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Cellulose synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520408/engineering-and-characterization-of-bacterial-nanocellulose-films-as-low-cost-and-flexible-sensor-material
#1
Rahul K Mangayil, Satu M Rajala, Arno J Pammo, Essi L Sarlin, Jin Luo, Ville P Santala, Matti Tapani Karp, Sampo R Tuukkanen
Some bacterial strains such as Komagataeibacter xylinus are able to produce cellulose as an extracellular matrix. In comparison to wood-based cellulose, bacterial cellulose (BC) holds interesting properties such as biodegradability, high purity, water-holding capacity and superior mechanical and structural properties. Aiming towards improvement in BC production titer and tailored alterations to the BC film, we engineered K. xylinus to overexpress partial and complete bacterial cellulose synthase operon that encodes activities for BC production...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448629/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-gh8-endoglucanase-from-the-bacterial-cellulose-synthase-complex-of-raoultella-ornithinolytica
#2
Sandra Mara Naressi Scapin, Flavio Henrique Moreira Souza, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin, Thamyres Silva de Almeida, Youssef Bacila Sade, Alexander Machado Cardoso, Guilherme Luiz Pinheiro, Mario Tyago Murakami
Cellulose synthesis in bacteria is a complex process involving the concerted action of several enzymes whose genes are often organized in operons. This process influences many fundamental physiological aspects such as bacteria and host interaction, biofilm formation, among others. Although it might sound contradictory, the participation of cellulose-degrading enzymes is critical to this process. The presence of endoglucanases from family 8 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH8) in bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) complex has been described in different bacteria, including the model organism Komagataeibacter xylinus; however, their role in this process is not completely understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379953/aspergillus-hancockii-sp-nov-a-biosynthetically-talented-fungus-endemic-to-southeastern-australian-soils
#3
John I Pitt, Lene Lange, Alastair E Lacey, Daniel Vuong, David J Midgley, Paul Greenfield, Mark I Bradbury, Ernest Lacey, Peter K Busk, Bo Pilgaard, Yit-Heng Chooi, Andrew M Piggott
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369427/repeat-length-variation-in-a-wheat-cellulose-synthase-like-gene-is-associated-with-altered-tiller-number-and-stem-cell-wall-composition
#4
J Hyles, S Vautrin, F Pettolino, C MacMillan, Z Stachurski, J Breen, H Berges, T Wicker, W Spielmeyer
The tiller inhibition gene (tin) that reduces tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is also associated with large spikes, increased grain weight, and thick leaves and stems. In this study, comparison of near-isogenic lines (NILs) revealed changes in stem morphology, cell wall composition, and stem strength. Microscopic analysis of stem cross-sections and chemical analysis of stem tissue indicated that cell walls in tin lines were thicker and more lignified than in free-tillering NILs. Increased lignification was associated with stronger stems in tin plants...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352091/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-talaromyces-pinophilus-provide-insights-into-biotechnological-applications
#5
Cheng-Xi Li, Shuai Zhao, Ting Zhang, Liang Xian, Lu-Sheng Liao, Jun-Liang Liu, Jia-Xun Feng
Species from the genus Talaromyces produce useful biomass-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites. However, these enzymes and secondary metabolites are still poorly understood and have not been explored in depth because of a lack of comprehensive genetic information. Here, we report a 36.51-megabase genome assembly of Talaromyces pinophilus strain 1-95, with coverage of nine scaffolds of eight chromosomes with telomeric repeats at their ends and circular mitochondrial DNA. In total, 13,472 protein-coding genes were predicted...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289192/brassinosteroid-insensitive2-negatively-regulates-cellulose-synthesis-in-arabidopsis-by-phosphorylating-cellulose-synthase-1
#6
Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez, KassaDee Ketelaar, Rene Schneider, Jose A Villalobos, Chris R Somerville, Staffan Persson, Ian S Wallace
The deposition of cellulose is a defining aspect of plant growth and development, but regulation of this process is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the protein kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a key negative regulator of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, can phosphorylate Arabidopsis cellulose synthase A1 (CESA1), a subunit of the primary cell wall cellulose synthase complex, and thereby negatively regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Accordingly, point mutations of the BIN2-mediated CESA1 phosphorylation site abolished BIN2-dependent regulation of cellulose synthase activity...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261235/cytochemical-localization-of-polysaccharides-in-dendrobium-officinale-and-the-involvement-of-docsla6-in-the-synthesis-of-mannan-polysaccharides
#7
Chunmei He, Kunlin Wu, Jianxia Zhang, Xuncheng Liu, Songjun Zeng, Zhenming Yu, Xinghua Zhang, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Rufang Deng, Jianwen Tan, Jianping Luo, Jun Duan
Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a molar ratio of 223:48:1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258142/activation-mechanism-and-cellular-localization-of-membrane-anchored-alginate-polymerase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
The exopolysaccharide alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confers a survival advantage to the bacterium by contributing to the formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane-anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (copolymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase that is being activated by the second messenger molecule bis-(3', 5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP-mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236275/gene-expression-profiles-predictive-of-cold-induced-sweetening-in-potato
#9
Jonathan Neilson, M Lagüe, S Thomson, F Aurousseau, A M Murphy, B Bizimungu, V Deveaux, Y Bègue, J M E Jacobs, H H Tai
Cold storage (2-4 °C) used in potato production to suppress diseases and sprouting during storage can result in cold-induced sweetening (CIS), where reducing sugars accumulate in tuber tissue leading to undesirable browning, production of bitter flavors, and increased levels of acrylamide with frying. Potato exhibits genetic and environmental variation in resistance to CIS. The current study profiles gene expression in post-harvest tubers before cold storage using transcriptome sequencing and identifies genes whose expression is predictive for CIS...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224899/impact-of-plant-matrix-polysaccharides-on-cellulose-produced-by-surface-tethered-cellulose-synthases
#10
Snehasish Basu, Okako Omadjela, Jochen Zimmer, Jeffrey M Catchmark
Surface immobilized BcsA-B cellulose synthases synthesize crystalline cellulose II under in vitro conditions and were used to explore the interaction between cellulose and hemicelluloses and pectin. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils changed in the presence of xyloglucan and glucomannan, while pectin did not significantly impact morphology. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that crystal size and crystallinity were significantly affected by xyloglucan and glucomannan but not altered by pectin...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190803/characterization-of-a-novel-rhamnose-containing-acidic-glycosphingolipid-from-the-ascidian-halocynthia-aurantium
#11
Hisao Kojima, Ryota Shinohara, Saki Itonori, Masahiro Ito
Halocynthia aurantium, an edible ascidian species belonging to Urochordata, was subjected to structural characterization of acidic glycosphingolipids to investigate these molecules in ascidians: sulfatide from Ciona intestinalis and the glucuronic acid-containing acidic glycosphingolipid from H. roretzi. Acidic glycosphingolipids containing three or five sugars were isolated from soft parts of the ascidian H. aurantium by chloroform-methanol extraction, mild-alkaline hydrolysis, precipitation with cold acetone, and subsequent column chromatography using a DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column, a Florisil column, and an Iatrobead column...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186632/norwood-a-gene-expression-resource-for-evo-devo-studies-of-conifer-wood-development
#12
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, David Sundell, Ove Nilsson, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178754/neuroprotective-effect-of-nebivolol-against-cisplatin-associated-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#13
Noha F Abdelkader, Muhammed A Saad, Rania M Abdelsalam
One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups. Group one was given aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control, group two was given nebivolol (10 mg/kg p...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169290/knockdown-of-a-cellulose-synthase-gene-boicesa-affects-the-leaf-anatomy-cellulose-content-and-salt-tolerance-in-broccoli
#14
Shuangtao Li, Lei Zhang, Ying Wang, Fengfeng Xu, Mengyun Liu, Peng Lin, Shuxin Ren, Rui Ma, Yang-Dong Guo
Cellulose is the major component of cell wall materials. A 300 bp specific fragment from the cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into vector pFGC1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector. Knockdown of BoiCesA caused "dwarf" phenotype with smaller leaves and a loss of the content of cellulose. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the RNAi apparatus could repress expression of the CesA gene. Meanwhile, examination of the leaves from the T3 of RNAi transformants indicated reduction of cell expansion in vascular bundles, particularly on their abaxial surface...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150693/phcesa3-silencing-inhibits-elongation-and-stimulates-radial-expansion-in-petunia
#15
Weiyuan Yang, Yuanping Cai, Li Hu, Qian Wei, Guoju Chen, Mei Bai, Hong Wu, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CESAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and disease resistance. Previous studies have shown an essential role of Arabidopsis thaliana CESA3 in plant growth. However, little is known about the role of CESA3 in species other than A. thaliana. To gain a better understanding of CESA3, the petunia (Petunia hybrida) PhCESA3 gene was isolated, and the role of PhCESA3 in plant growth was analyzed in a wide range of plants. PhCESA3 mRNA was present at varying levels in tissues examined...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131895/biofilm-formation-and-cellulose-expression-by-bordetella-avium-197n-the-causative-agent-of-bordetellosis-in-birds-and-an-opportunistic-respiratory-pathogen-in-humans
#16
Kimberley McLaughlin, Ayorinde O Folorunso, Yusuf Y Deeni, Dona Foster, Oksana Gorbatiuk, Simona M Hapca, Corinna Immoor, Anna Koza, Ibrahim U Mohammed, Olena Moshynets, Sergii Rogalsky, Kamil Zawadzki, Andrew J Spiers
Although bacterial cellulose synthase (bcs) operons are widespread within the Proteobacteria phylum, subunits required for the partial-acetylation of the polymer appear to be restricted to a few γ-group soil, plant-associated and phytopathogenic pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and several Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. However, a bcs operon with acetylation subunits has also been annotated in the unrelated β-group respiratory pathogen, Bordetella avium 197N. Our comparison of subunit protein sequences and GC content analyses confirms the close similarity between the B...
January 26, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117552/oscesa9-conserved-site-mutation-leads-to-largely-enhanced-plant-lodging-resistance-and-biomass-enzymatic-saccharification-by-reducing-cellulose-dp-and-crystallinity-in-rice
#17
Fengcheng Li, Guosheng Xie, Jiangfeng Huang, Ran Zhang, Yu Li, Miaomiao Zhang, Yanting Wang, Ao Li, Xukai Li, Tao Xia, Chengcheng Qu, Fan Hu, Arthur J Ragauskas, Liangcai Peng
Genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification. Since cellulose synthase (CESA) gene is first identified, several dozen CESA mutants have been reported, but almost all mutants exhibit the defective phenotypes in plant growth and development. In this study, the rice (Oryza sativa) Osfc16 mutant with substitutions (W481C, P482S) at P-CR conserved-site in CESA9 shows a slightly affected plant growth and higher biomass yield by 25%-41% compared with wild type (Nipponbare, a japonica variety)...
January 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003446/transcriptional-regulation-of-a-horizontally-transferred-gene-from-bacterium-to-chordate
#18
Yasunori Sasakura, Yosuke Ogura, Nicholas Treen, Rui Yokomori, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai, Hidetoshi Saiga, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Fujiwara, Keita Yoshida
The horizontal transfer of genes between distantly related organisms is undoubtedly a major factor in the evolution of novel traits. Because genes are functionless without expression, horizontally transferred genes must acquire appropriate transcriptional regulations in their recipient organisms, although the evolutionary mechanism is not known well. The defining characteristic of tunicates is the presence of a cellulose containing tunic covering the adult and larval body surface. Cellulose synthase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from Actinobacteria...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998032/altering-carbon-allocation-in-hybrid-poplar-populus-alba-%C3%A3-grandidentata-impacts-cell-wall-growth-and-development
#19
Faride Unda, Hoon Kim, Charles Hefer, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield
Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues, and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate upregulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure...
December 20, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987127/formation-of-wood-secondary-cell-wall-may-involve-two-type-cellulose-synthase-complexes-in-populus
#20
Wang Xi, Dongliang Song, Jiayan Sun, Junhui Shen, Laigeng Li
Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased...
March 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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