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Cellulose synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224899/impact-of-plant-matrix-polysaccharides-on-cellulose-produced-by-surface-tethered-cellulose-synthases
#1
Snehasish Basu, Okako Omadjela, Jochen Zimmer, Jeffrey M Catchmark
Surface immobilized BcsA-B cellulose synthases synthesize crystalline cellulose II under in vitro conditions and were used to explore the interaction between cellulose and hemicelluloses and pectin. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils changed in the presence of xyloglucan and glucomannan, while pectin did not significantly impact morphology. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that crystal size and crystallinity were significantly affected by xyloglucan and glucomannan but not altered by pectin...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190803/characterization-of-a-novel-rhamnose-containing-acidic-glycosphingolipid-from-the-ascidian-halocynthia-aurantium
#2
Hisao Kojima, Ryota Shinohara, Saki Itonori, Masahiro Ito
Halocynthia aurantium, an edible ascidian species belonging to Urochordata, was subjected to structural characterization of acidic glycosphingolipids to investigate these molecules in ascidians: sulfatide from Ciona intestinalis and the glucuronic acid-containing acidic glycosphingolipid from H. roretzi. Acidic glycosphingolipids containing three or five sugars were isolated from soft parts of the ascidian H. aurantium by chloroform-methanol extraction, mild-alkaline hydrolysis, precipitation with cold acetone, and subsequent column chromatography using a DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column, a Florisil column, and an Iatrobead column...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186632/norwood-a-gene-expression-resource-for-evo-devo-studies-of-conifer-wood-development
#3
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, David Sundell, Ove Nilsson, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178754/neuroprotective-effect-of-nebivolol-against-cisplatin-associated-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#4
Noha F Abdelkader, Muhammed A Saad, Rania M Abdelsalam
One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169290/knockdown-of-a-cellulose-synthase-gene-boicesa-affects-the-leaf-anatomy-cellulose-content-and-salt-tolerance-in-broccoli
#5
Shuangtao Li, Lei Zhang, Ying Wang, Fengfeng Xu, Mengyun Liu, Peng Lin, Shuxin Ren, Rui Ma, Yang-Dong Guo
Cellulose is the major component of cell wall materials. A 300 bp specific fragment from the cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into vector pFGC1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector. Knockdown of BoiCesA caused "dwarf" phenotype with smaller leaves and a loss of the content of cellulose. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the RNAi apparatus could repress expression of the CesA gene. Meanwhile, examination of the leaves from the T3 of RNAi transformants indicated reduction of cell expansion in vascular bundles, particularly on their abaxial surface...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150693/phcesa3-silencing-inhibits-elongation-and-stimulates-radial-expansion-in-petunia
#6
Weiyuan Yang, Yuanping Cai, Li Hu, Qian Wei, Guoju Chen, Mei Bai, Hong Wu, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CESAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and disease resistance. Previous studies have shown an essential role of Arabidopsis thaliana CESA3 in plant growth. However, little is known about the role of CESA3 in species other than A. thaliana. To gain a better understanding of CESA3, the petunia (Petunia hybrida) PhCESA3 gene was isolated, and the role of PhCESA3 in plant growth was analyzed in a wide range of plants. PhCESA3 mRNA was present at varying levels in tissues examined...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131895/biofilm-formation-and-cellulose-expression-by-bordetella-avium-197n-the-causative-agent-of-bordetellosis-in-birds-and-an-opportunistic-respiratory-pathogen-in-humans
#7
Kimberley McLaughlin, Ayorinde O Folorunso, Yusuf Y Deeni, Dona Foster, Oksana Gorbatiuk, Simona M Hapca, Corinna Immoor, Anna Koza, Ibrahim U Mohammed, Olena Moshynets, Sergii Rogalsky, Kamil Zawadzki, Andrew J Spiers
Although bacterial cellulose synthase (bcs) operons are widespread within the Proteobacteria phylum, subunits required for the partial-acetylation of the polymer appear to be restricted to a few γ-group soil, plant-associated and phytopathogenic pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. However, a bcs operon with acetylation subunits has also been annotated in the unrelated β-group respiratory pathogen, Bordetella avium 197N. Our comparison of subunit protein sequences and GC content analyses confirms the close similarity between the B...
January 25, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117552/oscesa9-conserved-site-mutation-leads-to-largely-enhanced-plant-lodging-resistance-and-biomass-enzymatic-saccharification-by-reducing-cellulose-dp-and-crystallinity-in-rice
#8
Fengcheng Li, Guosheng Xie, Jiangfeng Huang, Ran Zhang, Yu Li, Miaomiao Zhang, Yanting Wang, Ao Li, Xukai Li, Tao Xia, Chengcheng Qu, Fan Hu, Arthur J Ragauskas, Liangcai Peng
Genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification. Since cellulose synthase (CESA) gene is first identified, several dozen CESA mutants have been reported, but almost all mutants exhibit the defective phenotypes in plant growth and development. In this study, the rice (Oryza sativa) Osfc16 mutant with substitutions (W481C, P482S) at P-CR conserved-site in CESA9 shows a slightly affected plant growth and higher biomass yield by 25%-41% compared with wild type (Nipponbare, a japonica variety)...
January 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003446/transcriptional-regulation-of-a-horizontally-transferred-gene-from-bacterium-to-chordate
#9
Yasunori Sasakura, Yosuke Ogura, Nicholas Treen, Rui Yokomori, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai, Hidetoshi Saiga, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Fujiwara, Keita Yoshida
The horizontal transfer of genes between distantly related organisms is undoubtedly a major factor in the evolution of novel traits. Because genes are functionless without expression, horizontally transferred genes must acquire appropriate transcriptional regulations in their recipient organisms, although the evolutionary mechanism is not known well. The defining characteristic of tunicates is the presence of a cellulose containing tunic covering the adult and larval body surface. Cellulose synthase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from Actinobacteria...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998032/altering-carbon-allocation-in-hybrid-poplar-populus-alba-%C3%A3-grandidentata-impacts-cell-wall-growth-and-development
#10
Faride Unda, Hoon Kim, Charles Hefer, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield
Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues, and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate upregulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure...
December 20, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987127/formation-of-wood-secondary-cell-wall-may-involve-two-type-cellulose-synthase-complexes-in-populus
#11
Wang Xi, Dongliang Song, Jiayan Sun, Junhui Shen, Laigeng Li
Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased...
December 16, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923988/functional-analysis-of-cellulose-synthase-cesa-protein-class-specificity
#12
Manoj Kumar, Ivan Atanassov, Simon R Turner
The cellulose synthase complex (CSC) exhibits a 6-fold symmetry and is known as a "rosette". Each CSC is believed to contain between 18-24 CESA proteins that each synthesise an individual glucan chain. These chains form the microfibrils that confer the remarkable structural properties of cellulose. At least 3 different classes of CESA proteins are essential to form the CSC. However, while organisation of the CSC determines microfibril structure, how individual CESA proteins are organised within the CSC remains unclear...
December 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881071/genome-wide-analyses-of-chitin-synthases-identify-horizontal-gene-transfers-towards-bacteria-and-allow-a-robust-and-unifying-classification-into-fungi
#13
Isabelle R Gonçalves, Sophie Brouillet, Marie-Christine Soulié, Simonetta Gribaldo, Catherine Sirven, Noémie Charron, Martine Boccara, Mathias Choquer
BACKGROUND: Chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth after cellulose, is found in probably all fungi, many animals (mainly invertebrates), several protists and a few algae, playing an essential role in the development of many of them. This polysaccharide is produced by type 2 glycosyltransferases, called chitin synthases (CHS). There are several contradictory classifications of CHS isoenzymes and, as regards their evolutionary history, their origin and diversity is still a matter of debate...
November 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879387/rice-cellulose-synthasea8-plant-conserved-region-is-a-coiled-coil-at-the-catalytic-core-entrance
#14
Phillip S Rushton, Anna T Olek, Lee Makowski, John Badger, C Nicklaus Steussy, Nicholas C Carpita, Cynthia V Stauffacher
The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877177/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-transgenic-melatonin-biosynthesis-ovine-hiomt-gene-in-switchgrass
#15
Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Sijia Liu, Yanhua Huang, Danyang Tian, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856710/differences-in-glycosyltransferase-family-61-accompany-variation-in-seed-coat-mucilage-composition-in-plantago-spp
#16
Jana L Phan, Matthew R Tucker, Shi Fang Khor, Neil Shirley, Jelle Lahnstein, Cherie Beahan, Antony Bacic, Rachel A Burton
Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801942/microtubule-dependent-targeting-of-the-exocyst-complex-is-necessary-for-xylem-development-in-arabidopsis
#17
Nemanja Vukašinović, Yoshihisa Oda, Přemysl Pejchar, Lukáš Synek, Tamara Pečenková, Anamika Rawat, Juraj Sekereš, Martin Potocký, Viktor Žárský
Cortical microtubules (MTs) play a major role in the patterning of secondary cell wall (SCW) thickenings in tracheary elements (TEs) by determining the sites of SCW deposition. The EXO70A1 subunit of the exocyst secretory vesicle tethering complex was implicated to be important for TE development via the MT interaction. We investigated the subcellular localization of several exocyst subunits in the xylem of Arabidopsis thaliana and analyzed the functional significance of exocyst-mediated trafficking in TE development...
November 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770231/the-targeting-of-starch-binding-domains-from-starch-synthase-iii-to-the-cell-wall-alters-cell-wall-composition-and-properties
#18
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
January 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#19
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732677/role-of-the-tomato-non-ripening-mutation-in-regulating-fruit-quality-elucidated-using-itraq-protein-profile-analysis
#20
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
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