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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551888/effects-of-long-term-exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Erica S Schultz, Augusto A Litonjua, Erik Melén
Lung function in early life has been shown to be an important predictor for peak lung function in adults and later decline. Reduced lung function per se is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With this review, we aim to summarize the current epidemiological evidence on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on lung function in children and adolescents. We focus in particular on time windows of exposure, small airway involvement, and vulnerable sub-groups in the population. Findings from studies published to date support the notion that exposure over the entire childhood age range seems to be of importance for lung function development...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551887/bacteriological-safety-assessment-hygienic-habits-and-cross-contamination-risks-in-a-nigerian-urban-sample-of-household-kitchen-environment
#2
Bernard O Ejechi, Ono P Ochei
Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551885/public-engagement-on-urban-air-pollution-an-exploratory-study-of-two-interventions
#3
Christian Oltra, Roser Sala, Àlex Boso, Sergi López Asensio
The use of portable sensors to measure air quality is a promising approach for the management of urban air quality given its potential to improve public participation in environmental issues and to promote healthy behaviors. However, not all the projects that use air quality mobile sensors consider the potential effects of their use on the attitudes and behaviors of non-expert individuals. This study explores the experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of 12 participants who used a real-time NO2 sensor over a period of 7 days in the metropolitan area of Barcelona and compares them with 16 participants who did not have access to the device but rather to documentary information...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551883/chemical-fractionation-and-mobility-of-traffic-related-elements-in-road-environments
#4
Ewa Adamiec
Due to considerable progress in exhaust control emission technology and extensive regulatory work regarding this issue, non-exhaust sources of air pollution have become a growing concern. This research involved studying three types of road environment samples such as road dust, sludge from storm drains and roadside soil collected from heavily congested and polluted cities in Poland (Krakow, Warszawa, Opole and Wroclaw). Particles below 20 µm were examined since it was previously estimated that this fine fraction of road dust is polluted mostly by metals derived from non-exhaust sources of pollution such as brake linings wear...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551852/cultivable-microscopic-fungi-from-an-underground-chemosynthesis-based-ecosystem-a-preliminary-study
#5
Alena Nováková, Vít Hubka, Šárka Valinová, Miroslav Kolařík, Alexandra Maria Hillebrand-Voiculescu
Movile Cave, a unique groundwater ecosystem in southern Romania, was discovered in 1986. This chemoautotrophic cave contains an abundant and diverse fauna with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate communities, including 33 endemic species. Since its discovery, studies have focused mainly on cave chemoautotrophic bacteria, while the microfungal community has been largely neglected. In this study, we determined the microfungal species living on various substrates in Movile Cave and compared this spectrum with the mycobiota detected outside the cave (outside air-borne and soil-borne microfungi)...
May 28, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551763/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-and-osteoblast-responses-to-oxidized-titanium-surfaces-pre-treated-with-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-808%C3%A2-nm-gaalas-diode-laser-or-chlorhexidine-in-vitro-study
#6
Flaminia Chellini, Marco Giannelli, Alessia Tani, Lara Ballerini, Larissa Vallone, Daniele Nosi, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Chiara Sassoli
Preservation of implant biocompatibility following peri-implantitis treatments is a crucial issue in odontostomatological practice, being closely linked to implant re-osseointegration. Our aim was to assess the responses of osteoblast-like Saos2 cells and adult human bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to oxidized titanium surfaces (TiUnite(®), TiU) pre-treated with a 808 ± 10 nm GaAlAs diode laser operating in non-contact mode, in continuous (2 W, 400 J/cm(2); CW) or pulsed (20 kHz, 7 μs, 0...
May 27, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551742/human-health-risk-exposure-with-respect-to-particulate-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-at-mine-fire-affected-coal-mining-complex
#7
Debananda Roy, Yong-Chil Seo, Sweta Sinha, Abir Bhattacharya, Gurdeep Singh, Pallab Kr Biswas
Particulate-bound poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity effect on human health. In this context, identification, quantification and inhalation cancer risk (ICR) assessment due to PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs has been carried out at six monitoring stations in a critically polluted Jharia coalfield/Dhanbad City. Identification of pollution sources at study area has been performed by using PCA statistical methods. Air quality index (AQI) and air quality health index (AQHI) were calculated based on the concentration levels of PM10...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551564/effects-of-local-scale-decontamination-in-a-secondary-forest-contaminated-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#8
Yoshiko Ayabe, Naoki Hijii, Chisato Takenaka
We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced (137)Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured (137)Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine (137)Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total (137)Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m(-2)) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551474/rgo-au-nps-n-doped-cnts-supported-on-nickel-foam-as-an-anode-for-enzymatic-biofuel-cells
#9
He Zhang, Lingling Zhang, Yujie Han, You Yu, Miao Xu, Xueping Zhang, Liang Huang, Shaojun Dong
In this study, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide/Au NPs/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (RGO/Au NPs/N-doped CNTs) assembly supported on nickel foam was utilized as an anode for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). 3D RGO/Au NPs was obtained by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide on nickel foam (Ni foam), while Au NPs were co-deposited during the process. Afterwards, nitrogen doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were allowed to grow seamlessly on the surfaces of 3D RGO/Au NPs via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process...
May 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551279/influence-of-carbonation-under-oxy-fuel-combustion-flue-gas-on-the-leachability-of-heavy-metals-in-mswi-fly-ash
#10
Peng Ni, Zhuo Xiong, Chong Tian, Hailong Li, Yongchun Zhao, Junying Zhang, Chuguang Zheng
Due to the high cost of pure CO2, carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO2 instead of pure CO2. The CO2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO2...
May 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551215/effect-of-different-drying-techniques-on-bioactive-components-fatty-acid-composition-and-volatile-profile-of-robusta-coffee-beans
#11
Wenjiang Dong, Rongsuo Hu, Zhong Chu, Jianping Zhao, Lehe Tan
This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550761/can-cadaverous-pollution-from-environmental-lead-misguide-to-false-positive-results-in-the-histochemical-determination-of-gunshot-residues-study-on-cadaveric-skin-samples
#12
Michele Boracchi, Salvatore Andreola, Federica Collini, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Francesca Maghin, Riccardo Zoja
Histochemical determination of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) raises the question of possible environmental contamination by heavy metals. Authors assess the specificity of the Sodium Rhodizonate Test in the search of lead derived from environmental pollution. Sodium Rhodizonate Test and 5% HCl Sodium Rhodizonate test were applied to skin samples taken from two groups of victims, whose cause of death was not related to gunshot wounds: group A included 25 corpses found in open spaces after a long time; group B included 16 corpses exhumed after a period of 11 years...
May 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550730/transplantation-of-aire-overexpressing-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-delays-the-onset-of-type-1-diabetes
#13
Dongbei Li, Bo Zhao, Yadong Luo, Steven Limbara, Bingjie Zhao, Xueyang Zou, Wei Yang, Yi Li
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays an indispensable role in maintaining central immune tolerance by promoting the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), which lead to the deletion of autoreactive T cells or the induction of Tregs and consequently prevent autoimmune disease development. Curing autoimmune diseases has always been a challenge. DC-based immunotherapy represents a new and effective method to establish tolerance...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550343/the-association-of-ambient-temperature-with-incidence-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-a-short-timescale
#14
Jayeun Kim, Ho Kim
The body response time and an association between the exposure to outdoor temperature and cardiac arrhythmia were not fully understood. Hence, we further investigated the association between ambient temperature and the exacerbations of arrhythmia symptoms on a short timescale using the emergency department (ED) visit data. We used a total of 17,088 arrhythmia-related ED visits in Seoul, from 2008 to 2011 and fitted the model adjusting for other meteorological variables and air pollutants under the case-crossover analysis with the same year-month time stratification...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550298/opposite-polarities-of-enso-drive-distinct-patterns-of-coral-bleaching-potentials-in-the-southeast-indian-ocean
#15
Ningning Zhang, Ming Feng, Harry H Hendon, Alistair J Hobday, Jens Zinke
Episodic anomalously warm sea surface temperature (SST) extremes, or marine heatwaves (MHWs), amplify ocean warming effects and may lead to severe impacts on marine ecosystems. MHW-induced coral bleaching events have been observed frequently in recent decades in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), a region traditionally regarded to have resilience to global warming. In this study, we assess the contribution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to MHWs across the mostly understudied reefs in the SEIO. We find that in extended summer months, the MHWs at tropical and subtropical reefs (divided at ~20°S) are driven by opposite ENSO polarities: MHWs are more likely to occur at the tropical reefs during eastern Pacific El Niño, driven by enhanced solar radiation and weaker Australian Monsoon, some likely alleviated by positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, and at the subtropical reefs during central Pacific La Niña, mainly caused by increased horizontal heat transport, and in some cases reinforced by local air-sea interactions...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549972/quality-by-design-approach-for-studying-the-impact-of-formulation-and-process-variables-on-product-quality-of-oral-disintegrating-films
#16
Sonal Mazumder, Naresh Pavurala, Prashanth Manda, Xiaoming Xu, Celia N Cruz, Yellela S R Krishnaiah
The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design: of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA)...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549881/health-problems-and-disinfectant-product-exposure-among-staff-at-a-large-multispecialty-hospital
#17
Megan L Casey, Brie Hawley, Nicole Edwards, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Kristin J Cummings
BACKGROUND: Hospital staff expressed health concerns after a surface disinfectant product containing hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid was introduced. We sought to determine if this product posed a health hazard. METHODS: An interviewer-administered questionnaire on work and health characteristics was completed by 163 current staff. Symptoms that improved away from work were considered work-related. Forty-nine air samples were taken for hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549690/albumin-binding-domain-from-streptococcus-zooepidemicus-protein-zag-as-a-novel-strategy-to-improve-the-half-life-of-therapeutic-proteins
#18
Cátia Cantante, Sara Lourenço, Maurício Morais, João Leandro, Lurdes Gano, Nuno Silva, Paula Leandro, Mónica Serrano, Adriano O Henriques, Ana Andre, Catarina Cunha-Santos, Carlos Fontes, João D G Correia, Frederico Aires-da-Silva, Joao Goncalves
Recombinant antibody fragments belong to the promising class of biopharmaceuticals with high potential for future therapeutic applications. However, due to their small size they are rapidly cleared from circulation. Binding to serum proteins can be an effective approach to improve pharmacokinetic properties of short half-life molecules. Herein, we have investigated the Zag albumin-binding domain (ABD) derived from Streptococcus zooepidemicus as a novel strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of therapeutic molecules...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549677/enhanced-expression-of-organic-cation-transporters-in-bronchial-epithelial-cell-layers-following-insults-associated-with-asthma-impact-on-salbutamol-transport
#19
M Mukherjee, E Cingolani, D I Pritchard, C Bosquillon
Increasing evidence suggests Organic Cation Transporters (OCT) might facilitate the absorption of inhaled bronchodilators, including salbutamol, across the lung epithelium. This is essentially scarred and inflamed in asthma. Accordingly, the impact of epithelial insults relevant to asthma on OCT expression and salbutamol transport was evaluated in air-liquid interfaced layers of the human broncho-epithelial cell line Calu-3. These were physically injured and allowed to recover for 48h or exposed to the pro-inflammatory stimulant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 48h and the aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM) for 8h twice over 48h...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#20
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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