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Autism therapy pediatric

Davíð R M A Højgaard, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Judith Becker Nissen, Katja A Hybel, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen
: Some studies have shown that children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and co-morbid tics differ from those without co-morbid tics in terms of several demographic and clinical characteristics. However, not all studies have confirmed these differences. This study examined children and adolescents with OCD and with possible or definite tic specifiers according to the DSM-5 in order to see whether they differ from patients without any tic symptoms regarding clinical presentation and outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)...
December 28, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Debdeep Nath
This case study examines some common complementary and alternative treatments used in the management of behavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms associated with autism including food selectivity, abdominal pain, nausea, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, and diarrhea. The current literature on the safety and efficacy of these treatments for pediatric patients is reviewed. This study examines therapies including gluten-free and casein-free diet, probiotics, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, chelation therapy, acupuncture, and chiropractic manipulations used in treating these core symptoms of autism...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Jennifer Lucarelli, Demetra Pappas, Leah Welchons, Marilyn Augustyn
Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker...
January 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Anna Jeong, Michael Wong
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a key signaling pathway that has been implicated in genetic epilepsy syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases, and conditions associated with autism spectrum disorder and cognitive impairment. The mTOR pathway has become an exciting treatment target for these various disorders, with mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin being studied for their potential therapeutic applications. In particular, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder resulting from overactivation of the mTOR pathway, and pharmacologic therapy with mTOR inhibitors has emerged as a viable treatment option for the systemic manifestations of the disease...
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Georgina Krebs, Kim Murray, Amita Jassi
There is a high rate of comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Standard cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) protocols have been shown to be less effective in treating OCD in young people with ASD than in typically developing youth. This case study describes the treatment of an adolescent boy with severe, treatment-resistant OCD and ASD using a modified CBT approach. Modifications to a standard evidence-based CBT for OCD protocol included extended psychoeducation about anxiety; regular home-based sessions; and increased involvement of systems, including family and school...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Gerasimos Kolaitis, Christian G Bouwkamp, Alexia Papakonstantinou, Ioanna Otheiti, Maria Belivanaki, Styliani Haritaki, Terpsihori Korpa, Zinovia Albani, Elena Terzioglou, Polyxeni Apostola, Aggeliki Skamnaki, Athena Xaidara, Konstantina Kosma, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
BACKGROUND: This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the pediatric hospital for behavioral difficulties and a delayed neurodevelopmental trajectory. A cytogenetic analysis and high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
J Lloyd Holder, Michael M Quach
OBJECTIVE: The coincidence of autism with epilepsy is 27% in those individuals with intellectual disability.(1) Individuals with loss-of-function mutations in SHANK3 have intellectual disability, autism, and variably, epilepsy.(2-5) The spectrum of seizure semiologies and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities has never been investigated in detail. With the recent report that SHANK3 mutations are present in approximately 2% of individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and 1% of individuals with autism, determining the spectrum of seizure semiologies and electrographic abnormalities will be critical for medical practitioners to appropriately counsel the families of patients with SHANK3 mutations...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Elizabeth Harstad, Nathan Blum, Amy Gahman, Justine Shults, Eugenia Chan, William Barbaresi
OBJECTIVE: To describe practice patterns for developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs) practicing within Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) academic medical centers providing follow-up for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and determine how well they adhere to American Academy of Pediatrics ADHD Clinical Practice Guidelines. METHODS: Seventy-eight DBPs at 12 academic medical centers participating in the DBPNet were asked to complete follow-up encounter surveys for patients with ADHD or autism spectrum disorder seen from 12/2011 through 6/2012...
September 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
J Gordon Millichap, Michelle M Yee
Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH.
January 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Between 5-40% of autistic patients will develop epilepsy. Most individuals with autism and epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. For this population, alternative treatments such as ketogenic diet (KD) can be highly efficacious and should be seriously considered. AIM: To discuss the use of the KD in refractory pediatric epilepsy and its role in patients with autism and epilepsy...
2016: Revista de Neurologia
M Duda, R Ma, N Haber, D P Wall
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to rise in prevalence, together affecting >10% of today's pediatric population, the methods of diagnosis remain subjective, cumbersome and time intensive. With gaps upward of a year between initial suspicion and diagnosis, valuable time where treatments and behavioral interventions could be applied is lost as these disorders remain undetected. Methods to quickly and accurately assess risk for these, and other, developmental disorders are necessary to streamline the process of diagnosis and provide families access to much-needed therapies sooner...
February 9, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
William B Daviss, Erin Barnett, Katrin Neubacher, Robert E Drake
Antipsychotic medications, especially second-generation antipsychotics, have increasingly been prescribed to children under age 18 in the United States. They are approved to treat pediatric bipolar and psychotic disorders and aggressive behaviors among patients with autism, but they are often used off label to control disruptive behaviors of children without autism and treat mood problems of children without bipolar disorder. The most vulnerable children, such as those in foster care, are the most likely recipients...
March 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Sunghee Oh, Hong Ji, Drew Barzman, Ping-I Lin, John Hutton
High-throughput technologies, ranging from microarrays to NexGen sequencing of RNA and genomic DNA, have opened new avenues for exploration of the pathobiology of human disease. Comparisons of the architecture of the genome, identification of mutated or modified sequences, and pre-and post- transcriptional regulation of gene expression as disease specific biomarkers are revolutionizing our understanding of the causes of disease and are guiding the development of new therapies. There is enormous heterogeneity in types of genomic variation that occur in human disease...
December 2015: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Samantha A House, David C Goodman, Shelsey J Weinstein, Chiang-Hua Chang, Jared R Wasserman, Nancy E Morden
OBJECTIVE: To measure prescription use intensity and regional variation of psychotropic and 2 important nonpsychotropic drug groups among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) compared with children in the general population. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of ambulatory prescription fills from Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire all-payer administrative data, 2007-2010. RESULTS: Overall there were 13,100 children diagnosed with ASD (34,584 person years [PYs]) and 936,721 (1...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Orrin Devinsky, Miya Asato, Peter Camfield, Eric Geller, Andres M Kanner, Seth Keller, Michael Kerr, Eric H Kossoff, Heather Lau, Sanjeev Kothare, Baldev K Singh, Elaine Wirrell
Epilepsy is common in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In adulthood, patients with IDD and epilepsy (IDD-E) have neurologic, psychiatric, medical, and social challenges compounded by fragmented and limited care. With increasing neurologic disability, there is a higher frequency of epilepsy, especially symptomatic generalized and treatment-resistant epilepsies. The causes of IDD-E are increasingly recognized to be genetic based on chromosomal microarray analysis to identify copy number variants, gene panels (epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability), and whole-exome sequencing...
October 27, 2015: Neurology
Da Yong Lee
mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase composed of multiple protein components. Intracellular signaling of mTOR complexes is involved in many of physiological functions including cell survival, proliferation and differentiation through the regulation of protein synthesis in multiple cell types. During brain development, mTOR-mediated signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the process of neuronal and glial differentiation and the maintenance of the stemness of neural stem cells. The abnormalities in the activity of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules in neural stem cells result in severe defects of brain developmental processes causing a significant number of brain disorders, such as pediatric brain tumors, autism, seizure, learning disability and mental retardation...
September 2015: Experimental Neurobiology
Kelly M Brown, Beth A Malow
Insomnia in children is complex and frequently multifactorial. This review discusses the major categories of insomnia as well as common causes. The consequences of insomnia, including issues with mood, behavior, and cognition, are discussed. Sleep disorders are much more prevalent in certain pediatric populations, such as children with autism spectrum disorders. The evaluation of insomnia in children includes a focused history and examination and occasionally actigraphy or polysomnography. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies are discussed, as are future directions for research and clinical practice...
May 2016: Chest
Heather Miller Kuhaneck, Stephanie Madonna, Audrey Novak, Emily Pearson
This systematic review examined the literature published from January 2006 to April 2013 related to the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents to improve parental stress and self-efficacy, coping, and resilience and family participation in daily life and routines. From the 4,457 abstracts, 34 articles were selected that matched the inclusion criteria. The results were mixed and somewhat inconclusive because this body of literature is in its infancy...
September 2015: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Xaver Kienle, Verena Freiberger, Heide Greulich, Rainer Blank
Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms...
2015: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Priscilla H Wong, Kevin M White
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual...
December 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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