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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646349/modeling-pain-using-fmri-from-regions-to-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Marianne C Reddan, Tor D Wager
Pain is a subjective and complex phenomenon. Its complexity is related to its heterogeneity: multiple component processes, including sensation, affect, and cognition, contribute to pain experience and reporting. These components are likely to be encoded in distributed brain networks that interact to create pain experience and pain-related decision-making. Therefore, to understand pain, we must identify these networks and build models of these interactions that yield testable predictions about pain-related outcomes...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645969/protocol-for-the-residents-in-action-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-riat-evaluating-a-behaviour-change-intervention-to-promote-walking-reduce-sitting-and-improve-mental-health-in-physically-inactive-older-adults-in-retirement-villages
#2
Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Ashlene Wright, Eleanor Quested, Elissa Burton, Keith D Hill, Ester Cerin, Stuart J H Biddle, Nikos Ntoumanis
INTRODUCTION: Ageing is accompanied by increased risks of chronic disease, declined functioning and increased dependency. Physical activity is critical to retaining health and independence, but the majority of older people are insufficiently physically active to achieve these benefits and have high levels of sedentary (sitting) time. Activity programmes are often offered in retirement villages; however, their uptake is limited. Furthermore, although the physical environment in and around these villages can play an important role in decisions to be physically active, its role is often overlooked by research in these settings...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#3
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643147/the-perioperative-surgical-home-improving-the-value-and-quality-of-care-in-total-joint-replacement
#4
REVIEW
George F Chimento, Leslie C Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is a patient-centered, physician-led, multidisciplinary care pathway developed to deliver value-based care based on shared decision-making. Physician and hospital reimbursement will be tied to providing quality care at lower cost, and the PSH model has been used in providing care to patients undergoing lower extremity arthroplasty. The purpose of this review is to discuss the rationale, definition, development, current state, and future direction of the PSH...
June 22, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#5
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#6
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640191/phenotypic-plasticity-and-cell-fate-decisions-in-cancer-insights-from-dynamical-systems-theory
#7
REVIEW
Dongya Jia, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Prakash Kulkarni, Herbert Levine
Waddington's epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of "landscape" in the context of dynamical systems theory represents a high-dimensional space, in which each cell phenotype is considered as an "attractor" that is determined by interactions between multiple molecular players, and is buffered against environmental fluctuations. In addition, biological noise is thought to play an important role during these cell-fate decisions and in fact controls transitions between different phenotypes...
June 22, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639647/water-mediated-proton-conduction-in-a-sulfonated-microporous-organic-polymer
#8
C Klumpen, S Gödrich, G Papastavrou, J Senker
Polymer membranes (PEMs) within fuel cells (FCs) act as separators and efficient proton conducting electrolytes. Established systems tend to microphase separation into hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, making these materials prone to water loss at elevated temperatures. Therefore, recent approaches utilize porous materials, which promise stronger interactions between water molecules and the framework, while still providing efficient conductive pathways. Here we show, that the microporous polymer PAF-1 exhibits proton conductivities up to 10(-1) S cm(-1) under hydrous conditions, after post-synthetic sulfonation...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639351/titanium-released-from-dental-implant-enhances-pre-osteoblast-adhesion-by-ros-modulating-crucial-intracellular-pathways
#9
M C Rossi, Fjb Bezerra, R A Silva, B P Crulhas, Cjc Fernandes, A S Nascimento, V A Pedrosa, P Padilha, W F Zambuzzi
It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that occur at the cell-material interface of implants used for bone repair. The mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material must be decisive for cell fating surrounding them. In order to address this issue, we decided to investigate if conditioned medium for dental implants was able to modulate murine pre-osteoblast metabolism. First, we determined the concentration of titanium (Ti)-containing conditioned medium and found that it was 2-fold increased (p<0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639296/pathways-to-professionalism-quality-improvement-care-pathways-and-the-interplay-of-standardisation-and-clinical-autonomy
#10
Graham P Martin, David Kocman, Timothy Stephens, Carol J Peden, Rupert M Pearse
Care pathways are a prominent feature of efforts to improve healthcare quality, outcomes and accountability, but sociological studies of pathways often find professional resistance to standardisation. This qualitative study examined the adoption and adaptation of a novel pathway as part of a randomised controlled trial in an unusually complex, non-linear field - emergency general surgery - by teams of surgeons and physicians in six theoretically sampled sites in the UK. We find near-universal receptivity to the concept of a pathway as a means of improving peri-operative processes and outcomes, but concern about the impact on appropriate professional judgement...
June 21, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639026/regulation-of-engineered-nanomaterials-current-challenges-insights-and-future-directions
#11
Racliffe W S Lai, Katie W Y Yeung, Mana M N Yung, Aleksandra B Djurišić, John P Giesy, Kenneth M Y Leung
Substantial production and wide applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns over their potential influences on the environment and humans. However, regulations of products containing ENMs are scarce, even in countries with the greatest volume of ENMs produced, such as the United States and China. After a comprehensive review of life cycles of ENMs, five major challenges to regulators posed by ENMs are proposed in this review: (a) ENMs exhibit variable physicochemical characteristics, which makes them difficult for regulators to establish regulatory definition; (b) Due to diverse sources and transport pathways for ENMs, it is difficult to monitor or predict their fates in the environment; (c) There is a lack of reliable techniques for quantifying exposures to ENMs; (d) Because of diverse intrinsic properties of ENMs and dynamic environmental conditions, it is difficult to predict bioavailability of ENMs on wildlife and the environment; and (e) There are knowledge gaps in toxicity and toxic mechanisms of ENMs from which to predict their hazards...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637464/kaiso-differentially-regulates-components-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway-in-intestinal-cells
#12
Shaiya C Robinson, Kristina Klobucar, Christina C Pierre, Amna Ansari, Svetlana Zhenilo, Egor Prokhortchouk, Juliet M Daniel
BACKGROUND: In mammalian intestines, Notch signaling plays a critical role in mediating cell fate decisions; it promotes the absorptive (or enterocyte) cell fate, while concomitantly inhibiting the secretory cell fate (i.e. goblet, Paneth and enteroendocrine cells). We recently reported that intestinal-specific Kaiso overexpressing mice (Kaiso (Tg) ) exhibited chronic intestinal inflammation and had increased numbers of all three secretory cell types, hinting that Kaiso might regulate Notch signaling in the gut...
June 21, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629777/mechanistic-insights-into-transcription-coupled-dna-repair
#13
REVIEW
Bibhusita Pani, Evgeny Nudler
Transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) acts on lesions in the transcribed strand of active genes. Helix distorting adducts and other forms of DNA damage often interfere with the progression of the transcription apparatus. Prolonged stalling of RNA polymerase can promote genome instability and also induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These generally unfavorable events are counteracted by RNA polymerase-mediated recruitment of specific proteins to the sites of DNA damage to perform TCR and eventually restore transcription...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629579/role-of-soce-architects-stim-and-orai-proteins-in-cell-death
#14
REVIEW
Jyoti Tanwar, Rajender K Motiani
Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling plays a critical role in regulating plethora of cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation and migration. The perturbations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis can lead to cell death either by activating autophagic pathways or through induction of apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major storehouse of Ca(2+) within cells and a number of physiological agonists mediate ER Ca(2+) release by activating IP3 receptors (IP3R). This decrease in ER Ca(2+) levels is sensed by STIM, which physically interacts and activates plasma membrane Ca(2+) selective Orai channels...
June 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629423/understanding-consumer-and-clinician-preferences-and-decision-making-for-rehabilitation-following-arthroplasty-in-the-private-sector
#15
Mark A Buhagiar, Justine M Naylor, Grahame Simpson, Ian A Harris, Friedbert Kohler
BACKGROUND: To understand private consumer and clinician preferences towards different rehabilitation modes following knee or hip arthroplasty, and identify factors which influence the chosen rehabilitation pathway. METHODS: Mixed methods cross-sectional study involving 95 semi-structured interviews of consumers (patients and carers) and clinicians (arthroplasty surgeons, physiotherapists and rehabilitation physicians) in Sydney, Australia, during 2014-2015. Participants were asked about the acceptability of different modes of rehabilitation provision, and factors influencing their chosen rehabilitation pathway...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628111/interaction-of-reactive-astrocytes-with-type-i-collagen-induces-astrocytic-scar-formation-through-the-integrin-n-cadherin-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiromi Kumamaru, Kazuya Yokota, Takeyuki Saito, Ken Kijima, Shingo Yoshizaki, Katsumi Harimaya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Seiji Okada
Central nervous system (CNS) injury transforms naive astrocytes into reactive astrocytes, which eventually become scar-forming astrocytes that can impair axonal regeneration and functional recovery. This sequential phenotypic change, known as reactive astrogliosis, has long been considered unidirectional and irreversible. However, we report here that reactive astrocytes isolated from injured spinal cord reverted in retrograde to naive astrocytes when transplanted into a naive spinal cord, whereas they formed astrocytic scars when transplanted into injured spinal cord, indicating the environment-dependent plasticity of reactive astrogliosis...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627945/-model-concept-of-the-health-economic-evaluation-of-low-dose-ct-lung-cancer-screening-in-hungary
#17
Zoltán Vokó, Magdolna Barra, Anett Molnár, Anna Kerpel-Fronius, Gábor Bajzik, Ildikó Horváth, Mariann Moizs, Balázs Nagy
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is a rapidly progressing, often life-threatening disease that constitutes a huge societal burden. Because of the scarce resources of the Hungarian health care system, the cost-effectiveness of introducing low-dose computed tomography screening is a relevant health policy matter. AIM: The aim of this study is to design a model concept for assessing the cost-effectiveness of low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening in Hungary, and to define the required steps for performing the analysis...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627686/hypoxia-and-acidosis-driven-aberrations-of-secreted-micrornas-in-endometrial-cancer-in-vitro
#18
Julia Eismann, Marc Hirschfeld, Thalia Erbes, Gerta Rücker, Markus Jäger, Andrea Ritter, Daniela Weiss, Gerald Gitsch, Sebastian Mayer
Due to their post-transcriptional regulatory impact on gene expression, microRNAs (miRNA, miRs) influence decisively cellular processes of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In oncogenic pathways various miRNAs exert either oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities in a stage-specific manner. Dysregulation of miRNA expression pattern has been associated with several human cancers including endometrial cancer (EC). In the present study, expression profile alterations of EC associated secreted miRNAs were determined under the microenvironmental stress situations hypoxia and acidosis occurring in tumor progression and metastasis...
June 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627235/translating-guidelines-into-practice-interpreting-the-2016-acc-expert-consensus-decision-pathway-on-the-role-of-non-statin-therapies-for-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-in-the-management-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#19
Laura H Waite, Yvonne L Phan, Sarah A Spinler
OBJECTIVE: In 2016, the American College of Cardiology released a decision pathway, based on expert consensus, to guide use of non-statin agents in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this article is to assist practitioners, health systems and managed care entities with interpreting this consensus statement in order to simplify implementation of the recommendations into patient care. METHODS: Major themes from the consensus statement are briefly summarized and explained...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623789/linking-pan-european-data-to-the-local-scale-for-decision-making-for-global-change-and-water-scarcity-within-water-resources-planning-and-management
#20
Sara Suárez-Almiñana, María Pedro-Monzonís, Javier Paredes-Arquiola, Joaquín Andreu, Abel Solera
This study focuses on a novel type of methodology which connects Pan-European data to the local scale in the field of water resources management. This methodology is proposed to improve and facilitate the decision making within the planning and management of water resources, taking into account climate change and its expected impacts. Our main point of interest is focused on the assessment of the predictability of extreme events and their possible effects, specifically droughts and water scarcity. Consequently, the Júcar River Basin was selected as the case study, due to the ongoing water scarcity problems and the last drought episodes suffered in the Mediterranean region...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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