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Cellulose synthase

Alan Little, Julian G Schwerdt, Neil J Shirley, Shi F Khor, Kylie Neumann, Lisa A O'Donovan, Jelle Lahnstein, Helen M Collins, Marilyn Henderson, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Cell walls are crucial for the integrity and function of all land plants, and are of central importance in human health, livestock production, and as a source of renewable bioenergy. Many enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides are encoded by members of the large cellulose synthase (CesA) gene superfamily. Here, we analyzed 29 sequenced genomes and 17 transcriptomes to revise the phylogeny of the CesA gene superfamily in angiosperms. Our results identify ancestral gene clusters that predate the monocot-eudicot divergence and reveal several novel evolutionary observations, including the expansion of the Poaceae-specific cellulose synthase-like CslF family to the graminids and restiids and the characterisation of a previously unreported eudicot lineage, CslM, that forms a reciprocally monophyletic eudicot-monocot grouping with the CslJ clade...
May 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xueyang Zhang, Pia Guadalupe Dominguez, Manoj Kumar, Joakim Bygdell, Sergey Miroshnichenko, Bjorn Sundberg, Gunnar Wingsle, Totte Niittyla
Cellulose is synthesised at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) containing cellulose synthases (CESAs). Genetic analysis and CESA isoform quantification indicate that cellulose in the secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is synthesised by isoforms CESA4, CESA7 and CESA8 in equimolar amounts. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to investigate whether the CSC model based on Arabidopsis secondary cell wall CESA stoichiometry can be applied to the angiosperm tree aspen (Populus tremula) and the gymnosperm tree Norway spruce (Picea abies)...
May 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Christine Ratke, Barbara K Terebieniec, Sandra Winestrand, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Thomas Grahn, Bastian Schiffthaler, Thomas Ulvcrona, Merve Özparpucu, Markus Rüggeberg, Sven-Olof Lundqvist, Nathaniel R Street, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
Xylan is one of the main compounds determining wood properties in hardwood species. The xylan backbone is thought to be synthesized by a synthase complex comprising two members of the GT43 family. We downregulated all GT43 genes in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) to understand their involvement in xylan biosynthesis. All three clades of the GT43 family were targeted for downregulation using RNA interference individually or in different combinations, either constitutively or specifically in developing wood...
April 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Kaisei Maeda, Jyunya Tamura, Yukiko Okuda, Rei Narikawa, Takafumi Midorikawa, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Cells of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus strain RKN (NIES-2134) aggregate and produce extracellular cellulose under induced conditions of blue light and low temperature, and both aggregation and cellulose production require the cellulose synthase Tll0007 (XcsA) and photosensory diguanylate cyclases. However, overexpression of both the cellulose synthase and a constitutively active diguanylate cyclase was not sufficient to induce cellulose-mediated cell aggregation under normal growth conditions...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Miao Liu, Lingpu Liu, Shiru Jia, Siqi Li, Yang Zou, Cheng Zhong
Complete genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955 for fine control of bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesis is presented here. The genome, at 3,563,314 bp, was found to contain 3,193 predicted genes without gaps. There are four BC synthase operons (bcs), among which only bcsI is structurally complete, comprising bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD. Genes encoding key enzymes in glycolytic, pentose phosphate, and BC biosynthetic pathways and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were identified. G. xylinus CGMCC 2955 has a complete glycolytic pathway because sequence data analysis revealed that this strain possesses a phosphofructokinase (pfk)-encoding gene, which is absent in most BC-producing strains...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Winn, Daniel Francis, Jason Micklefield
Thaxtomins are diketopiperazine phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces scabies and other actinobacterial plant pathogens that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Due to their potent bioactivity and novel mode of action there has been considerable interest in developing thaxtomins as herbicides for crop protection. To address the need for more stable derivatives, we have developed a new approach for structural diversification of thaxtomins. Genes encoding the thaxtomin NRPS from S. scabies, along with genes encoding a promiscuous tryptophan synthase (TrpS) from Salmonella typhimurium, were assembled in a heterologous host Streptomyces albus...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Gen Enomoto, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger involved in sessile/motile lifestyle transitions. We previously reported that c-di-GMP is a crucial inducer of cell aggregation of the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. The three cooperating cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptors (SesA/B/C) regulate cell aggregation in a light color-dependent manner by synthesizing/degrading c-di-GMP. Although a variety of c-di-GMP signaling proteins are encoded in cyanobacterial genomes, how c-di-GMP signaling networks are organized remains elusive...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Baochao Chang, Weidong Chen, Yan Zhang, Ping Yang, Lei Liu
Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, treatment with Tripterygium wilfordii (TW) may be beneficial for patients with DN. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of TW on Wnt/β-catenin expression in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly injected with vehicle (control) or streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Diabetic rats were then randomly treated with vehicle (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; SCC), TW combined with SCC (8 or 16 mg/kg) or irbesartan (50 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiaoyu Zhu, Shundai Li, Songqin Pan, Xiaoran Xin, Ying Gu
Cellulose synthesis occurs exclusively at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Therefore, delivery of CSCs to discrete sites at the plasma membrane is critical for cellulose synthesis. Despite their significance, the delivery of CSCs is poorly understood. Here we used proteomics approaches, functional genetics, and live cell imaging to show that the de novo secretion of CSCs is mediated by cooperation among cellulose synthase interactive 1 (CSI1), the plant-specific protein PATROL1, and exocyst complex in Arabidopsis thaliana We propose that CSI1 plays a role in marking the docking site, which allows CSCs-containing vesicles access to the plasma membrane through its interaction with microtubules...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William J Barnes, Charles T Anderson
In plants, UDP-glucose is the direct precursor for cellulose biosynthesis, and can be converted into other NDP-sugars required for the biosynthesis of wall matrix polysaccharides. UDP-glucose is generated from sucrose by two distinct metabolic pathways. The first pathway is the direct conversion of sucrose to UDP-glucose and fructose by sucrose synthase. The second pathway involves sucrose hydrolysis by cytosolic invertase (CINV), conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate, and UDP-glucose generation by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP)...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Manoj Kumar, Laxmi Mishra, Paul Carr, Michael Pilling, Peter Gardner, Shawn D Mansfield, Simon Turner
Cellulose microfibrils are the basic units of cellulose in plants. The structure of these microfibrils is at least partly determined by the structure of the cellulose synthase complex. In higher plants, this complex is composed of 18 to 24 catalytic subunits known as CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (CESA) proteins. Three different classes of CESA proteins are required for cellulose synthesis and for secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis these classes are represented by CESA4, CESA7, and CESA8. To probe the relationship between CESA proteins and microfibril structure, we created mutant cesa proteins that lack catalytic activity but retain sufficient structural integrity to allow assembly of the cellulose synthase complex...
May 2018: Plant Physiology
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Zhangsheng Tao, Xukai Li, Yuyang Li, Jiangfeng Huang, Xinxin Li, Xiao Han, Shengqiu Feng, Guimin Zhang, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is the most characteristic component of plant cell walls and plays a central role in plant mechanical strength and morphogenesis. Despite cellulose synthase (CesA) mutants have exhibited a reduction of cellulose level, much remains unknown about their impacts on the cell growth (elongation and division) and cell wall integrity that fundamentally determine plant growth. Here, we examined three major types of AtCesAs mutants (rsw1, AtCesA1 mutant; prc1-1 and cesa6, AtCesA6-null mutants; IRX3, AtCesA7 mutant) and transgenic mutants that overexpressed AtCesAs genes in the background of AtCesA6-null mutants...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Paria Sadat Lavasani, Elahe Motevaseli, Mahdieh Shirzad, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are one of the major interests of researchers. Traditional vinegars are suitable sources of AAB because they are not undergone industrial process like filtering and adding preservatives. Komagataeibacter xylinus as a member of AAB is known as the main cellulose producer among other bacteria. The purpose of the current study was to isolate the bacteria from traditional vinegars and its molecular analyses. Materials and Methods: Vinegar samples were collected...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Evelyne Mann, Stefanie U Wetzels, Martin Wagner, Qendrim Zebeli, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Microbiota of the rumen wall constitute an important niche of rumen microbial ecology and their composition has been elucidated in different ruminants during the last years. However, the knowledge about the function of rumen wall microbes is still limited. Rumen wall biopsies were taken from three fistulated dairy cows under a standard forage-based diet and after 4 weeks of high concentrate feeding inducing a subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). Extracted RNA was used for metatranscriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Joseph Lee Hill, Cooper Josephs, William J Barnes, Charles T Anderson, Ming Tien
Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC...
February 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Tess R Scavuzzo-Duggan, Arielle M Chaves, Abhishek Singh, Latsavongsakda Sethaphong, Erin Slabaugh, Yaroslava G Yingling, Candace H Haigler, Alison W Roberts
Cellulose synthases (CESAs) are glycosyltransferases that catalyze formation of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. Seed plant CESA isoforms cluster in six phylogenetic clades, whose non-interchangeable members play distinct roles within cellulose synthesis complexes (CSCs). A 'class specific region' (CSR), with higher sequence similarity within versus between functional CESA classes, has been suggested to contribute to specific activities or interactions of different isoforms. We investigated CESA isoform specificity in the moss, Physcomitrella patens (Hedw...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Tao Wan, Zhi-Ming Liu, Ling-Fei Li, Andrew R Leitch, Ilia J Leitch, Rolf Lohaus, Zhong-Jian Liu, Hai-Ping Xin, Yan-Bing Gong, Yang Liu, Wen-Cai Wang, Ling-Yun Chen, Yong Yang, Laura J Kelly, Ji Yang, Jin-Ling Huang, Zhen Li, Ping Liu, Li Zhang, Hong-Mei Liu, Hui Wang, Shu-Han Deng, Meng Liu, Ji Li, Lu Ma, Yan Liu, Yang Lei, Wei Xu, Ling-Qing Wu, Fan Liu, Qian Ma, Xin-Ran Yu, Zhi Jiang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Shao-Hua Li, Rui-Qiang Li, Shou-Zhou Zhang, Qing-Feng Wang, Yves Van de Peer, Jin-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Ming Wang
Gnetophytes are an enigmatic gymnosperm lineage comprising three genera, Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra, which are morphologically distinct from all other seed plants. Their distinctiveness has triggered much debate as to their origin, evolution and phylogenetic placement among seed plants. To increase our understanding of the evolution of gnetophytes, and their relation to other seed plants, we report here a high-quality draft genome sequence for Gnetum montanum, the first for any gnetophyte. By using a novel genome assembly strategy to deal with high levels of heterozygosity, we assembled >4 Gb of sequence encoding 27,491 protein-coding genes...
February 2018: Nature Plants
Sang-Jin Kim, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Curtis G Wilkerson, Kenneth Keegstra, Federica Brandizzi
Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG) is a glucose polymer with beneficial effects on human health and high potential for the agricultural industry. MLG is present predominantly in the cell wall of grasses and is synthesized by cellulose synthase-like F or H families of proteins, with CSLF6 being the best-characterized MLG synthase. Although the function of this enzyme in MLG production has been established, the site of MLG synthesis in the cell is debated. It has been proposed that MLG is synthesized at the plasma membrane, as occurs for cellulose and callose; in contrast, it has also been proposed that MLG is synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, as occurs for other matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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