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Cellulose synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923988/functional-analysis-of-cellulose-synthase-cesa-protein-class-specificity
#1
Manoj Kumar, Ivan Atanassov, Simon R Turner
The cellulose synthase complex (CSC) exhibits a 6-fold symmetry and is known as a "rosette". Each CSC is believed to contain between 18-24 CESA proteins that each synthesise an individual glucan chain. These chains form the microfibrils that confer the remarkable structural properties of cellulose. At least 3 different classes of CESA proteins are essential to form the CSC. However, while organisation of the CSC determines microfibril structure, how individual CESA proteins are organised within the CSC remains unclear...
December 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881071/genome-wide-analyses-of-chitin-synthases-identify-horizontal-gene-transfers-towards-bacteria-and-allow-a-robust-and-unifying-classification-into-fungi
#2
Isabelle R Gonçalves, Sophie Brouillet, Marie-Christine Soulié, Simonetta Gribaldo, Catherine Sirven, Noémie Charron, Martine Boccara, Mathias Choquer
BACKGROUND: Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). There are several contradictory classifications of CHS isoenzymes and, as regards their evolutionary history, their origin and diversity is still a matter of debate...
November 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879387/rice-cellulose-synthasea8-plant-conserved-region-is-a-coiled-coil-at-the-catalytic-core-entrance
#3
Phillip S Rushton, Anna T Olek, Lee Makowski, John Badger, C Nicklaus Steussy, Nicholas C Carpita, Cynthia V Stauffacher
The crystallographic structure of a rice cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4Å resolution. Two anti-parallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray solution scattering data (SAXS). The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 SAXS molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain (CatD)...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877177/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-transgenic-melatonin-biosynthesis-ovine-hiomt-gene-in-switchgrass
#4
Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Sijia Liu, Yanhua Huang, Danyang Tian, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856710/differences-in-glycosyltransferase-family-61-accompany-variation-in-seed-coat-mucilage-composition-in-plantago-spp
#5
Jana L Phan, Matthew R Tucker, Shi Fang Khor, Neil Shirley, Jelle Lahnstein, Cherie Beahan, Antony Bacic, Rachel A Burton
Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801942/microtubule-dependent-targeting-of-the-exocyst-complex-is-necessary-for-xylem-development-in-arabidopsis
#6
Nemanja Vukašinović, Yoshihisa Oda, Přemysl Pejchar, Lukáš Synek, Tamara Pečenková, Anamika Rawat, Juraj Sekereš, Martin Potocký, Viktor Žárský
Cortical microtubules (MTs) play a major role in the patterning of secondary cell wall (SCW) thickenings in tracheary elements (TEs) by determining the sites of SCW deposition. The EXO70A1 subunit of the exocyst secretory vesicle tethering complex was implicated to be important for TE development via the MT interaction. We investigated the subcellular localization of several exocyst subunits in the xylem of Arabidopsis thaliana and analyzed the functional significance of exocyst-mediated trafficking in TE development...
November 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770231/the-targeting-of-starch-binding-domains-from-starch-synthase-iii-to-the-cell-wall-alters-cell-wall-composition-and-properties
#7
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#8
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732677/role-of-the-tomato-non-ripening-mutation-in-regulating-fruit-quality-elucidated-using-itraq-protein-profile-analysis
#9
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716345/dissection-of-exopolysaccharide-biosynthesis-in-kozakia-baliensis
#10
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708345/characterization-of-maize-roothairless6-which-encodes-a-d-type-cellulose-synthase-and-controls-the-switch-from-bulge-formation-to-tip-growth
#11
Li Li, Stefan Hey, Sanzhen Liu, Qiang Liu, Colton McNinch, Heng-Cheng Hu, Tsui-Jung Wen, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Wesley Bruce, Patrick S Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger
Root hairs are tubular extensions of the epidermis. Root hairs of the monogenic recessive maize mutant roothairless 6 (rth6) are arrested after bulge formation during the transition to tip growth and display a rough cell surface. BSR-Seq in combination with Seq-walking and subsequent analyses of four independently generated mutant alleles established that rth6 encodes CSLD5 a plasma membrane localized 129 kD D-type cellulose synthase with eight transmembrane domains. Cellulose synthases are required for the biosynthesis of cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer of plant cell walls...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706742/characterization-and-gene-cloning-of-the-rice-oryza-sativa-l-dwarf-and-narrow-leaf-mutant-dnl3
#12
L Shi, X J Wei, Y M N Adedze, Z H Sheng, S Q Tang, P S Hu, J L Wang
The dwarf and narrow-leaf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant dnl3 was isolated from the Japonica cultivar Zhonghua 11 (wild-type). dnl3 exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects. The narrow-leaf phenotype resulted from a marked reduction in the number of vascular bundles, while the dwarf stature was caused by the formation of foreshortened internodes and a reduced number of parenchyma cells. The suggestion that cell division is impaired in the mutant was consistent with the transcriptional behavior of various genes associated with cell division...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647923/cellulose-synthase-complexes-act-in-a-concerted-fashion-to-synthesize-highly-aggregated-cellulose-in-secondary-cell-walls-of-plants
#13
Shundai Li, Logan Bashline, Yunzhen Zheng, Xiaoran Xin, Shixin Huang, Zhaosheng Kong, Seong H Kim, Daniel J Cosgrove, Ying Gu
Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647898/a-single-heterologously-expressed-plant-cellulose-synthase-isoform-is-sufficient-for-cellulose-microfibril-formation-in-vitro
#14
Pallinti Purushotham, Sung Hyun Cho, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Manish Kumar, B Tracy Nixon, Vincent Bulone, Jochen Zimmer
Plant cell walls are a composite material of polysaccharides, proteins, and other noncarbohydrate polymers. In the majority of plant tissues, the most abundant polysaccharide is cellulose, a linear polymer of glucose molecules. As the load-bearing component of the cell wall, individual cellulose chains are frequently bundled into micro and macrofibrils and are wrapped around the cell. Cellulose is synthesized by membrane-integrated and processive glycosyltransferases that polymerize UDP-activated glucose and secrete the nascent polymer through a channel formed by their own transmembrane regions...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637560/structure-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-fut1-reveals-a-variant-of-the-gt-b-class-fold-and-provides-insight-into-xyloglucan-fucosylation
#15
Joana Rocha, Félix Cicéron, Daniele de Sanctis, Mickael Lelimousin, Valérie Chazalet, Olivier Lerouxel, Christelle Breton
The plant cell wall is a complex and dynamic network made mostly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Xyloglucan, the major hemicellulosic component in Arabidopsis thaliana, is biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus by a series of glycan synthases and glycosyltransferases before export to the wall. A better understanding of the xyloglucan biosynthetic machinery will give clues toward engineering plants with improved wall properties or designing novel xyloglucan-based biomaterials. The xyloglucan-specific α2-fucosyltransferase FUT1 catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to terminal galactosyl residues on xyloglucan side chains...
October 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630645/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-cell-wall-related-genes-in-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-a-food-fodder-and-biofuel-crop
#16
Krishan M Rai, Sandi W Thu, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Christopher J Cobos, Tesfaye Disasa, Venugopal Mendu
Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623440/site-directed-mutagenesis-of-bacterial-cellulose-synthase-highlights-sulfur-arene-interaction-as-key-to-catalysis
#17
Shi-Jing Sun, Yoshiki Horikawa, Masahisa Wada, Junji Sugiyama, Tomoya Imai
Cellulose is one of the most abundant biological polymers on Earth, and is synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex in cell membranes. Although many cellulose synthase genes have been identified over the past 25 years, functional studies of cellulose synthase using recombinant proteins have rarely been conducted. In this study, we conducted a functional analysis of cellulose synthase with site-directed mutagenesis, by using recombinant cellulose synthase reconstituted in living Escherichia coli cells that we recently constructed (cellulose-synthesizing E...
August 29, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621739/transcriptome-analysis-of-pepper-capsicum-annuum-revealed-a-role-of-24-epibrassinolide-in-response-to-chilling
#18
Jie Li, Ping Yang, Jungen Kang, Yantai Gan, Jihua Yu, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Jian Lyu, Guobin Zhang, Zhi Feng, Jianming Xie
Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600281/anti-atherogenic-effect-of-humulus-japonicus-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#19
Haian Lim, Jung-Ran Noh, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jung Hwan Hwang, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Min-Jeong Go, Sang-Seop Han, Won-Keun Oh, Chul-Ho Lee
Humulus japonicus (HJ) is used as a traditional medicine in Korea owing to its multiple properties including anti-mycobacterial, antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. The present study aimed to examine the anti‑inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects of a methanol extract of HJ. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, HJ significantly suppressed the mRNA expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6)], and the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitrite and prostaglandin E2, together with a concomitant decrease in the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558434/metagenomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-a-mangrove-microbial-community-following-green-macroalgae-enteromorpha-prolifera-degradation
#20
Yijing Wu, Chao Zhao, Zheng Xiao, Hetong Lin, Lingwei Ruan, Bin Liu
A mangrove microbial community was analyzed at the gene and protein levels using metagenomic and proteomic methods with the green macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera as the substrate. Total DNA was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 PE-100 platform. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for proteomic analysis. The metagenomic data revealed that the orders Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Sphingomonadales were the most prevalent in the mangrove microbial community...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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