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Cellulose synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335590/direct-observation-of-the-effects-of-cellulose-synthesis-inhibitors-using-live-cell-imaging-of-cellulose-synthase-cesa-in-physcomitrella-patens
#1
Mai L Tran, Thomas W McCarthy, Hao Sun, Shu-Zon Wu, Joanna H Norris, Magdalena Bezanilla, Luis Vidali, Charles T Anderson, Alison W Roberts
Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), fragments CSCs and clears them from the plasma membrane...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304728/transcript-profiling-of-sucrose-synthase-genes-involved-in-sucrose-metabolism-among-four-carrot-daucus-carota-l-cultivars-reveals-distinct-patterns
#2
Yan-Jun Liu, Guang-Long Wang, Jing Ma, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
BACKGROUND: Carrot which contains lots of nutrients has a large demand around the world. The soluble sugar content in fleshy root of carrot directly influences its taste and quality. Sucrose, as an important member of soluble sugar, is the main product of photosynthesis in higher plants and it plays pivotal roles in physiological processes including energy supply, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, starch and cellulose synthesis, and stress tolerance. Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism and is closely related to sucrose content...
January 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289653/in-vitro-investigations-on-the-effects-of-semi-synthetic-sulphated-carbohydrates-on-the-immune-status-of-cultured-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-leucocytes
#3
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278771/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-evolution-and-expression-patterns-of-the-cellulose-synthase-gene-superfamily-in-gossypium-species
#4
Xianyan Zou, Zhang Zhen, Qun Ge, Senmiao Fan, Aiying Liu, Wankui Gong, Junwen Li, Juwu Gong, Yuzhen Shi, Yanling Wang, Ruixian Liu, Li Duan, Kang Lei, Qi Zhang, Xiao Jiang, Shuya Zhang, Tingting Jia, Lipeng Zhang, Haihong Shang, Youlu Yuan
The cellulose synthase gene superfamily, which includes the cellulose synthase (Ces) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families, is involved in the synthesis of cellulose and hemicellulose. This superfamily is critical for cotton fiber development in Gossypium species. Applying a series of bioinformatic methods, we identified 228 Ces/Csl genes from four Gossypium species (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii). These genes were then grouped into 11 subfamilies based on phylogenetic relationships...
December 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277745/cellulose-synthase-complex-organization-and-cellulose-microfibril-structure
#5
REVIEW
Simon Turner, Manoj Kumar
Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234007/insights-into-the-structure-and-assembly-of-a-bacterial-cellulose-secretion-system
#6
Petya Violinova Krasteva, Joaquin Bernal-Bayard, Laetitia Travier, Fernando Ariel Martin, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Gouzel Karimova, Rémi Fronzes, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Secreted exopolysaccharides present important determinants for bacterial biofilm formation, survival, and virulence. Cellulose secretion typically requires the concerted action of a c-di-GMP-responsive inner membrane synthase (BcsA), an accessory membrane-anchored protein (BcsB), and several additional Bcs components. Although the BcsAB catalytic duo has been studied in great detail, its interplay with co-expressed subunits remains enigmatic. Here we show that E. coli Bcs proteins partake in a complex protein interaction network...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177720/recombinant-biosynthesis-of-bacterial-cellulose-in-genetically-modified-escherichia-coli
#7
Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris
Bacterial cellulose (BC) exhibits unique properties such as high purity compared to plant-based cellulose; however, commercial production of BC has remained a challenge, primarily due to the strain properties of cellulose-producing bacteria. Herein, we developed a functional and stable BC production system in genetically modified (GM) Escherichia coli by recombinant expression of both the BC synthase operon (bcsABCD) and the upstream operon (cmcax, ccp Ax). BC production was achieved in GM HMS174 (DE3) and in GM C41 (DE3) by optimization of the culture temperature (22 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C) and IPTG concentration...
November 24, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170834/emerging-roles-of-cortical-microtubule-membrane-interactions
#8
Yoshihisa Oda
Plant cortical microtubules have crucial roles in cell wall development. Cortical microtubules are tightly anchored to the plasma membrane in a highly ordered array, which directs the deposition of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the movement of the cellulose synthase complex. Cortical microtubules also interact with several endomembrane systems to regulate cell wall development and other cellular events. Recent studies have identified new factors that mediate interactions between cortical microtubules and endomembrane systems including the plasma membrane, endosome, exocytic vesicles, and endoplasmic reticulum...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165363/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-the-effectors-of-an-anther-smut-fungus-and-potential-host-target-proteins
#9
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149285/draft-genome-analysis-provides-insights-into-the-fiber-yield-crude-protein-biosynthesis-and-vegetative-growth-of-domesticated-ramie-boehmeria-nivea-l-gaud
#10
Chan Liu, Liangbin Zeng, Siyuan Zhu, Lingqing Wu, Yanzhou Wang, Shouwei Tang, Hongwu Wang, Xia Zheng, Jian Zhao, Xiaorong Chen, Qiuzhong Dai, Touming Liu
Plentiful bast fiber, a high crude protein content, and vigorous vegetative growth make ramie a popular fiber and forage crop. Here, we report the draft genome of ramie, along with a genomic comparison and evolutionary analysis. The draft genome contained a sequence of approximately 335.6 Mb with 42,463 predicted genes. A high-density genetic map with 4,338 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed and used to anchor the genome sequence, thus, creating an integrated genetic and physical map containing a 58...
November 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124282/development-of-a-complete-set-of-wheat-barley-group-7-robertsonian-translocation-chromosomes-conferring-an-increased-content-of-%C3%AE-glucan
#11
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
A complete set of six compensating Robertsonian translocation chromosomes involving barley chromosome 7H and three chromosomes of hexaploid wheat was produced. Grain β-glucan content increased in lines containing 7HL. Many valuable genes for agronomic performance, disease resistance and increased yield have been transferred from relative species to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through whole-arm Robertsonian translocations (RobT). Although of a great value, the sets of available translocations from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118446/imaging-cellulose-synthase-motility-during-primary-cell-wall-synthesis-in-the-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Derui Liu, Nina Zehfroosh, Brandon L Hancock, Kevin Hines, Wenjuan Fang, Maria Kilfoil, Erik Learned-Miller, Karen A Sanguinet, Lori S Goldner, Tobias I Baskin
The mechanism of cellulose synthesis has been studied by characterizing the motility of cellulose synthase complexes tagged with a fluorescent protein; however, this approach has been used exclusively on the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we characterize cellulose synthase motility in the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. We generated lines in which mEGFP is fused N-terminal to BdCESA3 or BdCESA6 and which grew indistinguishably from the wild type (Bd21-3) and had dense fluorescent puncta at or near the plasma membrane...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100539/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-cellulose-synthase-like-csl-gene-family-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#13
Simerjeet Kaur, Kanwarpal S Dhugga, Robin Beech, Jaswinder Singh
BACKGROUND: Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. RESULTS: In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl)...
November 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077242/contribution-of-the-%C3%AE-glucosidase-bglc-to-the-onset-of-the-pathogenic-lifestyle-of-streptomyces-scabies
#14
Samuel Jourdan, Isolde M Francis, Benoit Deflandre, Elodie Tenconi, Jennifer Riley, Sören Planckaert, Pierre Tocquin, Loïc Martinet, Bart Devreese, Rosemary Loria, Sébastien Rigali
Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as the main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is primarily triggered by the import of cello-oligosaccharides. Once inside the cell, the fate of the cello-oligosaccharides is dichotomized into i) fueling glycolysis with glucose for the saprophytic lifestyle through the action of β-glucosidase(s) (BG), and ii) eliciting the pathogenic lifestyle by inhibiting the CebR-mediated transcriptional repression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054870/synthesis-of-heterologous-mevalonic-acid-pathway-enzymes-in-clostridium-ljungdahlii-for-the-conversion-of-fructose-and-of-syngas-to-mevalonate-and-isoprene
#15
Bruce A Diner, Janine Fan, Miles C Scotcher, Derek H Wells, Gregory M Whited
There is a growing interest in the use of microbial fermentation for the generation of high-demand, high-purity chemicals using cheap feedstocks, in an environmentally-friendly manner. One example explored here is the production of isoprene (C5H8), a hemiterpene, which is primarily polymerized to polyisoprene in synthetic rubber in tires, but which can also be converted to C10 and C15 biofuels.The strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii, used in all of the work described here, is capable of glycolysis using the Emben-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and of carbon fixation using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034630/-transcriptome-analysis-and-gene-function-annotation-of-bambusa-emeiensis-shoots-based-on-high-throughput-sequencing-technology
#16
Yupeng Chen, Ying Cao, Shanglian Hu, Yan Huang, Xueqin Lu, Gang Xu, Zhijian Long
Bambusa emeiensis is one of the preponderant species of sympodial bamboos in Sichuan province of China, and has excellent fiber length and quality as raw materials for papermaking, textile and other industries. In this study, with the application of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, we analyzed transcriptome in B. emeiensis with different heights of 10, 50, 100 and 150 cm. A total of 69.28 M reads were obtained, and a sum up of 111 137 bands of Unigenes were acquired following de novo stitching, assembly and clustering, among which there were 63 094 bands that had been integrated in the COG, GO, KEGG, Swiss-Prot and Nr databases using annotated methods...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981454/hybrid-sequencing-of-full-length-cdna-transcripts-of-stems-and-leaves-in-dendrobium-officinale
#17
Liu He, Shuhua Fu, Zhichao Xu, Jun Yan, Jiang Xu, Hong Zhou, Jianguo Zhou, Xinlian Chen, Ying Li, Kin Fai Au, Hui Yao
Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has been carried out on their alternatively spliced isoforms in D. officinale. In addition, information regarding the translocation of sugars from leaves to stems in D. officinale also remains limited. We analyzed the polysaccharide content of D...
October 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954403/textile-hemp-vs-salinity-insights-from-a-targeted-gene-expression-analysis
#18
Gea Guerriero, Marc Behr, Jean-Francois Hausman, Sylvain Legay
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic and woody fibers for industry. In this work, the response to salinity (200 mM NaCl) of a fiber variety of hemp (Santhica 27) was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. The responses of plantlets aged 15 days were analyzed by microscopy and by measuring the changes in expression of cell wall-related genes, as well as in the general response to exogenous constraints...
September 26, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947492/two-complementary-mechanisms-underpin-cell-wall-patterning-during-xylem-vessel-development
#19
Rene Schneider, Lu Tang, Edwin R Lampugnani, Sarah Barkwill, Rahul Lathe, Yi Zhang, Heather E McFarlane, Edouard Pesquet, Totte Niittyla, Shawn D Mansfield, Yihua Zhou, Staffan Persson
The evolution of the plant vasculature was essential for the emergence of terrestrial life. Xylem vessels are solute-transporting elements in the vasculature that possess secondary wall thickenings deposited in intricate patterns. Evenly dispersed microtubule (MT) bands support the formation of these wall thickenings, but how the MTs direct cell wall synthesis during this process remains largely unknown. Cellulose is the major secondary wall constituent and is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CesAs) whose catalytic activity propels them through the membrane...
September 25, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944540/three-atcesa6-like-members-enhance-biomass-production-by-distinctively-promoting-cell-growth-in-arabidopsis
#20
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Shengqiu Feng, Youmei Wang, Yanting Wang, Chunfen Fan, Ying Li, Zengyu Liu, René Schneider, Tao Xia, Shi-You Ding, Staffan Persson, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is an abundant biopolymer and a prominent constituent of plant cell walls. Cellulose is also a central component to plant morphogenesis and contributes the bulk of a plant's biomass. While cellulose synthase (CesA) genes were identified over two decades ago, genetic manipulation of this family to enhance cellulose production has remained difficult. In this study, we show that increasing the expression levels of the three primary cell wall AtCesA6-like genes (AtCesA2, -5, -6), but not AtCesA3, AtCesA9 or secondary cell wall AtCesA7, can promote the expression of major primary wall CesA genes to accelerate primary wall CesA complex (CSCs) particle movement for acquiring long microfibrils and consequently increasing cellulose production in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, as compared with wild type...
September 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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