Read by QxMD icon Read

Cellulose synthase

Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Manoj Kumar, Laxmi Mishra, Paul Carr, Michael Pilling, Peter Gardner, Shawn D Mansfield, Simon R Turner
Cellulose microfibrils are the basic units of cellulose in plants. The structure of these microfibrils is at least partly determined by the structure of the cellulose synthase complex. In higher plants, this complex is composed of 18 to 24 catalytic subunits known as CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (CESA) proteins. Three different classes of CESA proteins are required for cellulose synthesis and for secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis, which include CESA4, CESA7, and CESA8. To probe the relationship between CESA proteins and microfibril structure, we created mutant cesa proteins that lack catalytic activity but retain sufficient structural integrity to allow assembly of the cellulose synthase complex...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Zhangsheng Tao, Xukai Li, Yuyang Li, Jiangfeng Huang, Xinxin Li, Xiao Han, Shengqiu Feng, Guimin Zhang, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is the most characteristic component of plant cell walls and plays a central role in plant mechanical strength and morphogenesis. Despite cellulose synthase (CesA) mutants have exhibited a reduction of cellulose level, much remains unknown about their impacts on the cell growth (elongation and division) and cell wall integrity that fundamentally determine plant growth. Here, we examined three major types of AtCesAs mutants (rsw1, AtCesA1 mutant; prc1-1 and cesa6, AtCesA6-null mutants; IRX3, AtCesA7 mutant) and transgenic mutants that overexpressed AtCesAs genes in the background of AtCesA6-null mutants...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Paria Sadat Lavasani, Elahe Motevaseli, Mahdieh Shirzad, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are one of the major interests of researchers. Traditional vinegars are suitable sources of AAB because they are not undergone industrial process like filtering and adding preservatives. Komagataeibacter xylinus as a member of AAB is known as the main cellulose producer among other bacteria. The purpose of the current study was to isolate the bacteria from traditional vinegars and its molecular analyses. Materials and Methods: Vinegar samples were collected...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Evelyne Mann, Stefanie U Wetzels, Martin Wagner, Qendrim Zebeli, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Microbiota of the rumen wall constitute an important niche of rumen microbial ecology and their composition has been elucidated in different ruminants during the last years. However, the knowledge about the function of rumen wall microbes is still limited. Rumen wall biopsies were taken from three fistulated dairy cows under a standard forage-based diet and after 4 weeks of high concentrate feeding inducing a subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). Extracted RNA was used for metatranscriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Joseph Lee Hill, Cooper Josephs, William J Barnes, Charles T Anderson, Ming Tien
Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC...
January 31, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Tess R Scavuzzo-Duggan, Arielle M Chaves, Abhishek Singh, Latsavongsakda Sethaphong, Erin Slabaugh, Yaroslava G Yingling, Candace H Haigler, Alison W Roberts
Cellulose synthases (CESAs) are glycosyltransferases that catalyze formation of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. Seed plant CESA isoforms cluster in six phylogenetic clades, whose non-interchangeable members play distinct roles within Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs). A 'class specific region' (CSR) with higher sequence similarity within vs. between functional CESA classes has been suggested to contribute to specific activities or interactions of different isoforms. We investigated CESA isoform specificity in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Tao Wan, Zhi-Ming Liu, Ling-Fei Li, Andrew R Leitch, Ilia J Leitch, Rolf Lohaus, Zhong-Jian Liu, Hai-Ping Xin, Yan-Bing Gong, Yang Liu, Wen-Cai Wang, Ling-Yun Chen, Yong Yang, Laura J Kelly, Ji Yang, Jin-Ling Huang, Zhen Li, Ping Liu, Li Zhang, Hong-Mei Liu, Hui Wang, Shu-Han Deng, Meng Liu, Ji Li, Lu Ma, Yan Liu, Yang Lei, Wei Xu, Ling-Qing Wu, Fan Liu, Qian Ma, Xin-Ran Yu, Zhi Jiang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Shao-Hua Li, Rui-Qiang Li, Shou-Zhou Zhang, Qing-Feng Wang, Yves Van de Peer, Jin-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Ming Wang
Gnetophytes are an enigmatic gymnosperm lineage comprising three genera, Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra, which are morphologically distinct from all other seed plants. Their distinctiveness has triggered much debate as to their origin, evolution and phylogenetic placement among seed plants. To increase our understanding of the evolution of gnetophytes, and their relation to other seed plants, we report here a high-quality draft genome sequence for Gnetum montanum, the first for any gnetophyte. By using a novel genome assembly strategy to deal with high levels of heterozygosity, we assembled >4 Gb of sequence encoding 27,491 protein-coding genes...
January 29, 2018: Nature Plants
Sang-Jin Kim, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Curtis G Wilkerson, Kenneth Keegstra, Federica Brandizzi
Mixed linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG) is a glucose polymer with beneficial effects on human health and higher potential in the agricultural industry. MLG is present predominantly in the cell wall of grasses and is synthesized by cellulose synthase-like proteins of the F or H families, with CSLF6 being the best-characterized MLG synthase. Although the function of this enzyme in MLG production has been established, the site of MLG synthesis in the cell is debated. It has been proposed that MLG is synthesized at the plasma membrane, as occurs for cellulose and callose; in contrast, it has also been proposed that MLG is synthesized in the Golgi, as it occurs for other matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall...
January 27, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mai L Tran, Thomas W McCarthy, Hao Sun, Shu-Zon Wu, Joanna H Norris, Magdalena Bezanilla, Luis Vidali, Charles T Anderson, Alison W Roberts
Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), fragments CSCs and clears them from the plasma membrane...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan-Jun Liu, Guang-Long Wang, Jing Ma, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
BACKGROUND: Carrot which contains lots of nutrients has a large demand around the world. The soluble sugar content in fleshy root of carrot directly influences its taste and quality. Sucrose, as an important member of soluble sugar, is the main product of photosynthesis in higher plants and it plays pivotal roles in physiological processes including energy supply, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, starch and cellulose synthesis, and stress tolerance. Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism and is closely related to sucrose content...
January 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xianyan Zou, Zhang Zhen, Qun Ge, Senmiao Fan, Aiying Liu, Wankui Gong, Junwen Li, Juwu Gong, Yuzhen Shi, Yanling Wang, Ruixian Liu, Li Duan, Kang Lei, Qi Zhang, Xiao Jiang, Shuya Zhang, Tingting Jia, Lipeng Zhang, Haihong Shang, Youlu Yuan
The cellulose synthase gene superfamily, which includes the cellulose synthase (Ces) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families, is involved in the synthesis of cellulose and hemicellulose. This superfamily is critical for cotton fiber development in Gossypium species. Applying a series of bioinformatic methods, we identified 228 Ces/Csl genes from four Gossypium species (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii). These genes were then grouped into 11 subfamilies based on phylogenetic relationships...
December 23, 2017: Gene
Simon Turner, Manoj Kumar
Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Petya Violinova Krasteva, Joaquin Bernal-Bayard, Laetitia Travier, Fernando Ariel Martin, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Gouzel Karimova, Rémi Fronzes, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Secreted exopolysaccharides present important determinants for bacterial biofilm formation, survival, and virulence. Cellulose secretion typically requires the concerted action of a c-di-GMP-responsive inner membrane synthase (BcsA), an accessory membrane-anchored protein (BcsB), and several additional Bcs components. Although the BcsAB catalytic duo has been studied in great detail, its interplay with co-expressed subunits remains enigmatic. Here we show that E. coli Bcs proteins partake in a complex protein interaction network...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris
Bacterial cellulose (BC) exhibits unique properties such as high purity compared to plant-based cellulose; however, commercial production of BC has remained a challenge, primarily due to the strain properties of cellulose-producing bacteria. Herein, we developed a functional and stable BC production system in genetically modified (GM) Escherichia coli by recombinant expression of both the BC synthase operon (bcsABCD) and the upstream operon (cmcax, ccp Ax). BC production was achieved in GM HMS174 (DE3) and in GM C41 (DE3) by optimization of the culture temperature (22 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C) and IPTG concentration...
February 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Yoshihisa Oda
Plant cortical microtubules have crucial roles in cell wall development. Cortical microtubules are tightly anchored to the plasma membrane in a highly ordered array, which directs the deposition of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the movement of the cellulose synthase complex. Cortical microtubules also interact with several endomembrane systems to regulate cell wall development and other cellular events. Recent studies have identified new factors that mediate interactions between cortical microtubules and endomembrane systems including the plasma membrane, endosome, exocytic vesicles, and endoplasmic reticulum...
January 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae , a parasite on Silene latifolia , is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chan Liu, Liangbin Zeng, Siyuan Zhu, Lingqing Wu, Yanzhou Wang, Shouwei Tang, Hongwu Wang, Xia Zheng, Jian Zhao, Xiaorong Chen, Qiuzhong Dai, Touming Liu
Plentiful bast fiber, a high crude protein content, and vigorous vegetative growth make ramie a popular fiber and forage crop. Here, we report the draft genome of ramie, along with a genomic comparison and evolutionary analysis. The draft genome contained a sequence of approximately 335.6 Mb with 42,463 predicted genes. A high-density genetic map with 4,338 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed and used to anchor the genome sequence, thus, creating an integrated genetic and physical map containing a 58...
November 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"