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Postnatal Restricted growth in neonate

Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Mathew J Wong, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov
Chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT) frequently results in early death. Systemically administered Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevent and reverse chronic PHT in neonatal rats, but at the cost of severe adverse effects, including systemic hypotension and growth restriction. Simvastatin has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on isoprenoid intermediates that may limit activity of RhoA, which signals upstream of ROCK. We therefore hypothesized that statin treatment would safely limit pulmonary vascular RhoA activity and prevent and reverse experimental chronic neonatal PHT via downstream inhibitory effects on pathological ROCK activity...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Froylán Vargas-Martínez, Richard J Schanler, Steven A Abrams, Keli M Hawthorne, Susan Landers, José Guzman-Bárcenas, Onofre Muñoz, Tore Henriksen, Maria Petersson, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada
Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease and stroke, leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), caused by an excess of glucocorticoid exposure to the fetus, produces an imbalance in oxidative stress altering many biochemical and epigenetic gene transcription processes exposing the fetus and neonate to the 'thrifty' phenotype and pervasive polymorphisms appearance damaging health, cognitive, and behavioral processes in later life. OT is a major regulator of oxidative stress radicals that plays a major role in neonatal maturation of the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues expressing oxytocin/oxytocin-receptor (OT/OTR) system in the early postnatal period...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maryam Sadat Maddahi, Mahrokh Dolatian, Monirsadat Khoramabadi, Atefeh Talebi
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight due to preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the strongest factor contributing to prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal mortality. Maternal-fetal attachment plays a significant role in maternal and fetal health. Health practices performed by the mother during pregnancy constitute one of the factors that may affect neonatal outcomes. The present study was conducted to identify the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and health practices during pregnancy with neonatal outcomes...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Rachel V O'Connell, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Jeffrey A Kuller, Robert A Strauss
We performed an evidence-based review of the obstetrical management of gastroschisis. Gastroschisis is an abdominal wall defect, which has increased in frequency in recent decades. There is variation of prevalence by ethnicity and several known maternal risk factors. Herniated intestinal loops lacking a covering membrane can be identified with prenatal ultrasonography, and maternal serum α-fetoprotein level is commonly elevated. Because of the increased risk for growth restriction, amniotic fluid abnormalities, and fetal demise, antenatal testing is generally recommended...
September 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Man Zhang, Yalin Liao, Bo Lönnerdal
BackgroundGrowth factors (GFs) are milk bioactive components contributing to the regulation of neonatal small intestinal maturation, and their receptors on the small intestinal epithelium play essential roles in mediating the functions of GFs. There is limited data correlating milk GFs and their receptors in the neonatal small intestine during the perinatal period.MethodsSmall intestines of C57BL/6N mouse pups were collected at regular intervals during fetal life and up to postnatal day (PD) 60. Gene expression of GF receptors was determined by real time qPCR...
September 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
Maria Cristina Aisa, Benito Cappuccini, Antonella Barbati, Aldo Orlacchio, Mauro Baglioni, Gian Carlo Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Premature and/or intrauterine growth-restricted neonates have an increased risk of developing postnatal renal injuries in later life. Studies on renal physiology in these neonates at a corrected age of 30-40 days are scarce and mostly relate to preterm infants. The data from these studies often lack the results of correlation analyses between biochemical parameters and nephron number-data which could provide additional insight and/or improve recognition of individuals at higher risk of renal failure...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Frank H Bloomfield
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased incidence of fetal and neonatal death, and of neonatal morbidity. Babies born following FGR also are at risk of a range of postnatal complications, which may contribute to an increased incidence of disease later in life. There currently are no effective clinical interventions which improve perinatal survival, intrauterine growth and later outcomes of the FGR baby. Postnatal interventions aimed at promoting or accelerating growth in FGR babies to improve outcome, particularly neurodevelopmental outcomes, may further increase the risk of metabolic dysregulation and, therefore, the risk of developing chronic disease in adulthood...
August 8, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
Stephen Wedgwood, Cris Warford, Sharleen C Agvateesiri, Phung Thai, Sara K Berkelhamer, Marta Perez, Mark A Underwood, Robin H Steinhorn
BACKGROUND: Prematurity and fetal growth restriction are risk factors for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Neonatal rats develop PH and vascular remodeling when exposed to hyperoxia. We hypothesize that postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) due to under-nutrition increases the severity of PH induced by hyperoxia in neonatal rats. METHODS: Pups were randomized at birth to litters maintained in room air or 75% oxygen (hyperoxia), together with litters of normal milk intake (10 pups) or PNGR (17 pups)...
August 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Deepak Sharma, Sweta Shastri, Pradeep Sharma
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
F C Brownfoot, C A Cluver, S P Walker
Fetal persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow is a rare and ominous finding. Previous cases have been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, growth restriction, anaemia, and hepatic anomaly. Intrauterine demise or early neonatal death is a common outcome. We report the case of persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow in a well-grown fetus at 32 weeks' gestation resulting from acute, severe anaemia due to a large feto-maternal hemorrhage. An emergency cesarean section was performed and the neonate required advanced resuscitation and immediate blood transfusion...
August 2015: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
D M Horton, D A Saint, J A Owens, K L Kind, K L Gatford
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent neonatal catch-up growth are implicated in the programming of increased appetite, adiposity and cardiometabolic diseases. Guinea pigs provide an alternate small animal model to rodents to investigate mechanisms underlying prenatal programming, being relatively precocial at birth, with smaller litter sizes and undergoing neonatal catch-up growth after IUGR. The current study, therefore, investigated postnatal consequences of spontaneous IUGR due to varying litter size in this species...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
R Narayan, M Peres, G Kesby
Bartter syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of autosomal-recessive salt-losing renal tubular disorders that can present in fetal life (antenatal Bartter syndrome; ABS) as "unexplained" early-onset polyhydramnios, often associated with growth restriction. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition involves assessment of amniotic fluid biochemistry in a setting of polyuric polyhydramnios; with elevated chloride levels considered a consistent and diagnostic finding. Other amniotic fluid biochemical markers have been described, notably increased aldosterone levels, and low total protein levels...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yong Li, Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Shina Halavi, Richard E Hartman, Daliao Xiao, Lubo Zhang
Accumulating evidence indicates a critical implication of DNA methylation in the brain development. We aim to determine whether the disruption of DNA methylation patterns in the developing brain adversely affects neurobehavioral phenotypes later in life in a sex-dependent manner. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), a DNA methylation inhibitor, was administered in newborn rats from postnatal day 1 to 3. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed at 3 months of age. 5-Aza treatment significantly inhibited DNA methyltransferase activity and decreased global DNA methylation levels in neonatal rat brains, resulting in asymmetric growth restriction with the increased brain to body weight ratio in both male and female rats at 14 days and 3 months of age...
June 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
A C Eke, G Saccone, V Berghella
BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent condition in pregnancy affecting about 10% of women. Maternal depression has been associated with an increase in preterm births (PTB), low birthweight and fetal growth restriction, and postnatal complications. Available treatments for depressive disorders are psychotherapeutic interventions and antidepressant medications including selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRI use during pregnancy has been associated with several fetal and neonatal complications; so far, however, the risk of PTB in women using SSRIs during pregnancy is still a subject of debate...
May 30, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Braden K Pew, R Alan Harris, Elena Sbrana, Milenka Cuevas Guaman, Cynthia Shope, Rui Chen, Sylvain Meloche, Kjersti Aagaard
BACKGROUND: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants is a leading cause of neonatal death. Pulmonary insufficiency-related infant mortality rates have improved with antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and neonatal surfactant replacement. However, the mechanism of glucocorticoid-promoted fetal lung maturation is not understood fully, despite decades of clinical use. We previously have shown that genetic deletion of Erk3 in mice results in growth restriction, cyanosis, and early neonatal lethality because of pulmonary immaturity and respiratory distress...
September 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
David J Carr, Jacqueline M Wallace, Raymond P Aitken, John S Milne, John F Martin, Ian C Zachary, Donald M Peebles, Anna L David
Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0...
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
J Liu, Z Liu, L Gao, L Chen, H Zhang
The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI...
October 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Maria Angela Rustico, Dario Consonni, Mariano Lanna, Stefano Faiola, Vito Schena, Barbara Scelsa, Paola Introvini, Andrea Righini, Cecilia Parazzini, Gianluca Lista, Francesco Barretta, Enrico Ferrazzi
OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in the umbilical artery (UA) Doppler flow of monochorionic diamniotic (MC DA) twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), to correlate Doppler findings with pregnancy course and perinatal outcome, to report postnatal follow up. METHODS: Retrospective study of 140 MC DA twins with sIUGR. UA end-diastolic flow, defined as pattern Type I (persistently positive), Type II (persistently absent or persistently reversed), and Type III (intermittent) was recorded at first examination and monitored weekly until double or single fetal death, bipolar cord coagulation, or delivery...
April 7, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Russell L Deter, Khrystyna Levytska, Nir Melamed, Wesley Lee, John C P Kingdom
OBJECTIVE: To compare neonatal growth outcomes determined by birth weight (BW), placental assessment (Plac Assess) and individualized growth assessment (IGA). METHODS: This retrospective analysis was carried out in 45 selected pregnancies at risk for fetal growth restriction. Serial fetal biometry was carried out in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. First and second trimester placental biomarkers, 2nd trimester uterine artery (Ut A) velocimetry and postnatal placental pathology were evaluated as indicators of placental insufficiency...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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