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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212172/cognitive-decline-associated-with-anesthesia-and-surgery-in-the-elderly-does-this-contribute-to-dementia-prevalence
#1
Lisbeth Evered, David A Scott, Brendan Silbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the current state of research investigating the effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in the elderly, including consideration of overlap with cognitive disorders in the community. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed here identify detrimental effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in a proportion of elderly individuals. Animal models demonstrate an association between anesthetic agents and Alzheimer's disease pathology...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210841/rare-genetic-variant-in-the-cfb-gene-presenting-as-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-and-immune-complex-diffuse-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-with-crescents-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab
#2
Khalid Alfakeeh, Mohammed Azar, Majid Alfadhel, Alsuayri Mansour Abdullah, Nourah Aloudah, Khaled O Alsaad
BACKGROUND: Complement factor B gene (CFB) is an important component of the alternate pathway of complement activation that provides an active subunit that associates with C3b to form the C3 convertase, which is an essential element in complement activation. Among the complement-associated disorders, mutations and pathogenic variants in the CFB gene are relatively rare phenomena. Moreover, mutated CFB affiliation with immune-complex diffuse membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (IC-MPGN) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are considered a highly rare occurrence...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210553/impact-of-value-based-breast-cancer-care-pathway-implementation-on-pre-operative-breast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-utilization
#3
Devina K S McCray, Stephen R Grobmyer, Holly J Pederson
BACKGROUND: Bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer (BC) to assess extent of disease and identify occult foci of disease. However, evidence for routine use of pre-operative MRI is lacking. Breast MRI is costly and can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment delays. Clinical care pathways (care paths) are value-based guidelines, which define management recommendations derived by expert consensus and available evidence based data...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209745/platinum-fluoropyrimidine-and-paclitaxel-based-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-anal-cancer-patients
#4
Francesco Sclafani, Federica Morano, David Cunningham, Chiara Baratelli, Eleftheria Kalaitzaki, David Watkins, Naureen Starling, Ian Chau, Sheela Rao
BACKGROUND: Although treatment of localized anal cancer (AC) is well established, very little evidence is available to inform the management of advanced tumors, and the prognosis of these patients remains poor. We have analyzed treatment pathways and outcomes of a single-institution series of advanced AC patients in order to provide insight into the management of this rare condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria included epidermoid histology, inoperable locally recurrent or metastatic disease, and availability of full medical records...
February 16, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207493/treatment-of-lupus-nephritis-current-paradigms-and-emerging-strategies
#5
Maria Dall'Era
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lupus nephritis is the most common organ-threatening manifestation of lupus and continues to result in end-stage renal disease. This review describes the contemporary treatment of lupus nephritis as well as emerging therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Lupus nephritis management consists of an initial (induction) phase and a maintenance (extended) phase in which steroids are used in combination with another immunosuppressive medication. Current treatments are incompletely effective and associated with substantial toxicity...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203123/spontaneous-isolated-superior-mesenteric-artery-dissection
#6
Anand Nath, Sayali Yewale, Mohammad Kousha
A true isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is a rare occurrence. The increasing use of diagnostic imaging studies has resulted in this rare disease being more recognized. A 68-year-old Caucasian female presented with sharp upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed dissection with thrombosis in the proximal SMA. Conservative management with bowel rest, blood pressure control, and anticoagulation relieved her symptoms. Follow-up CT showed stable dissection. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of isolated spontaneous SMA dissection after excluding more common causes...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203054/uveal-melanoma-epidemiology-etiology-and-treatment-of-primary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin A Krantz, Nikita Dave, Kimberly M Komatsubara, Brian P Marr, Richard D Carvajal
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy and arises from melanocytes in the iris, ciliary body, or choroid. Early diagnosis and local treatment is crucial, as survival correlates with primary tumor size. However, approximately 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease with 6-12 months' survival from metastatic diagnosis. Genomic analyses have led to the development of gene-expression profiles that effectively predict metastatic progression; unfortunately, no adjuvant therapy has been shown to prolong survival to date...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198728/personalized-medicine-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#8
Paolo Spagnolo, Justin M Oldham, Mark G Jones, Joyce S Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of recent studies have explored the possibility to apply personalized medicine to interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. In our review, we summarize and discuss the most recent literature on personalized medicine in IPF as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis, with emphasis on patient subgroups for which a personalized approach to disease prognostication and management may become a reality in the near future...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198144/the-phenolic-fraction-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-modulates-the-activation-and-the-inflammatory-response-of-t-cells-from-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-healthy-donors
#9
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sanchez-Hidalgo, Ana Cárdeno Galván, Jose Manuel Lucena, Francisca Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria Jesus Castillo Palma, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
SCOPE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multiorgan autoimmune disease characterized by immune deregulation, which involves altered T-cell response and imbalance of cytokine production. The phenolic fraction (PE) of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and exerts preventive effects in murine models of immune-inflammatory diseases, such as SLE. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro effects of the PE from EVOO on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from inactive patients with SLE and healthy donors...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197794/therapeutic-options-in-refractory-diabetic-macular-oedema
#10
Sanket U Shah, Raj K Maturi
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) results from alterations of several biochemical pathways in diabetic eyes. Centre-involving DMO is an important cause of visual loss in diabetes. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are now the mainstay of centre-involving DMO treatment. Oedema that does not achieve optimal response to these agents occurs in a sizeable proportion of eyes and is called refractory or persistent DMO. Management of refractory DMO is challenging. In this paper, the pathophysiology of DMO, and the definitions used in various studies are summarised...
February 15, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197764/new-frontiers-in-prostate-cancer-imaging-clinical-utility-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography
#11
REVIEW
Asim Afaq, Deepak Batura, Jamshed Bomanji
Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) is a relatively new method of imaging prostate cancer that increases diagnostic accuracy in detecting and guiding management in various stages of the disease pathway. Gallium-68-labelled PSMA PET has increased the sensitivity of detection of disease recurrence at low PSA levels, thus allowing an optimal window for salvage treatment. Apart from its use in disease recurrence, PSMA PET has the potential for increasing sensitivity and specificity for primary tumour localisation and in detecting lymph node disease, leading to a more accurate initial staging of the condition...
February 14, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194580/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3a-in-a-population-of-injecting-drug-users-in-montenegro-bayesian-and-evolutionary-analysis
#12
Boban Mugosa, Eleonora Cella, Alessia Lai, Alessandra Lo Presti, Aletheia Blasi, Zoran Vratnica, Danijela Vujoševic, Erika Ebranati, Dragan Lauševic, Michele Guarino, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Teresa Milano, Stefano Pascarella, Silvia Spoto, Silvia Angeletti, Massimo Ciccozzi
Few reports are available on HCV molecular epidemiology among IDUs in Eastern Europe, and none in Montenegro. The aim of this study was to investigate the HCV genotype distribution in Montenegro among IDUs and to perform Bayesian and evolutionary analysis of the most prevalent HCV genotype circulating in this population. Sixty-four HCV-positive IDUs in Montenegro were enrolled between 2013 and 2014, and the NS5B gene was sequenced. The Bayesian analysis showed that the most prevalent subtype was HCV-3a. Phylogenetic data showed that HCV-3a reached Montenegro in the late 1990s, causing an epidemic that exponentially grew between the 1995 and 2005...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194152/hsp65-producing-lactococcus-lactis-prevents-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-mice-by-il-10-and-tlr2-dependent-pathways
#13
Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Thaís Garcias Moreira, Archimedes Barbosa Castro-Junior, Bernardo Coelho Horta, Luísa Lemos, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Rafael Machado Rezende, Denise Carmona Cara, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Vasco Ariston Carvalho Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly expressed at all sites of inflammation. As they are ubiquitous and immunodominant antigens, these molecules represent good candidates for the therapeutic use of oral tolerance in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from uncontrolled inflammatory responses to intestinal microbiota. Hsps are immunodominant proteins expressed by several immune cells and by commensal bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193995/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-gtm-1-rapamycin-and-carbamazepine-on-autophagy-and-alzheimer-disease
#14
Lijuan Zhang, Lina Wang, Run Wang, Yuan Gao, Haoyue Che, Yonghua Pan, Peng Fu
BACKGROUND This study was proposed to compare the efficacy and safety of GTM-1, Rapamycin (Rap), and Carbamazepine (CBZ) in managing Alzheimer disease (AD). The impact of the above mentioned therapeutic drugs on autophagy was also investigated in our study. MATERIAL AND METHODS Firstly, 3×Tg AD mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups (each group with 10 mice), in which AD mice were separately treated with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, vehicle group), GTM-1 (6 mg/kg), Rap (1 mg/kg), and CBZ (100 mg/kg). Then spatial memory and learning ability of mice was tested using the Morris water maze...
February 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191529/the-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-its-beneficial-roles-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hui Bao, Ai Peng
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition that affects around 10% of the population, has become a significant public health concern. Current therapeutic strategies to slow down the progression of CKD remain limited. Thus, it is urgent to develop new strategies to manage the patients with CKD. Work within the past decade has improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to CKD. In particular, oxidative stress as well as inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in CKD progression. ()-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin of green tea extract, is known as a powerful antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenger...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191313/metastatic-biomarkers-in-synovial-sarcoma
#16
REVIEW
Rosalia de Necochea-Campion, Lee M Zuckerman, Hamid R Mirshahidi, Shahrzad Khosrowpour, Chien-Shing Chen, Saied Mirshahidi
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that typically occurs in the extremities near a joint. Metastatic disease is common and usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation typically used as adjuvant treatment. Although chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival, the prognosis is poor if metastatic disease occurs. The biology of sarcoma invasion and metastasis remain poorly understood. Chromosomal translocation with fusion of the SYT and SSX genes has been described and is currently used as a diagnostic marker, although the full impact of the fusion is unknown...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191014/extrahepatic-autoimmune-diseases-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases-a-phenomenon-neglected-by-gastroenterologists
#17
REVIEW
Liping Guo, Lu Zhou, Na Zhang, Baoru Deng, Bangmao Wang
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) often coexist with other extrahepatic autoimmune diseases (EHAIDs). The spectrum of EHAIDs in patients with AILDs is similar, whereas the incidence is different. Notably, autoimmune thyroid disease and Sjogren's syndrome are the most common EHAIDs. Associated extrahepatic diseases may predate the appearance of AILDs or coincide with their onset. More frequently, they may appear during the course and even occur years after the diagnosis of AILDs. Importantly, associated EHAIDs may influence the natural course and prognosis of AILDs...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190736/diagnosis-and-management-of-phantom-tachycardias-based-on-an-electrophysiologically-guided-approach
#18
Dimitris Tsiachris, Iosif Koutagiar, Konstantinos A Gatzoulis, Petros Arsenos, Aggeliki Rigatou, Polychronis Dilaveris, Skevos Sideris, Achilleas Papadopoulos, Alekos Kritikos, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Non-documented palpitations, or phantom tachycardias, are palpitations deemed to be of unknown origin after evaluation with conventional diagnostic tools, such as 12-lead electrocardiogram and Holter recordings. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic value of an electrophysiologic study (EPS) and its role in the management of patients presenting with non-documented palpitations. METHODS: We performed EPS in 78 consecutive patients with repeatable, poorly tolerated symptoms of paroxysmal, non-documented tachycardia, the absence of structural heart disease and at least one 24-h Holter recording...
November 20, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190465/butein-in-health-and-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Ganesan Padmavathi, Nand Kishor Roy, Devivasha Bordoloi, Frank Arfuso, Srishti Mishra, Gautam Sethi, Anupam Bishayee, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
BACKGROUND: The risk of suffering from many chronic diseases seems to have made no improvement despite the advancement in medications available in the modern world. Moreover, the use of synthetic chemicals as medications has proved to worsen the scenario due to the various adverse side effects associated with them. PURPOSE: Extensive research on natural medicines provides ample evidence on the safety and efficacy of phytochemicals and nutraceuticals against diverse chronic ailments...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188833/metabolomic-profiling-of-lung-function-in-costa-rican-children-with-asthma
#20
Rachel S Kelly, Yamini Virkud, Rachel Giorgio, Juan C Celedón, Scott T Weiss, Jessica Lasky-Su
BACKGROUND: The development of novel therapeutics and treatment regimens for the management of asthma is hindered by an incomplete understanding of its heterogeneous nature and pathophysiology. Metabolomics can provide an integrated and global profile of a biological system in a dysregulated state, making it a valuable tool to identify biomarkers along the disease development pathway and to understand the biological mechanisms driving that pathway. METHODS: Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling was conducted on plasma samples provided at recruitment for 380 children with asthma from the 'Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Cohort'...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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