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M Danko, P Hrdlovič, A Martinická, A Benda, M Cigáň
A series of ionic benzotristhiazolium (BTT) push-pull chromophores, with different nitrogen donor groups and different lengths of conjugated bridges, was successfully doped in polar polymer matrices (PVC and PSS). The spectral (photophysical) properties of their low concentration thin polymeric films are compared with those in solution and are discussed in terms of matrix polarity/viscosity influence, specific polymer-chromophore interaction, structure-spectral property relationship and Twisted Intramolecular Charge-Transfer (TICT) state formation...
November 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Tohid Farajollahpour, Seyed Akbar Jafari
We use ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) The insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Elliott M Moskowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthodontics: JCO
Marina Macchiagodena, Gianluca Del Frate, Giuseppe Brancato, Balasubramanian Chandramouli, Giordano Mancini, Vincenzo Barone
Fluorescent molecular rotors (FMRs) belong to an important class of environment-sensitive dyes capable of acting as nanoprobes in the measurement of viscosity and polarity of their micro-environment. FMRs have found widespread applications in various research fields, ranging from analytical to biochemical sciences, for example in intracellular imaging studies or in volatile organic compound detection. Here, a computational investigation of a recently proposed FMR, namely 4-(diphenylamino)phthalonitrile (DPAP), in various chemical environments is presented...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A V Bobrov, S D Usoltsev, Yu S Marfin, E V Rumyantsev
Hybrid materials based on organically modified silica with immobilized boron-dipyrrins (BODIPY) dyes were obtained. Spectral characteristics of the dyes were measured during the matrix formation and in obtained materials. It was stated, that immobilization does not affect the character of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the dye, but due to the effect of fluorescent molecular rotor observed for meso-substituted BODIPY, the fluorescent quantum yields were found to increase during the matrix sealing...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Naoya Terahara, Noriyuki Kodera, Takayuki Uchihashi, Toshio Ando, Keiichi Namba, Tohru Minamino
The bacterial flagellar motor consists of a rotor and a dozen stator units and regulates the number of active stator units around the rotor in response to changes in the environment. The MotPS complex is a Na(+)-type stator unit in the Bacillus subtilis flagellar motor and binds to the peptidoglycan layer through the peptidoglycan-binding (PGB) domain of MotS to act as the stator. The MotPS complex is activated in response to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the environment, but the mechanism of this activation has remained unknown...
November 2017: Science Advances
Bin Wang, Rongjing Zhang, Junhua Yuan
Rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor is driven by multiple torque-generating units (stator elements). The torque-generating dynamics can be understood in terms of the "duty ratio" of the stator elements, that is, the fraction of time a stator element engages with the rotor during its mechanochemical cycle. The dependence of the limiting speed (zero-load speed) of the motor on the number of stator elements is the determining test of the duty ratio, which has been controversial experimentally and theoretically over the past decade...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gregory T Rushton, Erik C Vik, William G Burns, Roger D Rasberry, Ken D Shimizu
Herein, the control of a molecular rotor using hydrogen bonding guests is demonstrated. With a properly positioned phenol substituent, the N-arylimide rotors can form an intramolecular hydrogen bond that catalyses the rotational isomerization process. The addition of the guests disrupts the hydrogen bond and raises the rotational barrier, slowing the rotation by two orders of magnitude.
November 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
A Kortyna, A J Samin, T A Miller, D J Nesbitt
Highly reactive benzyl radicals are generated by electron dissociative attachment to benzyl chloride doped into a neon-hydrogen-helium discharge and immediately cooled to Trot = 15 K in a high density, supersonic slit expansion environment. The sub-Doppler spectra are fit to an asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian, thereby yielding spectroscopic constants for the ground (v = 0) and first excited (v = 1, ν3, ν4) vibrational levels of the ground electronic state. The rotational constants obtained for the ground state are in good agreement with previous laser induced fluorescence measurements (LIF), with vibrational band origins (ν3 = 3073...
November 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Iolanda Feola, Linda Volkers, Rupamanjari Majumder, Alexander Teplenin, Martin J Schalij, Alexander V Panfilov, Antoine A F de Vries, Daniël A Pijnappels
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation has emerged, which involves the identification of rotors (ie, local drivers) followed by the localized targeting of their core region by ablation. However, this concept has been subject to debate because the mode of arrhythmia termination remains poorly understood, as dedicated models and research tools are lacking. We took a unique optogenetic approach to induce and locally target a rotor in atrial monolayers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Neonatal rat atrial cardiomyocyte monolayers expressing a depolarizing light-gated ion channel (Ca(2+)-translocating channelrhodopsin) were subjected to patterned illumination to induce single, stable, and centralized rotors by optical S1-S2 cross-field stimulation...
November 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
B R Johnson, F Columbro, D Araujo, M Limon, B Smiley, G Jones, B Reichborn-Kjennerud, A Miller, S Gupta
In this paper, we present the design and measured performance of a novel cryogenic motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). The motor is tailored for use in millimeter-wave half-wave plate (HWP) polarimeters, where a HWP is rapidly rotated in front of a polarization analyzer or polarization-sensitive detector. This polarimetry technique is commonly used in cosmic microwave background polarization studies. The SMB we use is composed of fourteen yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) disks and a contiguous neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) ring magnet...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Moumita Saharay, R James Kirkpatrick
Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is often a critical transient phase in the formation of crystalline phases of CaCO3via dehydration of hydrated ACC. The behavior of the water molecules plays a pivotal role in this transformation. We report here the dynamics of water molecules in ACC at hydration levels from CaCO3·1H2O to CaCO3·0.25H2O using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Due to the presence of highly hydrophilic Ca(2+) and the strong H-bond acceptor CO3(2-), most of the water molecules in our simulations have restricted translational and orientational dynamics...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jason T A Gall, Javix Thomas, Fan Xie, Zhibo Wang, Wolfgang Jäger, Yunjie Xu
Methyl glycidate is a chiral epoxy ester whose structure and characteristic functional groups can be used to model biological events involving much larger chiral esters on the molecular scale. Since biological molecules function in aqueous solution, it is of interest to obtain detailed knowledge of the initial few steps of solvation using high resolution spectroscopy. In the current study, rotational spectra of methyl glycidate monohydrate were investigated by using a chirped-pulse and a cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marina V Shirmanova, Lubov' E Shimolina, Maria M Lukina, Elena V Zagaynova, Marina K Kuimova
Abnormal levels of viscosity in tissues and cells are known to be associated with disease and malfunction. While methods to measure bulk macroscopic viscosity of bio-tissues are well developed, imaging viscosity at the microscopic scale remains a challenge, especially in vivo. Molecular rotors are small synthetic viscosity-sensitive fluorophores in which fluorescence parameters are strongly correlated to the microviscosity of their immediate environment. Hence, molecular rotors represent a promising instrument for mapping of viscosity in living cells and tissues at the microscopic level...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ashley L Nord, Yoshiyuki Sowa, Bradley C Steel, Chien-Jung Lo, Richard M Berry
The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) rotates hundreds of times per second to propel bacteria driven by an electrochemical ion gradient. The motor consists of a rotor 50 nm in diameter surrounded by up to 11 ion-conducting stator units, which exchange between motors and a membrane-bound pool. Measurements of the torque-speed relationship guide the development of models of the motor mechanism. In contrast to previous reports that speed near zero torque is independent of the number of stator units, we observe multiple speeds that we attribute to different numbers of units near zero torque in both Na(+)- and H(+)-driven motors...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mohammad Amin Rezaienia, Gordon Paul, Eldad Avital, Martin T Rothman, Theodosios Korakianitis
In centrifugal rotary blood pumps (RBP), clearances are a critical parameter in determining blood trauma. This study investigates the effect of axial clearance (Cax) and radial clearance (Crad) on the hydrodynamic and hemolytic performance of a centrifugal RBP. A centrifugal pump was parameterized so that it could be defined by geometric variables Cax and Crad. Optimal Latin hypercube sampling was used to determine design points based on Cax, Crad, and rotor speed (ω). For each design point, a computational simulation was conducted to determine efficiency (η) and normalized index of hemolysis (NIH)...
October 23, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Hui Guo, Stephanie A Bueler, John L Rubinstein
Mitochondrial ATP synthase produces the majority of ATP in eukaryotic cells and its dimerization is necessary to create the inner membrane folds, or cristae, characteristic of mitochondria. Proton translocation through the membrane-embedded FO region turns the rotor that drives ATP synthesis in the soluble F1 region. While crystal structures of the F1 region have illustrated how rotation leads to ATP synthesis, the lack of an experimental atomic model for the FO region has prevented understanding how proton translocation produces rotation...
October 26, 2017: Science
Shobha Rodrigues, Shivani Suvarna, Jyoti Suvarna, Vishwas Saralaya, Sharon Saldanha, Vidya K Shenoy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Biofilms in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), suction hoses, and fittings are a potentially significant source of cross-contamination posing significant health risk as these may come into contact with patients during treatment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to identify the spectrum of bacterial flora colonizing the DUWLs and to detect pathogenic microorganisms present in such an environmental niche. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty DUWL samples were collected from in use dental units selected randomly from various clinical departments...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Jinqiao Dong, Kang Zhang, Xu Li, Yuhong Qian, Hai Zhu, Daqiang Yuan, Qing-Hua Xu, Jianwen Jiang, Dan Zhao
Molecular rotors have played an important role in recent materials chemistry. Although several studies on functional materials containing molecular rotors have been reported for fluorescence sensing, this concept has yet to be realized in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here we report the preparation of all-carbon, π-conjugated 2D porous organic nanosheets, named NUS-24, which contain flexible tetraphenylethylene (TPE) units as the molecular rotors. NUS-24 nanosheets exhibit high stability, large lateral size, and ultrathin thickness (2-5 nm)...
October 26, 2017: Nature Communications
Esmerita R Rotor, Catherine M Capio
Clinical reasoning is essential for physical therapists to engage in the process of client care, and has been known to contribute to professional development. The literature on clinical reasoning and experiences have been based on studies from Western and developed nations, from which multiple influencing factors have been found. A developing nation, the Philippines, has distinct social, economic, political, and cultural circumstances. Using a phenomenological approach, this study explored experiences of Filipino physical therapists on clinical reasoning...
October 25, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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