toxicity of disinfectants on HAM cells. In this study, we tested two decontamination solutions, commercial (BASE·128) and laboratory decontamination solution (LDS), with an analogous content of antimycotic/antibiotics for their cytotoxic effect on HAM epithelial (EC) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)...
July 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676670/species-specific-antifungal-activity-of-blue-light
#18
Wioleta J Trzaska, Helen E Wrigley, Joanne E Thwaite, Robin C May
Fungal pathogens represent a significant threat to immunocompromised patients or individuals with traumatic injury. Strategies to efficiently remove fungal spores from hospital surfaces and, ideally, patient skin thus offer the prospect of dramatically reducing infections in at-risk patients. Photodynamic inactivation of microbial cells using light holds considerable potential as a non-invasive, minimally destructive disinfection strategy. Recent data indicate that high-intensity blue light effectively removes bacteria from surfaces, but its efficacy against fungi has not been fully tested...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669067/determining-the-optimal-dose-of-1940-nm-thulium-fiber-laser-for-assisting-the-endodontic-treatment
#19
Ayse Sena Kabas Sarp, Murat Gulsoy
Insufficient cleaning, the complex anatomy of the root canal system, inaccessible accessory canals, and inadequate penetration of irrigants through dentinal tubules minimizes the success of the conventional endodontic treatment. Laser-assisted endodontic treatment enhances the quality of conventional treatment, but each laser wavelength has its own its own limitations. The optimal parameters for the antibacterial efficiency of a new wavelength, 1940-nm Thulium Fiber Laser, were firstly investigated in this study...
July 1, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665993/knowledge-attitudes-and-practice-on-the-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-among-nurses-in-oncological-care-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-area-of-southern-italy
#20
Maria Rosaria Esposito, Assunta Guillari, Italo Francesco Angelillo
The objectives of the cross-sectional study were to delineate the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among nurses regarding the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and to identify their predisposing factors. A questionnaire was self-administered from September to November 2011 to nurses in oncology and outpatient chemotherapy units in 16 teaching and non-teaching public and private hospitals in the Campania region (Italy). The questionnaire gathered information on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about evidence-based practices for the prevention of CLABSIs; attitudes towards guidelines, the risk of transmitting infections, and hand-washing when using central venous catheter (CVC); practices about catheter site care; and sources of information...
2017: PloS One
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