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Cellulose synthase

Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Li Li, Stefan Hey, Sanzhen Liu, Qiang Liu, Colton McNinch, Heng-Cheng Hu, Tsui-Jung Wen, Caroline Marcon, Anja Paschold, Wesley Bruce, Patrick S Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger
Root hairs are tubular extensions of the epidermis. Root hairs of the monogenic recessive maize mutant roothairless 6 (rth6) are arrested after bulge formation during the transition to tip growth and display a rough cell surface. BSR-Seq in combination with Seq-walking and subsequent analyses of four independently generated mutant alleles established that rth6 encodes CSLD5 a plasma membrane localized 129 kD D-type cellulose synthase with eight transmembrane domains. Cellulose synthases are required for the biosynthesis of cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer of plant cell walls...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Shi, X J Wei, Y M N Adedze, Z H Sheng, S Q Tang, P S Hu, J L Wang
The dwarf and narrow-leaf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant dnl3 was isolated from the Japonica cultivar Zhonghua 11 (wild-type). dnl3 exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects. The narrow-leaf phenotype resulted from a marked reduction in the number of vascular bundles, while the dwarf stature was caused by the formation of foreshortened internodes and a reduced number of parenchyma cells. The suggestion that cell division is impaired in the mutant was consistent with the transcriptional behavior of various genes associated with cell division...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Shundai Li, Logan Bashline, Yunzhen Zheng, Xiaoran Xin, Shixin Huang, Zhaosheng Kong, Seong H Kim, Daniel J Cosgrove, Ying Gu
Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pallinti Purushotham, Sung Hyun Cho, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Manish Kumar, B Tracy Nixon, Vincent Bulone, Jochen Zimmer
Plant cell walls are a composite material of polysaccharides, proteins, and other noncarbohydrate polymers. In the majority of plant tissues, the most abundant polysaccharide is cellulose, a linear polymer of glucose molecules. As the load-bearing component of the cell wall, individual cellulose chains are frequently bundled into micro and macrofibrils and are wrapped around the cell. Cellulose is synthesized by membrane-integrated and processive glycosyltransferases that polymerize UDP-activated glucose and secrete the nascent polymer through a channel formed by their own transmembrane regions...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joana Rocha, Félix Cicéron, Daniele de Sanctis, Mickael Lelimousin, Valérie Chazalet, Olivier Lerouxel, Christelle Breton
The plant cell wall is a complex and dynamic network made mostly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. Xyloglucan, the major hemicellulosic component in Arabidopsis thaliana, is biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus by a series of glycan synthases and glycosyltransferases before export to the wall. A better understanding of the xyloglucan biosynthetic machinery will give clues toward engineering plants with improved wall properties or designing novel xyloglucan-based biomaterials. The xyloglucan-specific α-2-fucosyltransferase FUT1 catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to terminal galactosyl residues on xyloglucan side chains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Cell
Krishan M Rai, Sandi W Thu, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Christopher J Cobos, Tesfaye Disasa, Venugopal Mendu
Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shi-Jing Sun, Yoshiki Horikawa, Masahisa Wada, Junji Sugiyama, Tomoya Imai
Cellulose is one of the most abundant biological polymers on Earth, and is synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex in cell membranes. Although many cellulose synthase genes have been identified over the past 25 years, functional studies of cellulose synthase using recombinant proteins have rarely been conducted. In this study, we conducted a functional analysis of cellulose synthase with site-directed mutagenesis, by using recombinant cellulose synthase reconstituted in living Escherichia coli cells that we recently constructed (cellulose-synthesizing E...
August 29, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Jie Li, Ping Yang, Jungen Kang, Yantai Gan, Jihua Yu, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Jian Lyu, Guobin Zhang, Zhi Feng, Jianming Xie
Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haian Lim, Jung-Ran Noh, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jung Hwan Hwang, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Min-Jeong Go, Sang-Seop Han, Won-Keun Oh, Chul-Ho Lee
Humulus japonicus (HJ) is used as a traditional medicine in Korea owing to its multiple properties including anti-mycobacterial, antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. The present study aimed to examine the anti‑inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects of a methanol extract of HJ. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, HJ significantly suppressed the mRNA expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6)], and the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitrite and prostaglandin E2, together with a concomitant decrease in the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yijing Wu, Chao Zhao, Zheng Xiao, Hetong Lin, Lingwei Ruan, Bin Liu
A mangrove microbial community was analyzed at the gene and protein levels using metagenomic and proteomic methods with the green macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera as the substrate. Total DNA was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 PE-100 platform. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for proteomic analysis. The metagenomic data revealed that the orders Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Sphingomonadales were the most prevalent in the mangrove microbial community...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhubing Hu, Rudy Vanderhaeghen, Toon Cools, Yan Wang, Inge De Clercq, Olivier Leroux, Long Nguyen, Katharina Belt, A Harvey Millar, Dominique Audenaert, Pierre Hilson, Ian D Small, Grégory Mouille, Samantha Vernhettes, Frank Van Breusegem, James Whelan, Herman Höfte, Lieven De Veylder
Because the plant cell wall provides the first line of defence against biotic and abiotic assaults, its functional integrity needs to be maintained under stress conditions. Through a phenotype-based compound screening approach we identified a novel cellulose synthase inhibitor, designated C17. C17 administration depletes cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) from the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana, resulting in anisotropic cell elongation and a weak cell wall. Surprisingly, in addition to mutations in CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 1 (CESA1) and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 3 (CESA3), a forward genetic screen identified two independent defective genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR)-like proteins [CELL WALL MAINTAINER 1 (CWM1) and 2 (CWM2)] as conferring tolerance to C17...
August 19, 2016: Plant Cell
Jonathan S Griffiths, Marie-Jeanne Crepeau, Marie-Christine Ralet, Georg J Seifert, Helen M North
The plant cell wall is held together by the interactions between four major components: cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and proteins. Mucilage is a powerful model system to study the interactions between these components as it is formed of polysaccharides that are deposited in the apoplast of seed coat epidermal cells during seed development. When seeds are hydrated, these polysaccharides expand rapidly out of the apoplastic pocket, and form an adherent halo of mucilage around the seed. In Arabidopsis, mutations in multiple genes have similar loss of mucilage adherence phenotypes including CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 5 (CESA5)/MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 3 (MUM3), MUM5/MUCI21, SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE 5 (SOS5), and FEI2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ye Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Han Xia, Chuanzhi Zhao, Lei Hou, Changsheng Li, Chao Gao, Shuzhen Zhao, Xingjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Peanut zygotes typically divide a few times to form a pre-embryo before further embryonic development halts under normal day/night photoperiods. Ovary elongation, however, continuesforming a downward growing peg-like structure. When the peg is buried in the soil, embryo development resumes in the darkness. The embryo-located region (ER) of the peg begins to enlarge and form a pod, while the basal region (BR) of the peg has a distinct fate. The molecular mechanisms governing these unique embryo development processes are unknown...
2016: BMC Genomics
René Schneider, Tobias Hanak, Staffan Persson, Christian A Voigt
Plant growth and development are supported by plastic but strong cell walls. These walls consist largely of polysaccharides that vary in content and structure. Most of the polysaccharides are produced in the Golgi apparatus and are then secreted to the apoplast and built into the growing walls. However, the two glucan polymers cellulose and callose are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose or callose synthase complexes, respectively. Cellulose is the most common cell wall polymer in land plants and provides strength to the walls to support directed cell expansion...
July 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jing-Wen Li, Yang Liu, Bao-Hui Li, Yue-Yang Wang, Hui Wang, Chang-Lin Zhou
Radix Adenophorae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have a variety of biological functions. In the present study, a polysaccharide component, Radix Adenophorae Polysaccharide (RAPS), was purified from Radix Adenophorae by decoloring with ADS-7 macroporous adsorption resin, DEAE-52 cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and Sephacryl S-300HR gel chromatography, with the purity of 98.3% and a molecular weight of 1.8 × 10(4) Da. The cell viability assay and microscopic examination revealed that RAPS promoted the proliferation and activation of macrophages...
May 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Zengyu Liu, Rene Schneider, Christopher Kesten, Yi Zhang, Marc Somssich, Youjun Zhang, Alisdair R Fernie, Staffan Persson
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is the major contributor to plant morphogenesis. Cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Nascent cellulose microfibrils become entangled in the cell wall, and further catalysis therefore drives the CSC forward through the membrane: a process guided by cortical microtubules via the protein CSI1/POM2. Still, it is unclear how the microtubules can withstand the forces generated by the motile CSCs to effectively direct CSC movement...
August 8, 2016: Developmental Cell
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