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Cellulose synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708263/genome-wide-analysis-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-in-pyramimonas-parkeae-prasinophyceae
#1
Anchittha Satjarak, Linda E Graham
The wall-less green flagellate Pyramimonas parkeae is classified in clade I of the prasinophytes, a paraphyletic assemblage representing the last common ancestor of Viridiplantae, a monophyletic group composed of the green algae and land plants. Consequently, P. parkeae and other prasinophytes illuminate early-evolved Viridiplantae traits likely fundamental in the systems biology of green algae and land plants. Cellular structure and organellar genomes of P. parkeae are now well understood, and transcriptomic sequence data are also publically available for one strain of this species, but corresponding nuclear genomic sequence data are lacking...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706285/transcriptional-regulation-of-cellulose-biosynthesis-during-the-early-phase-of-nitrogen-deprivation-in-nannochloropsis-salina
#2
Seok Won Jeong, Seung Won Nam, Kwon HwangBo, Won Joong Jeong, Byeong-Ryool Jeong, Yong Keun Chang, Youn-Il Park
Microalgal photosynthesis provides energy and carbon-containing precursors for the biosynthesis of storage carbohydrates such as starch, chrysolaminarin, lipids, and cell wall components. Under mild nitrogen deficiency (N-), some Nannochloropsis species accumulate lipid by augmenting cytosolic fatty acid biosynthesis with a temporary increase in laminarin. Accordingly, biosynthesis of the cellulose-rich cell wall should change in response to N- stress because this biosynthetic pathway begins with utilisation of the hexose phosphate pool supplied from photosynthesis...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704793/genome-and-transcriptome-wide-analyses-of-cellulose-synthase-gene-superfamily-in-soybean
#3
Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Faheem Shehzad Baloch, Babar Ijaz, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Iqrar Ahmad Khan, Jeong Dong Lee, Gyuhwa Chung, Seung Hwan Yang
The plant cellulose synthase gene superfamily belongs to the category of type-2 glycosyltransferases, and is involved in cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis. These enzymes are vital for maintaining cell-wall structural integrity throughout plant life. Here, we identified 78 putative cellulose synthases (CS) in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis against 40 reference Arabidopsis CS genes clustered soybean CSs into seven major groups (CESA, CSL A, B, C, D, E and G), located on 19 chromosomes (except chromosome 18)...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693426/evolution-gene-expression-profiling-and-3d-modeling-of-csld-proteins-in-cotton
#4
Yanpeng Li, Tiegang Yang, Dandan Dai, Ying Hu, Xiaoyang Guo, Hongxia Guo
BACKGROUND: Among CESA-like gene superfamily, the cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) genes are most similar to cellulose synthase genes and have been reported to be involved in tip-growing cell and stem development. However, there has been no genome-wide characterization of this gene subfamily in cotton. We thus sought to analyze the evolution and functional characterization of CSLD proteins in cotton based on fully sequenced cotton genomes. RESULTS: A total of 23 full-length CSLD proteins were identified in Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum...
July 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676796/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-dynamics-of-g1-s-specific-cyclin-cellulose-synthase-and-cellulase-in-the-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense
#5
Xinguo Shi, Minglei Ma, Senjie Lin
Dinoflagellates undergo a typical eukaryotic cell cycle consisting of G1, S, G2, and M phases and some of the typical cell cycle related genes have been computationally identified. However, very few of these genes have been experimentally linked to the cell cycle phases. Besides, although thecate dinoflagellates are known to possess theca composed of cellulose, information on cellulose synthesis and degradation associated with the cell cycle is also limited. In this study, we isolated G1/S cyclin, cellulose synthase and cellulase encoding genes in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667320/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-cellulose-producing-strain-komagataeibacter-nataicola-rzs01
#6
Heng Zhang, Xuran Xu, Xiao Chen, Fanshu Yuan, Bianjing Sun, Yunhua Xu, Jiazhi Yang, Dongping Sun
Komagataeibacter nataicola is an acetic acid bacterium (AAB) that can produce abundant bacterial cellulose and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid. To globally understand its fermentation characteristics, we present a high-quality complete genome sequence of K. nataicola RZS01. The genome consists of a 3,485,191-bp chromosome and 6 plasmids, which encode 3,514 proteins and bear three cellulose synthase operons. Phylogenetic analysis at the genome level provides convincing evidence of the evolutionary position of K...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574161/osidd2-a-zinc-finger-and-indeterminate-domain-protein-regulates-secondary-cell-wall-formation-fa
#7
Peng Huang, Hideki Yoshida, Kenji Yano, Shunsuke Kinoshita, Kyosuke Kawai, Eriko Koketsu, Masako Hattori, Sayaka Takehara, Ji Huang, Ko Hirano, Reynante Lacsamana Ordonio, Makoto Matsuoka, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka
Previously, we found 123 transcription factors (TFs) as candidate regulators of secondary cell wall (SCW) formation in rice by using phylogenetic and co-expression network analyses. Among them, we examined in this work the role of OsIDD2, a zinc finger and indeterminate domain (IDD) family TF. Its overexpressors showed dwarfism, fragile leaves, and decreased lignin content, which are typical phenotypes of plants defective in SCW formation, whereas its knockout plants showed slightly increased lignin content...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573539/enhancement-of-crystallinity-of-cellulose-produced-by-escherichia-coli-through-heterologous-expression-of-bcsd-gene-from-gluconacetobacter-xylinus
#8
Elaheh Sajadi, Valiollah Babaipour, Ali Asghar Deldar, Bagher Yakhchali, Seyed Safa-Ali Fatemi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 after heterologous expression of the cellulose synthase subunit D (bcsD) gene of Gluconacetobacter xylinus BPR2001. RESULTS: The bcsD gene of G. xylinus BPR2001 was expressed in E. coli and its protein product was visualized using SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis showed that the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by the recombinants was 0.84, which is 17% more than that of the wild type strain...
June 1, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555107/characterization-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-an-exopolysaccharide-from-submerged-mycelial-culture-of-schizophyllum-commune
#9
Bin Du, Yuedong Yang, Zhaoxiang Bian, Baojun Xu
Background and Purpose: Mushroom polysaccharides have attracted attention in food and pharmacology fields because of their many biological activities. The structure characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune were evaluated in present study. Methods: An exopolysaccharide from a submerged mycelial fermentation of S. commune was obtained using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The molecular weight (MW), monosaccharide compositions, chemical compositions, methylation analysis, circular dichroism studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550150/cellulose-synthesis-and-cell-expansion-are-regulated-by-different-mechanisms-in-growing-arabidopsis-hypocotyls
#10
Alexander Ivakov, Anna Flis, Federico Apelt, Maximillian Fünfgeld, Ulrike Scherer, Mark Stitt, Friedrich Kragler, Kris Vissenberg, Staffan Persson, Dmitry Suslov
Plant growth is sustained by two complementary processes: biomass biosynthesis and cell expansion. The cell wall is crucial to both as it forms the majority of biomass, while its extensibility limits cell expansion. Cellulose is a major component of the cell wall and cellulose synthesis is pivotal to plant cell growth, and its regulation is poorly understood. Using periodic diurnal variation in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl growth, we found that cellulose synthesis and cell expansion can be uncoupled and are regulated by different mechanisms...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520408/engineering-and-characterization-of-bacterial-nanocellulose-films-as-low-cost-and-flexible-sensor-material
#11
Rahul Mangayil, Satu Rajala, Arno Pammo, Essi Sarlin, Jin Luo, Ville Santala, Matti Karp, Sampo Tuukkanen
Some bacterial strains such as Komagataeibacter xylinus are able to produce cellulose as an extracellular matrix. In comparison to wood-based cellulose, bacterial cellulose (BC) holds interesting properties such as biodegradability, high purity, water-holding capacity, and superior mechanical and structural properties. Aiming toward improvement in BC production titer and tailored alterations to the BC film, we engineered K. xylinus to overexpress partial and complete bacterial cellulose synthase operon that encodes activities for BC production...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448629/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-gh8-endoglucanase-from-the-bacterial-cellulose-synthase-complex-of-raoultella-ornithinolytica
#12
Sandra Mara Naressi Scapin, Flavio Henrique Moreira Souza, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin, Thamyres Silva de Almeida, Youssef Bacila Sade, Alexander Machado Cardoso, Guilherme Luiz Pinheiro, Mario Tyago Murakami
Cellulose synthesis in bacteria is a complex process involving the concerted action of several enzymes whose genes are often organized in operons. This process influences many fundamental physiological aspects such as bacteria and host interaction, biofilm formation, among others. Although it might sound contradictory, the participation of cellulose-degrading enzymes is critical to this process. The presence of endoglucanases from family 8 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH8) in bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) complex has been described in different bacteria, including the model organism Komagataeibacter xylinus; however, their role in this process is not completely understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379953/aspergillus-hancockii-sp-nov-a-biosynthetically-talented-fungus-endemic-to-southeastern-australian-soils
#13
John I Pitt, Lene Lange, Alastair E Lacey, Daniel Vuong, David J Midgley, Paul Greenfield, Mark I Bradbury, Ernest Lacey, Peter K Busk, Bo Pilgaard, Yit-Heng Chooi, Andrew M Piggott
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369427/repeat-length-variation-in-a-wheat-cellulose-synthase-like-gene-is-associated-with-altered-tiller-number-and-stem-cell-wall-composition
#14
J Hyles, S Vautrin, F Pettolino, C MacMillan, Z Stachurski, J Breen, H Berges, T Wicker, W Spielmeyer
The tiller inhibition gene (tin) that reduces tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is also associated with large spikes, increased grain weight, and thick leaves and stems. In this study, comparison of near-isogenic lines (NILs) revealed changes in stem morphology, cell wall composition, and stem strength. Microscopic analysis of stem cross-sections and chemical analysis of stem tissue indicated that cell walls in tin lines were thicker and more lignified than in free-tillering NILs. Increased lignification was associated with stronger stems in tin plants...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352091/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-talaromyces-pinophilus-provide-insights-into-biotechnological-applications
#15
Cheng-Xi Li, Shuai Zhao, Ting Zhang, Liang Xian, Lu-Sheng Liao, Jun-Liang Liu, Jia-Xun Feng
Species from the genus Talaromyces produce useful biomass-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites. However, these enzymes and secondary metabolites are still poorly understood and have not been explored in depth because of a lack of comprehensive genetic information. Here, we report a 36.51-megabase genome assembly of Talaromyces pinophilus strain 1-95, with coverage of nine scaffolds of eight chromosomes with telomeric repeats at their ends and circular mitochondrial DNA. In total, 13,472 protein-coding genes were predicted...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289192/brassinosteroid-insensitive2-negatively-regulates-cellulose-synthesis-in-arabidopsis-by-phosphorylating-cellulose-synthase-1
#16
Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez, KassaDee Ketelaar, Rene Schneider, Jose A Villalobos, Chris R Somerville, Staffan Persson, Ian S Wallace
The deposition of cellulose is a defining aspect of plant growth and development, but regulation of this process is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the protein kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a key negative regulator of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, can phosphorylate Arabidopsis cellulose synthase A1 (CESA1), a subunit of the primary cell wall cellulose synthase complex, and thereby negatively regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Accordingly, point mutations of the BIN2-mediated CESA1 phosphorylation site abolished BIN2-dependent regulation of cellulose synthase activity...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261235/cytochemical-localization-of-polysaccharides-in-dendrobium-officinale-and-the-involvement-of-docsla6-in-the-synthesis-of-mannan-polysaccharides
#17
Chunmei He, Kunlin Wu, Jianxia Zhang, Xuncheng Liu, Songjun Zeng, Zhenming Yu, Xinghua Zhang, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Rufang Deng, Jianwen Tan, Jianping Luo, Jun Duan
Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a molar ratio of 223:48:1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confers a survival advantage to the bacterium by contributing to the formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane-anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (copolymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase that is being activated by the second messenger molecule bis-(3', 5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP-mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236275/gene-expression-profiles-predictive-of-cold-induced-sweetening-in-potato
#19
Jonathan Neilson, M Lagüe, S Thomson, F Aurousseau, A M Murphy, B Bizimungu, V Deveaux, Y Bègue, J M E Jacobs, H H Tai
Cold storage (2-4 °C) used in potato production to suppress diseases and sprouting during storage can result in cold-induced sweetening (CIS), where reducing sugars accumulate in tuber tissue leading to undesirable browning, production of bitter flavors, and increased levels of acrylamide with frying. Potato exhibits genetic and environmental variation in resistance to CIS. The current study profiles gene expression in post-harvest tubers before cold storage using transcriptome sequencing and identifies genes whose expression is predictive for CIS...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224899/impact-of-plant-matrix-polysaccharides-on-cellulose-produced-by-surface-tethered-cellulose-synthases
#20
Snehasish Basu, Okako Omadjela, Jochen Zimmer, Jeffrey M Catchmark
Surface immobilized BcsA-B cellulose synthases synthesize crystalline cellulose II under in vitro conditions and were used to explore the interaction between cellulose and hemicelluloses and pectin. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils changed in the presence of xyloglucan and glucomannan, while pectin did not significantly impact morphology. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that crystal size and crystallinity were significantly affected by xyloglucan and glucomannan but not altered by pectin...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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