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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332883/precision-medicine-an-update-on-genotype-biochemical-phenotype-relationships-in-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-patients
#1
Garima Gupta, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors known to produce and secrete high levels of circulating catecholamines and their metabolites. The biochemical characteristics of these tumors can be used to divide them into three major phenotypes. The adrenergic phenotype comprises of tumors with predominant elevations in epinephrine and metanephrine levels whereas the noradrenergic phenotype is composed of tumors with predominant elevations in norepinephrine and normetanephrine levels. The dopaminergic phenotype is a third rare group composed of tumors mainly secreting dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332835/toward-nucleating-the-concept-of-the-water-resource-recovery-facility-wrrf-perspective-from-the-principal-actors
#2
Erik R Coats, Patrick I Wilson
Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach - seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described non-technical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328372/psychiatric-genomics-and-mental-health-treatment-setting-the-ethical-agenda
#3
Camillia Kong, Michael Dunn, Michael Parker
Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making...
April 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#4
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324898/breathing-and-swallowing-the-next-frontier
#5
Roxann Diez Gross, Marybeth Trapani-Hanasewych
The anatomical overlap of the pathways for air passage and nutrition necessitate precise coordination between the two vital functions. Neuroanatomic structures in the brainstem for sucking, breathing, and swallowing are also in close proximity and must swiftly coordinate the processes. In a healthy neonate, the oropharyngeal experience and stimulation of early feeding enables respiratory control during suckling to develop. Despite wide variability among the methods used to investigate breathing and swallowing coordination in infancy, a consistent finding of postswallow exhalation has been reported...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323337/treatment-pathway-of-bone-sarcoma-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
REVIEW
Damon R Reed, Masanori Hayashi, Lars Wagner, Odion Binitie, Diana A Steppan, Andrew S Brohl, Eric T Shinohara, Julia A Bridge, David M Loeb, Scott C Borinstein, Michael S Isakoff
When pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients present with a bone sarcoma, treatment decisions, especially after relapse, are complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. This review presents scenarios commonly encountered in the therapy of bone sarcomas with the goal of objectively presenting a consensus, multidisciplinary management approach. Little variation was found in the authors' group with respect to local control or systemic therapy. Clinical trials were universally prioritized in all settings...
March 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321285/role-of-preliminary-registry-data-in-development-of-a-clinical-trial-for-an-innovative-device-a-small-but-integral-piece-of-a-health-policy-initiative
#7
Donald R Ricci, Joost de Vries, Raphael Blanc
Establishing a national health policy at a macro level involves the integration of a series of health initiatives across a spectrum of activities, including clinical care. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a new medical device ultimately evolves to testing in humans. The pathway to a formal prospective clinical trial includes a stepwise appreciation of pre-clinical data and detailed analysis of data obtained from preliminary registries, where information about appropriate patient selection and use of the device is obtained...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320730/prediction-of-the-transporter-mediated-drug-drug-interaction-potential-of-dabrafenib-and-its-major-circulating-metabolites
#8
Harma Ellens, Marta Johnson, Sarah K Lawrence, Cory A Watson, Liangfu Chen, Lauren E Richards-Peterson
The BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib was recently approved for the treatment of certain BRAF V600 mutation-positive tumors, either alone or in combination therapy with the MEK inhibitor trametinib. This article presents the dabrafenib transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction risk assessment, which is currently an important part of drug development, regulatory submission and drug registration. Dabrafenib and its major circulating metabolites (hydroxy-, carboxy- and desmethyl-dabrafenib) were investigated as inhibitors of the clinically relevant transporters Pgp, BCRP, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT2, OAT1 and OAT3...
March 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319730/deconstructing-the-germinal-center-one-cell-at-a-time
#9
REVIEW
Chad R Dufaud, Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Successful vaccination relies on driving the immune response towards high specificity, affinity and longevity. Germinal centers facilitate the evolution of antigen-specific B cells by iterative rounds of diversification, selection, and differentiation to memory and plasma cells. Experimental evidence points to B cell receptor affinity and amount of antigen presented to follicular helper T cells as main drivers of clonal evolution. Concurrent studies suggest that modifiers of cognate contact, temporal mechanisms, and stochastic factors can also shape diversity and influence differentiation to memory and plasma cells, but molecular pathways driving these selection decisions are unresolved...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#10
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306159/positioning-the-principles-of-precision-medicine-in-care-pathways-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis-an-euforea-aria-epos-airways-icp-statement
#11
P W Hellings, W J Fokkens, C Bachert, C A Akdis, T Bieber, I Agache, M Bernal-Sprekelsen, G W Canonica, P Gevaert, G Joos, V Lund, A Muraro, M Onerci, T Zuberbier, B Pugin, S F Seys, J Bousquet
Precision medicine (PM) is increasingly recognized as the way forward for optimizing patient care. Introduced in the field of oncology, it is now considered of major interest in other medical domains like allergy and chronic airway diseases, which face an urgent need to improve the level of disease control, enhance patient satisfaction and increase effectiveness of preventive interventions. The combination of personalized care, prediction of treatment success, prevention of disease and patient participation in the elaboration of the treatment plan is expected to substantially improve the therapeutic approach for individuals suffering from chronic disabling conditions...
March 17, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303673/assessment-of-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-introduction-into-finland-using-nora-a-rapid-tool-for-semiquantitative-assessment-of-the-risk
#12
J Kyyrö, L Sahlström, T Lyytikäinen
The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements...
March 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303072/achievements-and-future-directions-of-the-apfcb-mass-spectrometry-harmonisation-project-on-serum-testosterone
#13
REVIEW
Ronda F Greaves, Chung S Ho, Kirsten E Hoad, John Joseph, Brett McWhinney, Janice P Gill, Therese Koal, Chris Fouracre, Heidi P Iu, Brian R Cooke, Conchita Boyder, Hai T Pham, Lisa M Jolly
As an outcome of the 2010 Asian Pacific Conference for Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry in Hong Kong, a collaborative working group was formed to promote the harmonisation of mass spectrometry methods. The Mass Spectrometry Harmonisation Working Group resides under the combined auspices of the Asia-Pacific Federation for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (APFCB) and the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). A decision was made to initially focus attention on serum steroids due to the common interest of members in this area; with the first steroid to assess being testosterone...
May 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301873/personalising-and-targeting-antiangiogenic-resistance-a-complex-and-multifactorial-approach
#14
REVIEW
Maria J Bueno, Silvana Mouron, Miguel Quintela-Fandino
Pathological angiogenesis involves complex and dynamic interactions between tumour cells and other lineages existing in the microenvironment of the tumour. Preclinical and clinical data suggest that tumours can show dual, different adaptive responses against antiangiogenic agents: one successful adaptation is vascular normalisation, whereas the second adaptation is elicited through vascular trimming and increased hypoxia. These phenomena depend on the type of tumour and the type of agent. The classical approach for investigating acquired resistance against antiangiogenic agents is to identify compensatory signalling pathways emerging in response to VEGF blockade, which has led to the development of highly effective drugs; however, ultimately these drugs fail...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298210/delineating-functional-principles-of-the-bow-tie-structure-of-a-kinase-phosphatase-network-in-the-budding-yeast
#15
Diala Abd-Rabbo, Stephen W Michnick
BACKGROUND: Kinases and phosphatases (KP) form complex self-regulating networks essential for cellular signal processing. In spite of having a wealth of data about interactions among KPs and their substrates, we have very limited models of the structures of the directed networks they form and consequently our ability to formulate hypotheses about how their structure determines the flow of information in these networks is restricted. RESULTS: We assembled and studied the largest bona fide kinase-phosphatase network (KP-Net) known to date for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295012/correlations-between-tbl1xr1-and-recurrence-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Hongda Liu, Yunfei Xu, Qun Zhang, Kangshuai Li, Dawei Wang, Shuo Li, Shanglei Ning, Hui Yang, Weichen Shi, Zhaochen Liu, Yuxin Chen
More than 25% localized CRC patients died from post-operative metastasis, and risk of metastasis varies among individuals due to the high heterogeneity of CRC. Therefore, figuring out potential biomarkers for disease recurrence would be invaluable to improve the follow-up efficiency and clinical treatment. Transducin (β)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (TBL1XR1) is a core component of the nuclear receptor corepressor complex, which functions as a repressive coregulatory factor for multiple transcription factors...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294524/spatially-explicit-bioaccumulation-modeling-in-aquatic-environments-results-from-two-demonstration-sites
#17
Katherine von Stackelberg, Marc A Williams, Jonathan Clough, Mark S Johnson
Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms, and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway...
March 11, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294046/notch-signalling-pathways-and-their-importance-in-the-treatment-of-cancers
#18
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signalling system which is present in all multicellular organisms and mammals. The Notch pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development as it controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and binary cell fate decisions. In the present review, we discuss the Notch signalling pathway components i.e. Notch receptors, ligands, effector, and their regulators. Interestingly, the Notch signalling pathway is dysregulated in many cancers...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292629/the-5-clinical-pillars-of-value-for-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-a-bundled-payment-paradigm
#19
Kelvin Kim, Richard Iorio
BACKGROUND: Our large, urban, tertiary, university-based institution reflects on its 4-year experience with Bundled Payments for Care Improvement. We will describe the importance of 5 clinical pillars that have contributed to the early success of our bundled payment initiative. We are convinced that value-based care delivered through bundled payment initiatives is the best method to optimize patient outcomes while rewarding surgeons and hospitals for adapting to the evolving healthcare reforms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292476/health-technology-assessment-hta-case-studies-factors-influencing-divergent-hta-reimbursement-recommendations-in-australia-canada-england-and-scotland
#20
Nicola Allen, Stuart R Walker, Lawrence Liberti, Sam Salek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the national regulatory, health technology assessment (HTA), and reimbursement pathways for public health care in Australia, Canada, England, and Scotland, to compare initial Canadian national HTA recommendations with the initial decisions of the other HTA agencies, and to identify factors for differing national HTA recommendations between the four HTA agencies. METHODS: Information from the public domain was used to develop a regulatory process map for each jurisdiction and to compare the HTA agencies' reimbursement recommendations...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
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