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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786503/relationships-between-theoretically-derived-short-term-outcomes-and-support-for-policy-among-the-public-and-decision-makers
#1
Carol L Schmitt, Laurel Curry, Vanessa Boudewyns, Pamela A Williams, LaShawn Glasgow, Deanna Van Hersh, Jeffrey Willett, Todd Rogers
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Policy change is a lengthy and complex process. Thus, it is important to articulate hypothesized causal pathways between advocacy activities and policy change outcomes and to identify and monitor early indicators of progress toward policy change. INTERVENTION APPROACH: The Kansas Health Foundation supports grantee efforts to address the public health effects of obesity through evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental change interventions...
May 17, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785180/career-choices-and-career-progression-of-junior-doctors-in-dermatology-surveys-of-uk-medical-graduates
#2
Atena Barat, Michael J Goldacre, Trevor W Lambert
Objective: To report UK-trained doctors' career choices for dermatology, career destinations, and factors influencing career pathways. Methods: Multicohort multipurpose longitudinal surveys of UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1974 and 2015. Results: In all, 40,412 doctors (58% of graduates) responded in year 1, 31,466 (64%) in year 3, and 24,970 (67%) in year 5. One year after graduation, 1.7% of women and 0.6% of men made dermatology their first choice but by five years after graduation the respective figures were 1...
2018: Dermatology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784021/the-difficult-conversation-a-qualitative-evaluation-of-the-eat-well-move-more-family-weight-management-service
#3
Rebecca E Johnson, Oyinlola Oyebode, Sadie Walker, Elizabeth Knowles, Wendy Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The Eat Well Move More (EWMM) family and child weight management service is a 12-week intervention integrating healthy eating and physical activity education and activities for families and children aged 4-16. EWMM service providers identified low uptake 12 months prior to the evaluation. The aims of this study were to describe referral practices and pathways into the service to identify potential reasons for low referral and uptake rates. RESULTS: We conducted interviews and focus groups with general practitioners (GPs) (n = 4), school nurses, and nursing assistants (n = 12)...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783096/all-roads-lead-to-rome-towards-understanding-different-avenues-of-tolerance-to-huanglongbing-in-citrus-cultivars
#4
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones, Yasser Nehela, Faraj Hijaz, Manjul Dutt, Frederick G Gmitter, Jude W Grosser
Citrus tolerance to huanglongbing could result from tolerance to the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and/or to its vector Diaphorina citri. Field observations and greenhouse-controlled studies showed that some citrus cultivars were more tolerant than others. However, the mechanism(s) behind the tolerance has not been determined yet. Using GC-MS, we investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the non-volatile metabolite profiles of two tolerant citrus cultivars- Australian finger lime, 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle® mandarin hybrid, and a recently released mandarin hybrid 'Bingo'...
May 18, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781656/veterans-experiences-initiating-va-based-mental-health-care
#5
Michelle J Bovin, Christopher J Miller, Christopher J Koenig, Jessica M Lipschitz, Kara A Zamora, Patricia B Wright, Jeffrey M Pyne, James F Burgess
Military veterans who could benefit from mental health services often do not access them. Research has revealed a range of barriers associated with initiating United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) care, including those specific to accessing mental health care (e.g., fear of stigmatization). More work is needed to streamline access to VA mental health-care services for veterans. In the current study, we interviewed 80 veterans from 9 clinics across the United States about initiation of VA mental health care to identify barriers to access...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780382/extracellular-purine-metabolism-is-the-switchboard-of-immunosuppressive-macrophages-and-a-novel-target-to-treat-diseases-with-macrophage-imbalances
#6
Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Christian Machacek, Celine Charvet, Franck Lager, Delphine Le Roux, René Platzer, Vladimir Leksa, Goran Mitulovic, Thomas R Burkard, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Michael B Fischer, Vincent Feuillet, Gilles Renault, Stephan Blüml, Miroslav Benko, Miloslav Suchanek, Johannes B Huppa, Takami Matsuyama, Artur Cavaco-Paulo, Georges Bismuth, Hannes Stockinger
If misregulated, macrophage (Mϕ)-T cell interactions can drive chronic inflammation thereby causing diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report that in a proinflammatory environment, granulocyte-Mϕ (GM-CSF)- and Mϕ colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent Mϕs have dichotomous effects on T cell activity. While GM-CSF-dependent Mϕs show a highly stimulatory activity typical for M1 Mϕs, M-CSF-dependent Mϕs, marked by folate receptor β (FRβ), adopt an immunosuppressive M2 phenotype. We find the latter to be caused by the purinergic pathway that directs release of extracellular ATP and its conversion to immunosuppressive adenosine by co-expressed CD39 and CD73...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779086/retrospective-study-of-nivolumab-for-patients-with-recurrent-high-grade-gliomas
#7
Megan Mantica, Ashley Pritchard, Frank Lieberman, Jan Drappatz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG) have limited treatment options. HGG utilize the PD-1 pathway to evade immune responses. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated safety and clinical activity in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. We explored the efficacy of nivolumab in recurrent HGG with a primary objective of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HGG patients treated with nivolumab in our institution...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778017/the-preconception-care-experiences-of-women-with-epilepsy-on-sodium-valproate
#8
Lorna Lawther, Helen Dolk, Marlene Sinclair, Jim Morrow
PURPOSE: To understand the preconception experiences of women with epilepsy who have been taking the teratogenic drug valproate. METHODS: Seven women were recruited, three from a preconception clinic and four from an antenatal clinic in a region of the UK. All had taken valproate preconceptionally. Three preconception clinic encounters were observed and audio-recorded. Interviews with all women were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Women experienced a "trajectory of balance"...
May 16, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777617/simulation-in-urology-to-train-non-technical-skills-in-ward-rounds
#9
K Somasundram, H Spence, A J Colquhoun, C Mcilhenny, C S Biyani, S Jain
OBJECTIVE: We have designed an exercise to train newly appointed Urology trainees in non-technical skills on ward rounds as a part of a simulation 'boot camp'. This paper reports our experience, including a qualitative analysis of participant feedback on the utility of this method of training. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The simulations took place in a high-fidelity simulated ward bay. Forty-eight doctors with formal Urology training ranging between 2-60 months (mean 19...
May 19, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777566/care-provider-allocation-on-admissions-to-acute-mental-health-wards-the-development-and-validation-of-the-admission-team-score-list
#10
Sjobha R N van den Berg, Barbara Stringer, Roland van de Sande, Stasja Draisma
Currently, support tools are lacking to prioritize steps in the care coordination process to enable safe practice and effective clinical pathways in the first phase of acute psychiatric admissions. This study describes the development, validity, and reliability of an acute care coordination support tool, the Admission Team Score List (ATSL). The ATSL assists in care provider allocation during admissions. Face validity and feasibility of the ATSL were tested in 77 acute admissions. Endscores of filled out ATSL's were translated to recommended team compositions...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#11
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771251/-ebm-guidelines-protocols-knowledge-attitudes-and-utilization-in-the-era-of-law-on-professional-responsibility-and-safety-of-health-care
#12
Silvia Minozzi, Francesca Ruggiero, Matteo Capobussi, Marien González-Lorenzo, Micaela La Regina, Alessandro Squizzato, Lorenzo Moja, Francesco Orlandini
INTRODUCTION: <AbstractText Label="INTRODUCTION" NlmCategory="BACKGROUND">The knowledge of principles and methods of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and the use of Clinical Practice Guidelines to inform clinical decisions are recognised as key instruments to improve the quality of care. In Italy the Parliament has revised the legal system that rules the responsibilities of health professionals and health care safety, prescribing health professionals to adhere to guidelines and good practice recommendations...
May 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770995/adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients-in-france-heterogeneity-in-pathways-of-care
#13
Emmanuel Desandes, Laurence Brugières, Florence Molinié, Gautier Defossez, Patricia Delafosse, Karine Jehannin-Ligier, Michel Velten, Brigitte Trétarre, Brice Amadéo, Emilie Marrer, Anne-Sophie Woronoff, Olivier Ganry, Alain Monnereau, Tania d'Almeida, Xavier Troussard, Laetitia Daubisse-Marliac, Simona Bara, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Isabelle Baldi, Guy Launoy, Jacqueline Clavel, Brigitte Lacour
BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate at the population level the impact of the actions developed in France since 2004 to organize the care of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we conducted the present study to provide an unbiased view of the pathway of care of these patients. METHODS: Using a population-based registry, we conducted a review of all cases of cancer diagnosed during 2012 and 2013 in 15- to 24-year-old patients living in nineteen French administrative areas...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768138/knockdown-of-the-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-inhibits-hep-2-cells-growth-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#14
Guoliang Fan, Lin Wang, Jia Xu, Ping Jiang, Wei Wang, Ying Huang, Minggang Lv, Shaoting Liu
Increasing evidence indicates that peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) plays a decisive role in a variety of cancers. Nevertheless, its function in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not been elaborated. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Pin1 in LSCC. Here, we established stably transfected Hep-2 cells with low expression of Pin1. Intriguingly, ability of cell proliferation, migration and invasion was significantly inhibited in Pin1-silenced Hep-2 cells. Similarly, knockdown of Pin1 induced apoptosis of Hep-2 cells, as evidenced by increased expression of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP, and bax, and decreased expression of bcl2...
May 16, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767458/overlapping-but-distinct-roles-for-notch-receptors-in-human-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
J A N Meester, A Verstraeten, M Alaerts, D Schepers, L Van Laer, B L Loeys
The NOTCH signalling pathway is an essential pathway, involved in many cellular processes, including cell fate decision, cell proliferation, and cell death and important in the development of most organs. Mutations in genes encoding components of the NOTCH signalling pathway lead to a spectrum of congenital disorders. Over the past decades mutations in human NOTCH signalling genes have been identified in several diseases with cardiovascular involvement. NOTCH1 mutations have been described in bicuspid aortic valve disease, left-sided congenital heart disease, and Adams-Oliver syndrome...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766275/implementing-cough-reflex-testing-in-a-clinical-pathway-for-acute-stroke-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Makaela Field, Rachel Wenke, Arman Sabet, Melissa Lawrie, Elizabeth Cardell
Silent aspiration is common after stroke and can lead to subsequent pneumonia. While standard bedside dysphagia assessments are ineffective at predicting silent aspiration, cough reflex testing (CRT) has shown promise for identifying patients at risk of silent aspiration. We investigated the impact of CRT on patient and service outcomes when embedded into a clinical pathway. 488 acute stoke patients were randomly allocated to receive either CRT or standard care (i.e. bedside assessment). Primary outcomes included confirmed pneumonia within 3 months post stroke and length of acute inpatient stay...
May 15, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763905/scca-tsgf-and-the-long-non-coding-rna-ac007271-3-are-effective-biomarkers-for-diagnosing-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Tingru Shao, Jiaxin Huang, Zenan Zheng, Qingqing Wu, Tiancai Liu, Xiaozhi Lv
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide and the most common type of oral cancer, characterized by invasive growth, frequent regional metastases, high recurrence, and poor prognosis. In the current study, we investigated the use of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), tumor-specific growth factor (TSGF), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) as potential biomarkers for OSCC screening. METHODS: LncRNA expression was measured by microarray analysis in three sets of OSCC and paired normal mucosal tissues...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760106/metabolic-regulation-of-chromatin-modifications-and-gene-expression
#19
REVIEW
Juan Manuel Schvartzman, Craig B Thompson, Lydia W S Finley
Dynamic regulation of gene expression in response to changing local conditions is critical for the survival of all organisms. In metazoans, coherent regulation of gene expression programs underlies the development of functionally distinct cell lineages. The cooperation between transcription factors and the chromatin landscape enables precise control of gene expression in response to cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic signals. Many of the chemical modifications that decorate DNA and histones are adducts derived from intermediates of cellular metabolic pathways...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759982/expression-variation-and-covariation-impair-analog-and-enable-binary-signaling-control
#20
Kyle M Kovary, Brooks Taylor, Michael L Zhao, Mary N Teruel
Due to noise in the synthesis and degradation of proteins, the concentrations of individual vertebrate signaling proteins were estimated to vary with a coefficient of variation (CV) of approximately 25% between cells. Such high variation is beneficial for population-level regulation of cell functions but abolishes accurate single-cell signal transmission. Here, we measure cell-to-cell variability of relative protein abundance using quantitative proteomics of individual Xenopus laevis eggs and cultured human cells and show that variation is typically much lower, in the range of 5-15%, compatible with accurate single-cell transmission...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
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